Personality Theories Final

question

Biological characteristics determine __________, while __________ is socially constructed. A) femininity; masculinity B) masculinity; femininity C) gender; sex D) sex; gender E) sexuality; sex
answer

D
question

) Which of the following is NOT a traditionally masculine characteristic? A) assertiveness B) instrumentality C) nurturance D) boldness E) action
answer

C
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Which of the following is NOT a traditionally feminine characteristic? A) sensitivity B) caring C) dominance D) cooperativeness E) emotionality
answer

C
question

In Broverman’s 1972 study of perceptions of men and women, it was found that A) men and women were perceived to differ on over 400 personality characteristics. B) both men and women perceived masculine characteristics to be more desirable than feminine characteristics. C) men and women were perceived to differ on only five personality characteristics. D) men and women were not perceived to differ in terms of personality characteristics. E) none of the above
answer

B
question

The statement \”there is substantial overlap between the distributions of male and female traits and behaviors\” means that A) although there may be group differences between males and females in traits and behaviors, there are lots of men that score higher than lots of women on \”feminine\” traits and behaviors, and vice versa. B) men and women share a few behaviors. C) men and women share a few traits. D) all of the above E) none of the above ( they are very similar)
answer

E?
question

Which of the following male-female \”differences\” does NOT exist? A) Boys, on average, do better on tasks requiring spatial abilities than girls do. B) Females are more psychologically sensitive than are males. C) Females tend to be more sensitive to nonverbal cues than are males. D) Girls, on average, learn to talk earlier than boys do. E) Males commit more violent crimes than females.
answer

B
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) Which of the following individuals believed women to be inferior to men? A) Aristotle B) Thomas Aquinas C) Plato D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

D
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In ancient petroglyphs and hieroglyphs, men were usually portrayed as A) builders. B) monks. C) animals. D) warriors or hunters. E) fathers or husbands.
answer

D
question

) What evidence supports the idea that prenatal exposure to androgen might affect personality as well as physical development? A) studies of animals whose exposure to prenatal androgen has been experimentally altered B) studies of humans whose exposure to prenatal androgen has been experimentally altered C) studies of humans who have experienced prenatal genetic or hormonal anomalies D) both A and C E) none of the above
answer

D
question

If you are presented with two cages of rats (where each cage contains both males and females in equal numbers), and the rats in one cage seem much more aggressive and active, you might hypothesize that A) the rats in this cage were postnatally exposed to serotonin. B) the rats in this cage were deprived of sleep. C) the rats in this cage were fed a high-fat diet. D) the rats in this cage were prenatally exposed to extra estrogen. E) the rats in this cage were prenatally exposed to extra androgen.
answer

E
question

There is some evidence that individuals with Turner’s syndrome are more A) timid than other women. B) generous than other women. C) mathematically-and spatially-adept than other women. D) aggressive than other women. E) verbal than other women.
answer

A
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Women’s hormonal cycles have been said to be associated with A) indecisiveness. B) violence. C) mood swings. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

D
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The influence of hormonal cycles on personality in women is A) unknown, it has not yet been studied. B) small. C) large. D) moderate. E) Although this has been studied, no information has been reported.
answer

B
question

Why did Freud assert that \”anatomy is destiny\”? A) because we cannot change our sex B) because he believed that different races should not intermarry C) because ultimately identity is determined by our sex D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

C
question

Which theorist placed an emphasis on recognizing and incorporating both \”maleness\” and \”femaleness\” into healthy human development (t hat is, the concept of androgyny)? A) Horney B) Skinner C) Freud D) Erikson E) Jung
answer

E
question

The statement \”men can’t be faithful to just one woman it’s not in their nature\” implies A) a cognitive approach B) a behaviorist approach. C) an evolutionary approach. D) a psychoanalytic approach. E) a neo-analytic approach.
answer

C
question

A non-parental rat received an injection and then began to exhibit maternal behavior. The injection could have been A) either testosterone or blood from a female rat that recently gave birth. B) adrenaline. C) cocaine. D) a saline solution E) norepinephrine.
answer

A
question

Maslow posited that a self-actualized person would have A) only traditionally-masculine characteristics. B) only traditionally-feminine characteristics. C) both traditionally-feminine and traditionally-masculine characteristics. D) mental illness. E) none of the above
answer

C
question

According to the humanistic perspective, gender differences in personality will __________ as societies equalize opportunities for men and women. A) become larger B) remain the same C) become smaller D) fluctuate widely E) none of the above
answer

C
question

Which of the following is an example of the social learning of gender-related norms? A) Brian’s mom scolds him for being a sissy when he is picked on by others and doesn’t retaliate. B) Tom’s father teaches him to work on the car. C) Gene’s older brothers encourage him to join in their tackle-football games but tell their younger sister Julie that she can’t play. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

D
question

Which of the following is NOT an example of a gender schema? A) Loud and sassy women are not attractive to men. B) It’s not appropriate for girls to call boys on the phone. C) When going to the prom, boys should wear tuxedos and girls should wear gowns. D) Only a weak man cries E) A kind person would never hurt an animal.
answer

E
question

In current theorizing, masculinity and femininity are conceptualized as A) opposite poles of one dimension. B) the same as \”male\” and \”female.\” C) separate dimensions. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

A
question

Erik is an excellent student, excels in math, and enjoys spelling. He is gregarious and has lots of friends. Often, he is a group leader, directing other children and coordinating their games. He is also sensitive, and is often sought out for advice or just a \”listening ear.\” Based on this brief description, Erik would probably score as __________ on the Bem Sex Role Inventory. A) feminine B) masculine C) androgynous D) undifferentiated ( low in both M and F) E) none of the above
answer

C
question

Marcia loves sports and is fiercely competitive. She’s played soccer since she was seven, and since starting high school has become a track and field star. Some of Marcia’s friends describe her as \”tough\” although they are quick to add that she always has fun. Although her friendships are not deep, Marcia is extremely popular and almost everyone in school knows her name. Marcia hopes to be an engineer one day. Based on this brief description, Marcia would probably score as __________ on the Bem Sex Role Inventory. A) masculine B) feminine C) undifferentiated D) androgynous E) none of the above
answer

A
question

) Men generally are found to have more \”dominant\” personalities when dominance is defined as A) leadership. B) affiliation. C) aggression. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

C
question

When it is found that men are less emotional than women, one possible explanation might be that A) men are genetically programmed to be less emotional. B) differences in emotionality are cultural myths that influence our perceptions of emotionality. C) society teaches men to hide their emotions. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

D
question

When babies and preschoolers are observed, __________ cry most; when older children and adults are observed, __________ cry most. A) girls; girls B) boys; girls C) boys; boys D) girls; boys E) neither boys nor girls; girls
answer

b
question

Andrea wants to be famous she works hard in her classes and gets straight A’s; she attends workshops and conferences in her field and makes an effort to meet all the right people; during the summer she volunteers many hours at a research lab. She is sure that nothing will stand in her way. McClelland would say that Andrea is A) high on need for affiliation. B) high on achievement motivation. C) low on conscientiousness. D) high on sensation-seeking. E) low on social status.
answer

b
question

A study that examines helping-behavior by placing people in an experimental situation where they must decide whether to take a risk and help a stranger in need will probably show that A) men help more often than women do. B) women help more often than men do. C) neither men nor women will help. D) men and women are equal in their helping behavior. E) it is impossible to predict whether men or women help more often.
answer

b
question

As a group, women have been found to be better than men at A)expressing themselves nonverbally. B) decoding facial and body cues. C) recognizing faces. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

d
question

A study of courtship among Boston College students found that A) men were more likely to be \”broken up with\” than to \”break up with\” their partners. B) men had more romantic ideas than women and seemed to \”love\” more in the relationship. C) men were more devastated when relationships ended. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

d
question

Sometimes in some societies, girls were (and sometimes still are) given clitoridectomies (genital mutilations) in order to prevent their \”insatiable and shameful\” sexual drives. This suggests that current American views (and studies) showing men with greater sex drives are likely the result of A) androgyny. B) repressed penis envy. C) culture-specific gender stereotypes. D) Madonna repression syndrome E) the influence of Dr. Ruth.
answer

c
question

According to an evolutionary perspective (p.365) A) it is always adaptive for a woman to care for her children. B) selfless devotion to an unhealthy infant may compromise a woman’s reproductive success. C) a \”maternal instinct\” always includes being nurturing. D) it is almost unheard of for mothers of any species to abandon their children. E) a woman’s reproductive success is always enhanced by caring for her children.
answer

b
question

Androgynous individuals are A) men who are high in feminine traits. B) women who are high in masculine traits. C) low in both masculine and feminine traits. D) high in both masculine and feminine traits. E) none of the above
answer

d
question

Research investigating the relationship between gender traits and psychological health suggest that it is most adaptive to A) maintain the traits of your own gender. B) maintain feminine traits. C) maintain masculine traits. D) be androgenous. E) be undifferentiated or gender-neutral.
answer

d
question

__________ are more susceptible to diseases during childhood and __________ live longer. A) Females; males B) Females; females C) Males; females D) Males; males E) Neither males nor females; neither males nor females
answer

c
question

Research by Whiting and Edwards suggest that across many different cultures A) females tend to learn to talk later than males. B) females maintain more \”egotistic dominance.\” C) females are consistently more nurturant. D)males are consistently better at math. E) there are no consistencies in gender differences.
answer

c
question

On average, boys tend to have better abilities than girls in A) Verbal skills B) Social skills C) Spatial skills D) Cognitive skills E) Fine motor skills
answer

c
question

The earliest evidence that suggests that males and females are viewed differently came from where? A) Post WWII Europe B) Modern America C) Ancient civilizations D) Biblical times E) The renaissance in Europe
answer

c
question

According to the psychoanalytic view, personality differences associated with gender are due to A) Girls and boys experiencing psychosexual stages of development differently B) Girls having a stronger superego than boys C) Boys needing to overcome many more stages than girls D) Boys being expected to be aggressive and girls being expected to be subservient E) Differences in the toilet training of boys versus girls
answer

a
question

How would an evolutionary approach to personality explain personality differences between men and woman? A) Hormone levels in males and females differ, and this can affect mood and thus personality B) Over time males and females have experienced different environmental stresses which have shaped their personalities differently C) Over time males and females have experienced similar environmental stressors which have motivated them to adapt differently D) The archetypes of male and female in the collective unconscious differ E) Males and females have been conditioned differently by their environments
answer

b
question

A behaviorist view claims that gender differences in personality arise A) from society B) from genetic differences C) from different cognitive abilities D) from different internal drives E) from the central nervous system
answer

a
question

The cognitive perspective of personality explains gender differences arise as a consequence of A) Gender distinctiveness theory B) Gender relations theory C) Unconscious memories D) Gender schema theory E) Differing archetypes of male and female
answer

d
question

In general males are more aggressive than females, but females tend to be more aggressive than males when A) females are protecting their young B) females are hunting C) females are socialized primarily by males D) females are the primary bread winners E) males leave the toilet seat up
answer

a
question

Studies have shown that women seem to cry more than men. Which of the following is NOT a likely explanation for this difference: A) Childhood socialization differences, where boys are discouraged from crying B) Hormonal differences that affect the tendency to cry C) Differences in how males and females express emotionality D) Different functioning of the tear ducts in males versus females E) Differential social acceptability of crying by women versus men
answer

d
question

Which of the following approaches would be most likely to predict that as societies give more equal rights and opportunities to women, personality differences between men and women would become smaller? A) Biological perspective B) Trait and skill perspective C) Psychoanalytic perspective D) Evolutionary perspective E) Humanistic perspective
answer

e
question

) Which of the following is true of the interactionist approach to behavior differences in males and females? A) Males exhibit more instrumental behavior, females exhibit more expressive behavior. B) Males exhibit more expressive behavior, females exhibit more instrumental behavior C) Males exhibit both instrumental and expressive behavior, females exhibit only expressive behavior D) Males only exhibit instrumental behavior, females exhibit both instrumental and expressive behavior E) Males and females both equally exhibit instrumental and expressive behavior
answer

a
question

Looking across all perspectives of personality, differences between males and females most likely results from A) Genetics and evolution B) Behavior modeling and unconscious drives C) Nature and nurture D) Positive and negative reinforcement E) Defense mechanisms and evolution
answer

c
question

) Which of the following statements is most accurate? A) Females tend to live longer then males B) Baby boys tend to cry more than baby girls C) Males and females both find masculine qualities more desirable than feminine qualities D) All of the Above E) None of the Above
answer

d
question

Which of the following differences between men and woman has been found to be true? A) Women are more verbally aggressive than men B) Women exhibit more instrumental behavior than men C) Woman engage in sexual behavior only in order to reproduce D) All of the Above E) None of the Above.
answer

e
question

How is prenatal androgen exposure related to differences in later behavior? A) Higher levels of prenatal androgens can lead to more aggressive behavior in both males and females B) Lower levels of prenatal androgens can lead to more aggressive behavior in both males and females C) Higher levels of prenatal androgens can lead to more aggressive behavior in males only D) Lower levels of prenatal androgens can lead to more aggressive behavior in females only E) Prenatal androgen exposure has no known affect of later behavior
answer

a
question

Underlying psychosomatic medicine is the idea that A) medications are relatively useless because illness is a mental state. B) the mind is capable of affecting the body. C) medicine should be used to treat illnesses that are \”all in one’s head.\” D) medications can be used to treat psychiatric disorders. E) none of the above
answer

b
question

Which of the following sets up the scenario for a link between personality and health via health behaviors? A) Jeannette enjoys spending time with her children and has a good sense of humor. B) Jeannette is extremely extroverted and often attends parties. C) Jeannette is an anxious person and often calms herself by smoking. D) Jeannette is a very religious person. E) Jeannette is often depressed and lethargic.
answer

c
question

Smoking and drinking have been linked to which of the following personality characteristics? A) alienation B) impulsivity C) rebelliousness D) aggressiveness E) all of the above
answer

e
question

Which of the following is NOT a subscale of Zuckerman’s \”sensation seeking\”? A) disinhibition B) boredom susceptibility C) experience seeking D) social-support seeking E) thrill and adventure seeking
answer

d
question

In a study by Furnham & Saipe, it was found that fast, reckless drivers scored higher than \”good drivers\” on __________. A) Eysenck’s psychoticism and Costa & McCrae’s neuroticism B) Zuckerman’s sensation-seeking and Scheier & Carver’s optimism C) Zuckerman’s sensation-seeking and Eysenck’s psychoticism D) Beck’s depression and Costa & McCrae’s neuroticism E) Scheier & Carver’s optimism and Costa & McCrae’s neuroticism
answer

c
question

Farley’s \”Type T\” is most similar to which of the following? A) Type A B) Type B C) Type C D) shyness E) sensation-seeking
answer

e
question

Of the following, who has entered the \”sick role\”? A) Nancy was recently diagnosed with cancer but she refuses to accept it; she works fulltime, goes out with friends, and hasn’t told anybody. B) Matt mopes around the house and sleeps a lot he is convinced that he has Epstein-Barr Virus or perhaps Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; the doctors haven’t been able to make a diagnosis. C) Andrew has HIV but doesn’t know it; he lives his life as usual. D) All of the above have entered the sick role. E) None of the above have entered the sick role.
answer

b
question

According to Skinnerian theory, some of the reinforcers which encourage adoption of the sick role might be A) days off from work. B) attention. C) sympathy. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

d
question

) Which of the following can affect symptom reporting? A) neuroticism B) depression C) anxiety D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

d
question

In the 1940s study of Johns Hopkins medical students, which temperament was found to be the biggest risk factor for serious health problems and even death? A) rapid and facile B) slow and solid C) irregular and uneven D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

c
question

June has a history of skin problems, and as a teenager she had severe acne. Her breakouts are now controlled, but when she gets stressed out her acne flares up. This is an example of the A) reactance model. B) reciprocity model. C) diathesis-stress model. D) operational-diagnosis model. E) vulnerability-diametric model.
answer

c
question

Lown believes that sudden cardiac death is preceded by all but which of the following? A) a triggering event B) electrical instability C) a previous heart attack D) pervasive negative emotions (depression) E) none of the above
answer

c
question

In the 1950s study of Western Electrical Company employees, which of the following was found to be a risk factor for cancer deaths? A) hostility B) depression C) conscientiousness D) excessive optimism E) being a workaholic
answer

b
question

Associations between personality and cancer have been found to be A) quite weak. B) moderate. C) extremely robust. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

b
question

Who coined the term \”Type A Behavior Pattern\”? A) Farley & Dunbar B) Alexander & Zuckerman C) Rosenman & Friedman D) Menninger & Menninger E) Glass & Seligman
answer

c
question

What would someone who has \”learned helplessness\” be likely to do? A) attack aggressively at the first sign that someone is trying to force him or her to become helpless B) remain in a bad situation even when there is a way to escape it C) wait patiently in a bad situation until the right moment comes to escape D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

b
question

When retirement means giving up an interesting routine, prestige, and an enjoyable social life, it’s likely to be __________; when it means free time to pursue hobbies, a chance to relax, and more quality time with family, it’s likely to be __________. A) healthy; healthy B) healthy; unhealthy C) unhealthy; unhealthy D) unhealthy; healthy E) impossible to predict
answer

d
question

In Friedman & Booth-Kewley’s meta-analysis on personality and various diseases A) there is no evidence for a \”disease prone\” personality. B) depression is related to arthritis but not to other diseases. C) anxiety is related to asthma and ulcers, but not heart disease. D) depression is related to cancer but not to other illnesses. E) there seems to be a generic \”disease prone\” personality.
answer

e
question

Terman began his longitudinal study of bright children in A) the 1960s. B) the 1980s. C) the 1940s. D) the 1920s. E) the 1990s.
answer

d
question

) Using the Terman archives, Friedman and his colleagues found that __________ children tended to live longer, while __________ children tended to die earlier. A) neurotic; conscientious B) sociable; neurotic C) cheerful; neurotic D)conscientious; cheerful E) cheerful; sociable
answer

d
question

The link between experiencing parental divorce as a child and subsequent mortality risk has been shown to be partially explained by the A) decreased ability to sleep restfully in those who have experienced parental divorce. B) increased rate of marital breakup in those who have experienced parental divorce. C) increased level of openness in those who have experienced parental divorce. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

b
question

What is one reason it’s sometimes tempting to \”blame the victim\” for his/her illness? A) We don’t like victims. B) We crave an unpredictable world. C) We don’t want to take personal responsibility. D) We desire a predictable world. E) none of the above
answer

d
question

) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Kobasa & Maddi’s \”hardiness\”? A) challenge B) aggression C) commitment D) control E) none of the above
answer

b
question

Rotter’s work on \”locus of control\” is well-known, but his writings about __________ have been largely ignored by personality psychologists. A) trust B) intelligence C) hypnotism D) acupuncture E) ingenuity
answer

a
question

Which of the following individuals best portrays a self-healing personality? A) Pamela is constantly on the go and she loves her work and never seems to get tired. B) Ian is kind of boorish but nobody will ever take advantage of him, because he is constantly on the offensive, and has no anxiety. C) Brent is quiet and shy he doesn’t seem to \”match\” with his siblings who are all very outgoing, and in the past this has made him feel badly about himself, so he now tries very hard to be outgoing and gain more friends. D) Alicia is constantly on the go and she always wants to win out over her peers. E) Petra worries about everything, but she is able to put it out of her mind and walk around with a smile on her face.
answer

a
question

Individuals with a borderline personality disorder A) are self-destructive.soma B) struggle to avoid abandonment. C) may attempt suicide. D) have fragile relationships. E) all of the above
answer

e
question

The broaden-and-build model proposes that A) there is a biological basis of resiliency. B) it is important to have an open mind when beginning a romantic relationship. C) in order to love another person you must first build a friendship. D) negative life experiences provide an opportunity for growth. E) positive emotions can broaden people’s modes of thinking.
answer

e
question

A somatopsychic effect is when A) the mind affects the body. B) the body affects the mind. C) physiological deterioration in a person’s health is clear by their physical appearance. D) a psychological explanation for sickness is found. E) a connection between the body and the mind cannot be determined.
answer

b
question

Research suggests that stress A) is only unhealthy for \”Type A\” individuals. B) is actually healthy most of the time. C) can cause minor health problems. D) can cause a heart attack. E) does not affect health as much as previously believed
answer

d
question

If you consider Julia to be immoral and therefore deserving of the disease she just got, you may be A) blaming supernatural forces. B) an proponent of retribution theory. C) a proponent of germ theory. D) choleric E) blaming the victim.
answer

e
question

Mechanisms linking personality and health include all of the following EXCEPT A) contracting contagious diseases due to difficult personalities. B) biological third variables. C) personal responses to disease. D) unhealthy habits and behaviors. E) personality directly affecting physiology.
answer

a
question

) A person who is hasty, impatient, and hyperalert is most likely A) Type A. B) Type B. C) TypeC. D) Type T. E) neurotic.
answer

b
question

Recent research suggests that high job involvement and hard work A) predispose one to cancer. B) do not predispose one to heart disease. C) predispose one to asthma. D) characterize the Type B personality. E) predispose one to heart disease.
answer

b
question

A person with a(n) __________ feels that whatever happens to them is under their own control. A) internal locus of control B) healthy mental state C) external locus of control D) sense of spirituality E) sense of over-control
answer

a
question

Self-healing people A) are all focused on being relaxed. B) are all focused on seeking a stimulating environment. C) may be one of two types, those who focus on maintaining a stimulating environment or those who are more calm. D) are all focused on achieving success. E) may be one of three types, those who focus on maintaining a stimulating environment, those who are more calm, or those focused on achieving success.
answer

c
question

The salutogenesis theory of Aaron Antonovsky claims that A) a sense of child-like security is key to good health. B) life changes are more important to health than is personality. C) the key to good health is really laid out in the Good Book. D) a sense of coherence is a key to good health. E) hassles are good for keeping you on your toes.
answer

d
question

The self-healing personality is most characterized by A) enthusiasm. B) rigid routines. C) exhibitionism. D) aggressiveness. E) argumentation.
answer

a
question

The term ‘psychosomatic’ can best be explained to mean what? A) The mind affects the body B) The body affects the mind C) The mind controls the well-being of the body D) The body controls the well-being of the mind E) The body and the mind are inexplicably connected
answer

a
question

Type-T theory suggests what motive is responsible for differing levels of sensation seeking? A) Conditioned responses to environmental strains B) Unconscious conflicts C) Psychobiological motives D) Psychosexual motives E) An inability to become self-actualized
answer

c
question

The sick role arises from A) Biological physical responses that affect productivity B) A set of societal expectations C) Physical laws that define physiological processes D) Hormone imbalances in men and women E) Giving birth
answer

b
question

People with borderline-personality disorder A) encompass two polar opposite personalities B) have littleto no personality C) conform to societal rules and laws to an unhealthy extreme D) usually grew up in stable nurturing environments E) are self-destructive, impulsive, and have fragile identity
answer

e
question

Mary’s mother died of breast cancer at a young age. Mary was diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 36, a year after she got divorced and was forced to sell her house and move to a lower income area. Which of the following models is the most likely explanation of why Mary got cancer? A) Psychosomatic Model B) Somatopsychic Model C) Diathesis-Stress Model D) Repression-Reaction Model E) Germ Theory of Disease Model
answer

c
question

Which of the following personality profiles is correlated with increased risk of heart problems? A) Hard worker, active, enjoys challenges B)Excessively hard worker, confrontational, competitive, and driven C) Relaxed, non-confrontational, placid D) Serious, studious, conscientious E) Warm, outgoing, friendly
answer

b
question

) What is one strength of the technique of meta-analysis? A) The results are conclusive beyond reasonable doubt B) The method allows for manipulation of more than one IV C) The method allows for multiple studies results to be combined D) The results always show ‘causation’ as opposed to ‘correlation’ E) The method allows for more control over extraneous variables than other methods
answer

c
question

What does the term ‘Human Termites’ refer to? A) People who experience early death due to poverty B) People with stable, resilient personalities C) People who have unstable, weak personalities D) People who were involved in a longitudinal study started by Lewis Terman E) People who live in substandard living facilities
answer

d
question

How might ‘blaming the victim’ relieve stress? A) By allowing a person to believe that he or she is different from the sick person, and thus not likely to get sick B) By helping a person to understand how people get sick, allowing him or her to avoid disease in the future C) By providing the positive feelings that come from criticizing someone D) By affirming a person’s belief in the randomness of life E) By increasing self-actualization
answer

a
question

How is control correlated with health? A) The less control a person has in life, the less health afflictions arise B) The more control a person has in life, the more health afflictions arise C) The less control a person has, the more control they have over future health afflictions D) The more control a person has in life, the less health afflictions arise E) The more control a person has in life the more stressed the person is, thus leading to a higher chance of heart problems
answer

d
question

How would the psychoanalytic approach to personality explain poor health? A) As a biological function of the body not related to personality B) As a function of unconscious and/or repressed conflicts showing themselves in medical symptoms C) As a result of bad habits picked up through modeling D) As a result of conditioning E) As a result of inadequate medical care as a child
answer

b
question

How would someone taking the interactionist approach to personality explain good health? A) As a result of being biologically superior to sick people B) As a result of good behaviors that have been learned thought the years C) As a result of a good homeostasis; the integration between the self and environment D) As a result of a good amount of control between the person and the environment E) As a result of being able to release stress by using defense mechanisms
answer

c
question

Although cultural and ethnic aspects of personality have often been ignored, __________ was studying the impact of the experiences of Blacks and Jews in the 1950s. A) Adler B) Bandura C) Freud D) Sullivan E) Allport
answer

e
question

) Measuring everyone against the norms and customs of one’s own ethnic group is termed A) ethnography. B) transethnicity. C) ethnocentrism. D) ethological. E) none of the above
answer

c
question

Mead, in her study of South Pacific Islanders, found that A) in some cultures adolescents are viewed as gods. B) the difficulties of adolescence are the same across cultures. C) in some cultures there is no hormonal puberty. D) the difficulties of adolescence are not the same across cultures. E) none of the above
answer

d
question

According to research by Whiting & Whiting, children who grow up in a cooperative home environment tend to be more __________ as adults than those raised in a competitive, \”me first\” atmosphere. A) introverted B) prosocial C) extroverted D) neurotic E) antisocial
answer

b
question

Linton, in his book, The Cultural Background of Personality, argues that A) people in the same culture all share the same personality traits. B) personality is set in early childhood by the influence of key figures in the culture. C) people in the same culture share things like behavior and knowledge, which may mold apparent \”personality\”. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

c
question

A(n) __________ approach to personality focuses on one culture, whereas a(n) __________approach is cross-cultural. A) etic; emic B) etic; rational C) rational; diverse D) emic; etic E) narrow; emic
answer

d
question

Cross-cultural researchers have found that Western cultures tend to be more__________whereas Eastern cultures emphasize a(n) __________ viewpoint. A) humanitarian; individualistic B) outspoken; optimistic C) individualistic; collectivist D) collectivist; outspoken E) optimistic; pessimistic
answer

c
question

Groups are often formed based on which of the following? A) customs and behaviors B) political and religious beliefs C) physical characteristics D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

d
question

The \”American Dilemma\” as discussed by Myrdal, refers to A) that individuals have the right to \”life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness\” and yet people often die early in life, before having a chance to really \”live\”. B) that the \”American Dream\” is to own a house and raise a family and yet it is becoming harder and harder to achieve this goal. C) the fact that Americans believe that \”all men are created equal\” and yet, everyone is not treated equally. D) all of the above E) none of the above.
answer

c
question

Socioeconomic status (SES) is a term that describes a person’s relative standing in A) education and income. B)income and physical characteristics. C) ancestry and physical characteristics. D) ancestry and income. E) education and physical characteristics.
answer

a
question

The fact that someone with higher SES is at a lower risk of becoming ill and dying prematurely than someone of lower SES is called A) the SES condition. B) the SES enigma. C) the SES bias. D) the SES injustice. E) the SES gradient.
answer

e
question

According to Marx, psychosocial phenomena such as alienation could be understood by A) studying personality traits across cultures. B) studying the criminal minds of convicted killers. C) studying great leaders of socialist societies. D) studying the economic structure of capitalist societies. E) none of the above.
answer

d
question

Features of language that are common to all languages are called A) linguistic universals. B) linguistics. C) audio-consistencies. D) tongues. E) vocal norms
answer

a
question

Which of the following aspect of language, according to your textbook, is a facet of personality? A) intellect B) dialect C) idiolect D) vocabulary E)none of the above
answer

c
question

) Which of the following illustrates how closely people associate their identity with their language? A) the \”English only\” movement in the U.S. B) cross-cultural psychology C) bilingual education D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

d
question

Language influences all but which of the following? A) the way we interact with others B) the physical characteristics we possess C) the way we perceive the world D) the way we express ourselves E) the way we think about problems
answer

b
question

Which of the following illustrates the concept of \”linguistic relativity\”? A) Suzy doesn’t understand the complexities of weather because, in her culture, words for describing weather are broad and general, rather than specific. B) Suzy speaks differently when she is with close family and relatives than she does when she is around her school friends. C) Suzy often uses swear words because she hears her older sister swearing. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

a
question

Doob has found that people who tend to use active verbs also tend to be A) insecure. B) secure. C) open minded. D) field dependent. E) field independent.
answer

e
question

Social status may be inferred from which of the following A) occupation. B) wealth. C) age. D) sex. E) all of the above
answer

e
question

Research has shown that a child reading this sentence: \”The student was instructed to return his exam to the teacher.\” is likely to envision __________ if the child is a boy and __________ if the child is a girl. A) a female student; a male student B) a male student; a male student C) research on this topic has not been done D) a female student; a female student E) a male student; a female student
answer

b
question

Which of the following assumptions underlies much of psychological testing? A) Individuality shines through in psychological testing. B) \”Low\” scores are better than \”high\” scores. C) Psychological testing never provides any solutions to real-world problems. D) \”High\” scores are better than \”low\” scores. E) none of the above
answer

e
question

Scores on psychological tests are known to be affected by A) qualities of the test administrator. B) cultural experiences. C) motivation. D) previous test-taking experiences. E) all of the above
answer

e
question

Which of the following incorporates culture as part of the assessment itself? A) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory B) System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment C) Raven Progressive Matrices Test D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

b
question

Suppose that you have given a personality test to samples of individuals from two different cultural groups. You find that one group scores significantly higher on neuroticism. How can you determine whether this is a true finding, or whether it reflects a cultural bias in your measurement? A) Ask the individuals if they think the test was biased. B) Look at other sources of information about the groups for confirming or disconfirming evidence. C) Have the groups re-take the test and see if the difference still exists. D) Have the groups re-take the test after a long period of time and see if the difference still exists E) None of the above would be appropriate.
answer

b
question

) In Erikson’s study of the Sioux in South Dakota, he found that many white teachers believed that the American Indians had fundamental personality flaws (mostly because they didn’t cooperate and do well in the classroom). He traced this problem to which of the following? A) There were independent reservations, but people living on them were dependent on the government for their livelihood. B) American Indian culture was viewed as \”different\” and yet policies were enacted which forced the norms of the larger American culture onto the American Indians. C) Lip service was given to \”trust\” and \”cooperation\” but promises were often broken D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

d
question

Brian is a psychologist studying \”the psychology of the rave party.\” He goes to raves in England, Scotland, Canada, and the USA, and records the behavior he observes in each location using one common set of descriptions. Brian is using an __________ approach. A) emetic B) enteric C) aesthetic D) emic E) etic
answer

e
question

Gen lives in a society where individuals see themselves as all working on a common \”team.\” The success of the group is valued above her individual success. She is most likely living in a(n)__________ society. A) communist B) collectivist C) individualistic D) socialist E) humanist
answer

b
question

Ralph lives in a society where individuals are taught to \”be all they can be.\” One of his goals is to stand out and be different. He is most likely living in a __________ society. A) socialist B) individualistic C) collectivist D) communist E) humanist
answer

b
question

The concept of __________ suggests that our interpretation of the world is to a large extent dependent on the linguistic system by which we classify it. A) assimilation B) acculturation C) linguistic relativity D) linguistic solidarity E) cumulus relativity
answer

c
question

Stereotype threat may lead to A) anxiety. B) physiological responses from threatened individuals C) an increase in blood pressure. D) poorer test performance. E) all of the above
answer

e
question

According to the __________ perspective, culture is the set of reinforcement contingencies in place at a certain geographic location or shared environment. A) psychoanalytic B) trait and skill C) behaviorist D) biological E) cognitive
answer

c
question

According to the __________ perspective, culture is the realization of human beings’ strivings to create enduring meaning and value in their lives. A) psychoanalytic B) biological C) behaviorist D) cognitive E) humanistic
answer

e
question

Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray published a book called The Bell Curve which suggested A) racial differences in IQ do not exist. B) racial differences in IQ can be contributed to genetics. C) \”curving\” scores on exams hurt ethnic minorities more than it helped them. D) putting children in the\”right\” schools will increase their IQ. E) IQ is largely due to social influences.
answer

e
question

The fact that Americans believe that \”all men are created equal\” and yet, everyone is not treated equally is a phenomena called A) Racial Profiling. B) the American Hypocrisy. C) the American Contradiction. D) Subtle Inequality. E) the American Dilemma.
answer

e
question

Brenda took a trip abroad recently and found herself comparing the Europeans’ traditions to her own. She found it very strange that there was so much napping going on in the afternoon and that people seemed to get things done so slowly. Although she knew she would enjoy herself more if she appreciated the culture she found herself immersed in, she really didn’t like the different traditions she observed. Brenda is being __________ in her view of European culture. A) ethnocentric B) emic C) individualistic D) collectivist E) etic
answer

a
question

The SES gradient is a phenomenon in public health that refers to the findings that A) the higher a person’s socioeconomic status is, the less happy and psychologically healthy a person is. B) the higher a person’s socioeconomic status is, the higher is that person’s risk of getting sick and dying prematurely. C) the higher a person’s socioeconomic status is, the more happy a person is. D) the higher a person’s socioeconomic status is, the lower is that person’s risk of getting sick and of dying prematurely. E) socioeconomic status is only related to health among individuals of low income.
answer

d
question

) How are cultural effects transmitted? A) Through family and close friends B) Through neighbors and social institutions C) Through media and advertising D) All of the above E) None of the above
answer

d
question

Which term describes ‘evaluating others from one’s own cultural point of view’? A) Enthnography B) Egocentrism C) Ethnocentrism D) Ethology E) Enthnicology
answer

c
question

What is the difference between an emic approach and an etic approach to studying cultures? A) An emic approach signifies bias; an etic approach signifies non-bias B) An emic approach is culture specific; an etic approach is cross cultural C) An emic approach is culturally centered; an etic approach is culturally applied D) An emic approach is when someone studies their own culture; an etic approach is when someone studies another culture E) Both terms apply to the same approach
answer

b
question

) Which of the following is NOT characteristic of a collectivist society? A) Hard work is seen as a group effort B) Individual achievement is less important than collective success C) The harmony of the group is an important value D) Collectivist societies tend to be less productive than individualistic societies E) People from collectivist societies are more sensitive to contextual factors
answer

d
question

The term ‘idiolect’ refers to what? A) A specialized system that determines the syntax of language B) A person’s individual version of his/her native language C) The general version of a local language D) Different dialects of one common language E) The language used by people lacking intelligence
answer

b
question

Which of the following is true of bilingualism (speaking two languages)? A) It is impossible to be truly bilingual, one can only fully know one language B) People who speak two languages create two polar opposite personalities, one for each language C) People who speak two languages usually relate certain things to each language and act accordingly depending on the language they are speaking or the situation they are in D) People who are bilingual do not connect to languages as people who are monolingual (one language) do E) People who are monolingual are found to be high on introversion scales and people who are bilingual are found to be high on extraversion scales
answer

c
question

Which of the following pose a threat to studying cultural differences in personality? A) Gaining potentially biased results B) Seeing other cultures only through the values of one’s own culture C) The data may create and/or support stereotyping D) All of the Above E) None of the above
answer

d
question

Which of the following best describes the behaviorist approach to culture? A) Only positive reinforcement of desirable behaviors helps form culture B) Culture is a human illusion C) Culture creates the system by which people decide what goals are important in their lives D) Culture is not important and/or studied by the behaviorist approach E) Culture is a set of reinforcement contingencies that operate in shared environments
answer

e
question

Religion can be an influence on personality through A) Specific practices, such as meditation B) Global world-view, such as the importance of God in determining what happens to each person C) Rules about acceptable and unacceptable behavior D) The religious identity that it provides E) All of the above
answer

e
question

How has the scientific study of culture been used in a negative way? A) It has been used to gather data on different cultures B) It has been used to try and understand cultural differences C) It has been used to draw inferences between cultures D) It has been used to understand humans as a species E) It has been used to reinforce stereotypes
answer

e
question

According to the ethological perspective, we are born with the ability to hate because A) our ancestors were punished for hating. B) we all have genetic defects. C) aggression was selected for through evolution. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

c
question

Mass murderers are usually A) women in their 60s and older. B) men in their 60s and older. C) women in the prime of life. D) men in the prime of life. E) none of the above
answer

d
question

What do ethologists believe might cause a buildup of aggression and hatred in individuals? A) the lenient atmosphere prevalent in America today B) having a large number of siblings C) lack of social contact D) constraints of society and overly strict parents E) emphasis on the need for artistic expression in academia
answer

d
question

The ethologist Lorenz suggests which of the following as a way for people to vent their aggression safely? A) spelling competitions B) playing sports C) non-violent arguments D) counting to ten and taking deep breaths E) talking to close friends
answer

b
question

You are at the grocery store and suddenly the person in line behind you goes into a fit of rage: He is yelling, turning red, and his eyes are bulging. His rage seems to be unprovoked. If you were told he suffers from a brain abnormality, the are a of the brain most likely affected is A) The brain stem B) The amygdala C) The corpus callosum D) The visual cortex E) The superior colliculus
answer

b
question

In psychoanalytic theory, thanatos is A) a passive drive. B) an affiliative drive. C) a self-destructive drive. D) a generative drive. E) a parenting drive.
answer

c
question

As children, individuals who have anti-social personality disorder often A) are cruel to their classmates. B) torture animals. C) destroy property D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

d
question

Freudian theory predicts that we might do which of the following with our death instinct? A) repress it B) displace it C) project it D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

c
question

According to Jung, aggression rests in the archetype of A) the animus. B) the shadow. C)the mother. D) the child-god. E) the anima.
answer

b
question

Which Jungian combination would be most likely to characterize an aggressive dictator? A) thinking-extroverted B) thinking-introverted C) intuiting-introverted D) feeling-introverted E) sensing-extroverted
answer

a
question

Which child would Adler predict is most likely to become a criminal in adulthood? A) Brent was born to a single mother who didn’t really want him or have time for him; he never even knew his father, and he grew up feeling rejected by his parents. B) Joyce was often ill as a child; she had to stay indoors a lot; and although her parents played with her and tried to make her life enjoyable; she didn’t have very many friends her own age. C) Aaron was adopted when he was only two weeks old and considers his adoptive family to be his \”true\” family; he grew up in a small community where everyone knew everyone else; he grew up feeling that his role in society was important. D) Marie was born into a big family, but since she was the youngest and the only girl her parents favored her; her brothers sometimes picked on her, but she could always run to mom for protection and comfort. E) Shirley was an outgoing child who was always busy; she was an only child, and unplanned since her parents had been told they could never have children; she was the \”apple of her parents’ eyes\” and was quite spoiled throughout childhood.
answer

a
question

Erikson believed that the unsuccessful resolution of childhood conflicts could result in a hostile and hateful adult. Which of the following conflicts did he believe had to be successfully resolved to avoid developing hostility and hate? A) initiative vs. guilt B) trust vs. mistrust C) autonomy vs. shame and doubt D) the first three ego crises (all of the above) E) all eight ego crises
answer

d
question

Rogers believed that a lack of __________ was particularly harmful to children. A) discipline B) optimizing C) unconditional positive regard D) isolation E) conditional positive regard
answer

c
question

Maslow argued that for optimal development children must A) feel safe. B) feel loved. C) have rules and structure. D) both A and B E) all of the above
answer

e
question

Which of the following is most likely to be a \”cardinal trait\” of a serial killer? A) introversion B) optimism C) helplessness D) anxiety E) aggression
answer

e
question

Which of the following characteristics help to make up the trait \”psychoticism\” as described by Eysenck? A) tough-mindedness and impulsivity B) open-mindedness and optimism C) generosity and extraversion D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

a
question

) Missy is an ill-behaved little girl. She pulls people’s hair, shouts and stomps her feet, and refuses to share her toys. Skinner would argue that in order to understand her aggression we must A) look at her environment to see what elicits aggression and how it is rewarded. B) examine her relationship to her parents (find out if she feels rejected by them). C) do blood tests to see if she has some sort of chemical imbalance. D) search for structural abnormalities in her brain. E) determine whether her Electra complex has been resolved.
answer

a
question

Freud believed that love was closely linked to A) friendship. B) opportunity. C) sex. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

c
question

Erikson posits that love becomes a most important issue during the stage of A) autonomy vs. shame and doubt. B) intimacy vs. isolation. C) initiative vs. guilt. D) trust vs. mistrust. E) generativity vs. stagnation.
answer

b
question

Anxious-ambivalent lovers A) are arrogant and overconfident. B) do not want relationships although it sometimes looks like they do. C) have trouble determining whether they want heterosexual or homosexual partners. D) say that they want relationships when in reality they do not. E) want relationships but are extremely insecure and desperate.
answer

e
question

According to Maslow, which need must be met first? A) need for self-actualization B) need for safety C) need for food D) need for love E) none of the above c
answer

c
question

Maslow’s __________ is the more healthy type. A) A-love B) B-love C) C-love D) D-love E) E-love
answer

b
question

Which of the following is NOT one of the types of love described by May? A) angry love B) lust C) procreative love D) devotion E) brotherly love
answer

a
question

According to May, the problem with love in the \”hippie\” culture was that A) it lacked the element of sexuality. B) it was negative. C) it was freely given. D) it lacked will. E) it was disciplined.
answer

d
question

) Lonely people tend to A) feel uncomfortable in social situations. B) have trouble talking about themselves. C) have trouble trusting others. D) be somewhat low on extroversion . E) all of the above
answer

e
question

Extraverted individuals tend to be __________ sexually than introverts. A) less adventurous B) more adventurous C) more inhibited D) more cautious E) less happy
answer

b
question

) Who would you predict to be most likely to engage in unsafe sexual practices? A) someone high on agreeableness B) someone high on conscientiousness C) someone high on impulsivity D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

c
question

The Attraction to Sexual Aggression Scale is designed to identify A) women who use their sexuality to control men B) men who are likely to engage in sexual violence toward women. C) children who have been sexually abused. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

b
question

According to \”The Bell Curve\” IQ is highly correlated with A) income and job success. B) divorce and quality of parenting. C) laziness and being on welfare. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

d
question

) Research suggests that vengeful people A) have more negative feelings. B) are less satisfied with life. C) are ruminators. D) are less forgiving. E) all of the above
answer

e
question

According to evolutionary psychologists men are attracted to women who are A) emotionally stable. B) infertile. C) older than they are. D) younger than they are. E) financially stable.
answer

d
question

Using archival data collected by Lewis Terman, researchers have found that teenagers who are more sexually active are A) typically less fertile than their non-sexually active peers. B) high in conscientiousness. C) more likely to live a long life than their non-sexually active peers. D) at risk for reduced longevity. E) less likely to drink alcohol.
answer

d
question

According to Freud, we have a drive towards death called __________. A) thanatos B) ego C) eros D) id E) superego
answer

a
question

According to Shaver, __________ easily form close relationships with others and let others become close to them. A) ambivalent lovers B) jovial lovers C) permissive lovers D) secure lovers E) laissez-faire lovers
answer

d
question

) Before satisfying one’s need for love, Maslow believed you must first satisfy your __________ needs. A) physiological B) safety C) esteem D) physiological and safety E) physiological and esteem
answer

d
question

According to __________, love is the positive result of individuals striving to join with others. A) Murray B) Sullivan C) Fromm D) Freud E) Jung
answer

c
question

Gina has been in a relationship with Todd for several years now. She behaves unselfishly towards him and is caring and responsive. According to Maslow, Gina is experiencing A) A-love. B) B-love. C) C-love. D) D-love. E) R-love.
answer

b
question

Rollo May discussed all of the following types of love EXCEPT A) philia. B) agape. C) eros. D) authentic. E) thanatos
answer

e
question

Among collectivist cultures it has been found that A) an emphasis is placed on romance and \”fairy tale\” love. B) individuals are less practical about love and marriage. C) passionate love is not related to marital satisfaction. D) personal fulfillment is strongly correlated with marital satisfaction. E) passion is an important contributor to marital satisfaction.
answer

e
question

Men who are sexually aggressive towards women tend to be A) tough. B) impulsive. C) cold. D) cruel. E) all of the above
answer

e
question

What biological factor(s) may influence the level of violence in a person? A) Societal constraints on exhibiting aggression B) Structural brain disorders C) Drugs D) All of the above E) None of the above
answer

d
question

What is the psychoanalytic view of hate? A) Hate is created by being unable to successfully deal with sexual feelings B) Hate is a social construct C) Hate comes from a projection of an unacceptable death impulse D) Hate comes from the initial negative feelings a child has for the parent of the opposite sex E) Hate does not exist, only feelings of love so intense that it creates negative feelings
answer

c
question

According to Carl Rogers, a humanistic psychologist, what is one explanation of where hate comes from? A) The constraints that societies place on individuals B) Not receiving unconditional positive regard from one’s mother C) Collectivism that goes against an individuals free will D) Part biological part societal E) An inability to become self-actualized
answer

b
question

How does the cognitive approach to personality explain hate? A) As a function of the biological make-up of the brain B) As vicariously learned behaviors C) As a trait that all people have D) As result of how we perceive the world around us E) As a feeling that is not connected to cognition
answer

d
question

Which of the following describes a learning-theory view of hate? A) Sally grew up in a warm loving home; she has intense feelings of hatred and violence towards everyone else in the world B) Sally grew up in a hostile unloving home; she has intense feelings of hatred and violence towards everyone else in the world C) Sally grew up in a hostile unloving home, but she does not have intense feelings of hatred and violence D) Sally was born with an intense level of hatred that despite her parents’ love only worsened throughout her life E) Sally perceives the world around her as volatile; therefore she reacts with feelings of hatred and violence
answer

b
question

Which of the following statements is true about cultures and hatred? A) Cultures vary in the level of aggression that occurs B) All cultures have the same approach to aggression C) Cultures that are docile (non-aggressive) also score low on measures of love D) All of the above E) None of the above
answer

a
question

Which of the following statements is true of the biological perspective on love? A) Love is an illusion we create to explain sexual feelings B) Love is only the label we give to positive feelings C) Love is maladaptive to reproduction D) Love is adaptive for reproduction E) Love in adults is based on the mother-child love experienced in infancy
answer

d
question

Which of the following statements is true of Erickson’s neo-analytic perspective on love? A) Love is something that we can fully experience from the time we are born B) Love is something that is biologically instilled in all humans C) Humans are the only species to experience love D) Human love is only possible one a person has become self-actualized E) True love and intimacy can only be experienced by adults who have found their identity
answer

e
question

Which of the following best applies to the romantic attachment style termed ‘secure lovers’? A) People who feel uncomfortable being close to others, and others being close to them B) People who want to get close, but are so desperate they scare other people away C) People who feel comfortable in relationships and let others become close to them D) People who feel secure in all relationships, even the bad ones E) People who only feel secure in relationships in which another person is always in control
answer

c
question

Which of the following statements best applies to the ‘anxious-ambivalent’ romantic attachment style? A) People who feel uncomfortable being close to others, and others being close to them B) People who want to get close, but are so insecure and desperate they scare other people away C) People who feel comfortable in relationships and let others become close to them D) People who feel secure in all relationships, even the bad ones E) People who only feel secure in relationships in which another person is always in control
answer

b
question

Which of the following statements best applies to D-love, as described by Maslow? A) Loving and Caring B) Unselfish and giving C) Selfish and Needy D) Hateful and violent E) Intense and overwhelming
answer

c
question

Which of the following types of love was NOT included by Fromm? A) Motherly love B) Brotherly love C) Erotic love D) Chumship love E) Mature love
answer

d
question

Which of the following types of love was NOT included by Rollo May? A) Eros B) Intimate C) Agape D) Authentic love E) Sex
answer

b
question

Having the characteristic of \”psychological mindedness\” A) means that someone is interested in the needs and experiences of others. B) is predictive of a more mature adulthood. C) means that one is likely a pretty good judge of what others feel. D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

d
question

) An understanding of the needs, motives, feelings, and experiences of others A) is only available to psychologists and clergy B) is correlated with a deficiency in self-understanding. C) can be improved through study. D) depends on an innate skill that emerges in late childhood. E) none of the above
answer

c
question

People interested in the study of personality A) almost always have personality disorders themselves. B) have historically included many immigrants and those outside the Protestant mainstream. C) have not traditionally been interested in introspection, preferring instead to study other people. D) have often gone on to become dominant and powerful people in politics and the public arena. E) none of the above
answer

e
question

Which of the following is NOT expected to significantly influence the way personality psychologists think about issues in the new century? A) a decrease in the population of the planet B) more accurate control of environmental contingencies C) a better understanding of brain biochemistry D) a better understanding of the genetic bases of personality E) none of the above
answer

a
question

Which of the following drugs was considered beneficial during Freud’s era (and was taken by Freud himself), before its powerfully addictive nature was recognized? A) LSD B) snuff C) peyote D) marijuana E) cocaine
answer

e
question

Which well-known psychology professor at Harvard used, and advocated the use, of LSD during the 1960s? A) Timothy Leary B) Jane Loevinger C) Henry Murray D) Cary Grant E) Albert Bandura
answer

a
question

According to your textbook, personality may be studied from __________ basic perspectives. A) eight B) ten C) four D) three E) five
answer

a
question

Of the perspectives described in the textbook, which does the book claim is the best? A) the existentialist B) the trait-based C) the behaviorist D) the psychoanalytic E) None is \”best\”; instead, each makes important contributions and has its own faults.
answer

e
question

Prozac blocks the reabsorption of __________, and thereby affects mood. A) serotonin B) dopamine C) oxygen D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

a
question

The drug Prozac (fluoxetine) was tested and originally approved for treating A) schizophrenia. B) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. C) depression. D) anti-social personality disorder. E) none of the above
answer

c
question

The fact that altering brain chemistry can change behavior supports the following approach(es) A) Cartesian dualism. B) existential/humanistic C) behaviorist. D) interactionist. E) none of the above
answer

e
question

Which of the following reflects a Skinnerian approach? A) focus groups for individuals suffering from life-threatening illnesses B) bonus pay as a reward for high volume sales C) companies providing quiet rooms for self-reflection during the work day D) all of the above E) none of the above
answer

b
question

Cartesian dualism describes the idea (from Descartes) that A) the mind and body are one integrated unit. B) individuals that have a propensity for violence can never be rehabilitated. C) the mind and body are separate entities. D) the mind \”dies\” before the body does.
answer

c
question

How many basic perspectives on personality SHOULD there be? A) five B) one C) eight D) ten E) There is no correct number.
answer

e
question

People’s deliberate use of psychoactive substances to influence behavior dates from A) the beginning of the 20th century, when recognition of the effects of alcohol led to the era of Prohibition. B) the middle of the 20th century, when chemical substances could first be synthesized from petroleum. C) the beginnings of humankind. D) the ancient Greeks, who became skilled at making wine. E) the late 20th century, when advances in biotechnology allowed the creation of drugs specifically designed to affect neurotransmitter systems.
answer

c
question

All of the following are among the approaches to assessing personality discussed in this book EXCEPT A) Existential. B) Humanistic. C) Biological. D) Philological. E) Neoanalytic
answer

d
question

LSD is a drug that A) Timothy Leary advocated. B) causes delusions and bizarre behaviors. C) Cary Grant used as part of therapy. D) is a fungus derivative. E) all of the above
answer

e
question

Skinner’s ideas are exemplified by which scenario? A) Julian completes all of his chores because he wants to receive his allowance from his parents. B) Julie cleans her bedroom because she enjoys having a clean bedroom, not because her mom makes her. C) Jack exercises his free will by skipping class on sunny days and going to the beach. D) Jensen does not pick up after himself because he is in a hurry. E) Jen studies for her exam because she wants to do well in school.
answer

a
question

Our genetic code affects A) our behavioral consistency B) our nerves, hormones, and neurotransmitters. C) the development of our brains. D) our temperament. E) all of the above
answer

e
question

Which of the following statements best describes designer personalities? a. Chemical control of personality b. Desirable personalities that are created through therapy and counseling c. Undesirable personalities being banned from reproduction d. Undesirable traits being punished out of existence e. The striving to create one perfect personality
answer

a
question

Which of the following statements best describes behavioral genomics? a. The study of human language and the biological centers in the brain b. The study of how humans respond to positive and negative reinforcement c. The study of genes that influence behavior d. The study of chemical effects on the brain e. The study of unconscious thought
answer

c
question

Which of the following perspectives best explains personality? a. Psychoanalytic a. Neo-analytic b. Behaviorist c. Cognitive d. None of them alone explain personality best
answer

d
question

What is the best strategy to use when studying personality? a. Pick one perspective and concentrate solely on that perspective b. There is no single best strategy c. Create a new perspective that is supported by scientific data d. Pick one perspective and try and prove it wrong e. Use the psychoanalytic approach
answer

b

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