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personal health test 4

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the term used to describe the speed and intensity with which a pathogen is likely to cause an infection is
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virulence
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when a tick transfers lyme disease from a deer to a human, the tick is considered the
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vector ( in the chanin of infection)
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viruses are able to replicate on their own
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FALSE
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protozoa rarely cause illness in humans
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FALSE
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common examples of pathogens are pollen/ bee stings/ drugs/ and animal hair
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false
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candisis
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Fungus
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tapeworms
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helminth
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lymphocutes that monitor blood and tissue fluid
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b cells
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after an infection or immunization, memory cells develop and can lead to a rapud response if the same organism is encountered by the body again. The person is said to have
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immunity
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Hepatitis C
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No vaccine availible
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the most common infectious disease in the world is
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tuberculosis
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Malaria is commonly spread by poor sanitation
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False
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the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States
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Human papollomavirus
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which of the following situations has NOT been shown to transmit HIV between indivuals
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casual contact
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affected by balance of diet and exercise
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Immune System
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the acute inflammatory response is part of which immune system
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innate
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NOT a physical barrier against infection
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lysozyme
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Not a chemical barrier against infection
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skin
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Helper T cells
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do not produce antibodies
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allergic reactions occur when
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the same process that helps protect against infection is directed toward a noninfectious agent
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Antibiotic use is a factor in
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antibiotic resistance
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which of the following is the pneumonia-type illness that surfaced in February 2003 in China an caused an epidemic scare
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severe acute respirator syndrome (SARS)
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some people oppose vaccinations because
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they believe the risks associated with the vaccines themselves are too great
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Our growing focus on hygiene may help to
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push us into the post antibiotic era
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the main factors believed to influence bacterial resistance are
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frequency of resistance genes among bacteria and antibiotic overuse
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Most common infectious diseases worldwide
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tuberculosis
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People with HIV infection have a Greater risk than the rest of the population for
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development of TB
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worldwide the three leading infectious disease causes of death
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pneumia, diarrhea, and tuberculosis
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Drug resistant tuberculosis
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serious concern among at risk populations
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a staph infection is caused by a rare bacteria on the skin
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Fals
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the most common sexually transmitted disease in the united states is
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HPV
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human immunodeficiency virus
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an infected person does not always remains symptomatic after the viral load set point is established
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Hepatitis C most severely affects which area of the body
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liver
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current practice calls for all sexually active women to receive regualar Pap test to screen for cervical cancer
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True
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viral STDs
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NOT curable with antibiotics
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Not a recommendation for preventing infectious diseases
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wash your hands frequently with antibacterial soap
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washing your hands frequently
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helpful in preventing the transmission of infectious disease
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everyone agrees that there are no potential risk if parents choose not to have their children receive government recommended vaccinations
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true
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Antibiotics
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bacterial infections
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different infectious diseases may be common in different countries and parts of a country
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true
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mad cow disease
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prion
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Not a parasite
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fungi
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white blood cell that is responsible for the antibody prodduction in the aquired immunity response
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B cells
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the lymphocytes that are responsible for monitoring the events that occur inside the bodys cells are which type of cell
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t cell
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the pneumonia- type illness that caused an epidemic scare when it surfaced in china in Februaryu 2003 was
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severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
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urbanization contributes to the spread
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tuberculosis
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pneumonia is the leading cause of infectious disease and death worldwide
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true
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a safe and effective vaccine is availble for which of the following sexually transmitted diseases
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hepatitis b
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fredrico has painful sores on his penis which std does he have
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herpes simplex
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over use of antibacterial products
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is never a good idea
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Exercise is directly linked to a reduction in risk
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breast cancer.
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Biological cancer therapies involve the introduction of infectious agents that attack cancer cells.
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false
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All of the following statements regarding cervical cancer screening are true, EXCEPT:
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women should begin cervical cancer screening when they are 25.
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The common features of a red, scaly base with a non-healing sore describe which type of skin cancer?
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squamous cell
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Risk factors for breast cancer include
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a family history of breast cancer.
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The leading cause of cancer death
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lung
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NOT a source of ionizing radiation
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uva rays
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The most significant risk factor for most cancers is
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age
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Craig recently passed away from a cancer that started in his bone marrow; what type of cancer caused Craig’s death?
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leukemia
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Kyle has a cancer of the lymph nodes or glands; what type of cancer does Kyle have?
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lymphoma
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Research shows correlation between a sense of spirituality
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and a better quality of life living with cancer
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People with cancer have an increased risk
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developing a second cancer.
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Your health insurance will not drop you if you are diagnosed with
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cancer.
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A cancer patient maintaining a sense of control in treatment is
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associated with better health outcomes.
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Many cancers
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curable or controlable
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treatment for cancer of the white blood cells
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bone marrow transplant
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treatment may help reduce the side effects of chemotherapy
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immunotherapy
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Which of the following is a local treatment that can destroy cancer cells with minimal damage to surrounding tissue?
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radiatiom
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If a cancer is detected early, is small, and is localized, which of the following is a likely treatment?
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surgery
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Belinda recently completed a treatment program for breast cancer. For the last year, she took a drug treatment that worked to interfere with rapid cell division; what type of cancer treatment did Belinda undergo?
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chemotherapy
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Why is there no screening test for ovarian cancer?
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No test has been shown to improve detection without increasing harm.
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Early detection is the key to successful treatment of cancer.
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true
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Genetic screening for cancer
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is possible
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Cancer screenings may produce false positives.
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true
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No screening tests exist for which of the following cancers?
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lung cancer
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Which of the following statements regarding basal and squamous cell skin cancer is FALSE?
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Fair skin and sun exposure increase the risk for both cancers.
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Which of the following statements about colon cancer is FALSE? →
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Postmenopausal women who take estrogen therapy have a higher risk of colon cancer.
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Which of the following statements regarding prostate cancer is FALSE?
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Most warning signs occur in the early stages of cancer.
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Factors that decrease the risk for breast cancer include all of the following, EXCEPT →
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use of hormone replacement therapy.
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Diagnostic imaging by X-ray now uses the lowest doses required to obtain clear images to prevent cancer growth years after treatment.
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true
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Cancer promoters directly alter a cell’s DNA, creating a genetic alteration that can lead to cancer.
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false
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Which of the following statements about sun exposure is FALSE?
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Sunburns during adulthood seem to be the most strongly associated with melanoma.
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Which of the following statements about diet’s effect on cancer is FALSE?
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Diets high in fiber appear to increase the risk of colon cancer.
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Which of the following statements regarding tobacco use and cancer is FALSE?
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Smokers are no more likely to die from lung cancer than non-smokers.
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Different tissues of the body all have relatively the same risk for cancer, yet they develop different forms of cancer.
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false
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Mary Lou’s cancer began in her skin and then spread to her liver and brain. What type of cancer does Mary Lou have?
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melanoma
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The most common form of cancer, ___________________, is a large category of cancers that originate from epithelial tissue or epithelium.
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carcinoma
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Which of the following does NOT trigger an initiating event?
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stem cell
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Which of the following is NOT a safety mechanism in place to help maintain cell order and decrease the chance of cancer developing in the body?
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initiating events
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In the United States, the survival rate for all types of cancer combined is over 60 percent.
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True
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All of the following are skin cancers, EXCEPT
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sarcoma
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You should have a colonoscopy if any other type of colon cancer screening produces a positive result.
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true
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Chemotherapy commonly results in harm to both cancer cells and normal cells.
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true
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Colon cancer screening tests include all of the following, EXCEPT
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colon-specific antigen test.
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Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) does not increases the risk for
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colon cancer
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NOT considered a risk factor for increased exposure to carcinogens
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dense forests
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A mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene is associated with an increased risk for
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breast cancer
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What determines the type of cancer a person is diagnosed with?
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the tissue or primary site where a cancer originate
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Cells that are capable of unlimited division and retain the ability to become different cell types are called
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stem cells
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You can reduce your blood levels of low density lipoproteins by reducing your consumption of saturated fats.
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true
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There is no reliable data to suggest that meditation can help decrease blood pressure.
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false
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An electrocardiogram (EKG) is used to visualize
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electrical activity in the heart
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treatment of cerebrovascular disease
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Clot-dissolving medications can NOT be used for all types of strokes.
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Kevin woke up and had difficulty speaking. He went to the hospital and, several hours later, his speech was back to normal
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transient ischemic attack
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peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
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NOT often fatal in older adults.
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A blood clot that develops at a distant site and then travels to a blood vessel, where it becomes lodged and blocks blood flow
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embolism
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Which of the following statements regarding symptoms of heart attacks is FALSE?
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All symptoms occur in all cases; they are just not always recognized.
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atherosclerosis
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can be reversible
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systemic circulation
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pumps oxygen-poor blood to the heart.
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Gases and molecules may be exchanged directly through some
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capillary walls.
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cardiovascular disease
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refers to abnormalities of the heart and blood vessels.
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The right ventricle of the heart
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pumps oxygen poor blood into the lungs
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How many chambers does the heart have?
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4
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Regular small doses of aspirin
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used to reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
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Hypnosis may be useful in helping
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control hypertension and other chronic health problems
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In this type of arrhythmia, the ventricles contract rapidly and erratically, causing the heart to quiver instead of beat rhythmically:
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ventrical fibirlation
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High blood levels of the amino acid homocystein
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linked to increased risks of coronary artery disease and stroke.
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Which of the following is NOT one of the known major controllable risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
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vitamin deficency
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Perhaps the most important noncontrollable risk factor for cardiovascular disease is
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age
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The group of cells in the right atrium that generates the heart’s electrical signal and coordinates pumping actions is called the atrial node.
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false
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how many chambers in the human heart
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4
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Next to motor vehicle accidents, the most common cause of death for children between the ages of 1 and 14 is
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drowing
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the biggest safety problem for bicycle riders is
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lack of visability to motorist
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Batteries should be replaced in battery-powered fire detectors every
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6 to 12 months
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hurricanes
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one of the most dangerous natural disasters that occur in the United States
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Among the most economically developed nations in the world, the United States has the highest rate of
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murders with firarms
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The most widespread response of U.S. schools to increasing youth violence has been more
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security and penilties for violence
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hazing
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most commonly used for initiation to a group
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infants
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most likely to be victims of child abuse
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applies most directly to the gun control debate
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2nd amendment of US constitution
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Age 12 and under
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should ride in the back seat
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Most pedestrian deaths do NOT occur
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when pedestrians are walking in the roadway.
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most common cause of injury visits to the emergency room for younger children and older adults
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Falls
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Majority of back injurys
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poor lifting
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to avoid injury from computer use
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screen should be level with top of your eyes
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Elder abuse
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usually by a family members
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cycle of domestic violencE
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kindness and loving behavior. acute battering tension building.
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ate crimes against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered persons
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increased on college campuses in recent years.
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category of victimization defined as the imposition of sexual activity on someone through the threat of nonphysical force
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sexual coersion
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First-year college women during the first few weeks of their first semester.
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at highest risk for sexual assault
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leading cause of unintentional injury death for Americans at all ages
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motor vehicle crash
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American Heart Association announced that hands-only CPR with just chest compressions is just as effective as standard CPR with mouth-to-mouth breathing for
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sudden cardiac arrest
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All-terrain vehicles are known for being especially susceptible to
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roll over accidents
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most common symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome
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numbness and pain
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One of the main risk factors for becoming a victim of violent crime in the United States is being
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being a member of a minority group
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ourt cases have determined that hate speech on campus can only be restricted if it
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has been proven to inflict harm
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The primary goal of terrorist acts
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is NOT usually to make a statement of ethnic superiority.
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the entertainment industry
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ecently given more attention to self-regulation.