Periodic Table 1 Essay

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A vertical column of the periodic table.
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Group
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A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.
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Period
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A positive ion.
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Cation
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A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons.
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Electronegativity
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The energy change that occurs when an electron is aquired by a neutral atom.
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Electron Affinity
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A negative ion.
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Anion
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Another name for a group.
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Family
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Another name for a period.
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Row
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An electron that is available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds.
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Valence Electron
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The “magic” number in Chemistry
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Eight (or zero)
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One-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together.
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Atomic Radius
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An atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge.
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Ion
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The energy required to remove the outer-most electron from a neutral atom of an element.
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First Ionization Energy
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The p-block elements together with the s-block elements.
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Main-group elements
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Also known as Representative Elements.
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Main-group elements
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The most electronegative element.
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Fluorine
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Repetitive patterns on the Periodic Table.
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Periodicity
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The energy required to remove the twenty-third most loosely held electron.
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Twenty-third Ionization Energy.
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Which is higher, first ionization energy or second ionization energy?
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Second Ionization Energy
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Which is higher, second ionization energy or third ionization energy?
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Third Ionization Energy
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One of the 14 elements in the 5f block of the Periodic Table with atomic numbers from 90 through 103.
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Actinide
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One of the 14 elements in the 4f block of the Periodic Table with atomic numbers from 58 through 71.
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Lanthanide
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Which is more reactive, sodium or magnesium?
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Sodium
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They must be stored under kerosine or other hydrocarbon solvents because they react with water vapor or oxygen in air.
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Alkali Metals
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They occur most commonly as the carbonates, phosphates, silicates, and sulfates.
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Alkaline Earth Metals
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How were elements first placed on the Periodic Table?
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Increasing atomic masses
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What was Mendeleev’s explanation for the blanks on his periodic table?
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There were elements that would fit there once they were discovered
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Which scientist’s work was used to correct Mendeleev’s periodic table?
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Moseley
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How are elements currently placed on the periodic table?
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Atomic number
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Which sublevels of an electron’s configuration are represented by electron dot notation?
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s and p
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Will elements with the same electron configuration ending be placed in the same group or period?
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Group
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What is the maximum number of electrons that can beplaced in the s sublevel?
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2
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What is the maximum number of electrons that can be placed in the p sublevel?
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6
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What is the maximum number of electrons that can be placed in the d sublevel?
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10
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What is the maximum number of electrons that can be placed in the f sublevel?
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14
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What determines an atom’s chemical properties?
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Its electron configuration (the number of valence electrons)
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The outer energy level of an atom is considered stable when which two sublevels are full?
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s and p
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Place the following in order according to greater stability: half- full sublevel, full sublevel, full outer level, and no particular order.
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Full outer level>full sublevel>half-full sublevel>no particular order
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What is the fact that eight electrons in the outer level render an atom unreactive called?
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The octet rule
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What is the group number of the halogens?
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VIIA
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What is the group number of the alkali metals?
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IA
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What is the group number of the noble gases?
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VIIIA
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What is the group number of the alkaline metals?
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IIA
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Which group is the most stable?
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VIIIA
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Which group has four valence electrons?
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IVA
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Which group contains the magic number of valence electrons?
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VIIIA
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Which group contains elements that are unreactive under normal laboratory conditions?
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VIIIA
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What is the group number that contains the most reactive of all the nonmetals?
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VIIA
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What is the group number that contains the most reactive of all the metals?
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IA
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What is the group number of the group whose members are scare in nature except for one element, which is the most abundant metallic element?
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IIIA
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What is the group number of the group whose members tend to form covalent compounds, most commonly with oxidation numbers of +3 or +5?
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VA
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The group number of the group that forms a +2 common ion
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IIA
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The group number of the group that forms a +1 common ion
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IA
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The group number of the group that forms a -3 common ion
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VA
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The group number of the group that forms a -2 common ion
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VIA
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The group number of the group that forms a -1 common ion
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VIIA
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The group number of the group whose members have one valence electron
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IA
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The group number of the group whose members have two valence electrons
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IIA
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The group number of the group whose members have three valence electrons
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IIIA
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The group number of the group whose members have four valence electrons
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IVA
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The group number of the group whose members have five valence electrons
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VA
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The group number of the group whose members have six valence electrons
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VIA
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The group number of the group whose members have seven valence electrons
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VIIA
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The group number of the group whose members have eight valence electrons
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VIIIA
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In which block should you be on the lookout for irregular electron configurations?
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d
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An element possessing properties of both metals and nonmetals
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Metalloid
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Are there more metals or nonmetals?
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Metals
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How many periods are on the modern periodic table?
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7
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To what quantum number is the period of an element related?
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Principal
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When moving out a period, how does atomic radii change?
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Decreases
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When moving out a period, how does ionization energies change?
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Increases
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When moving out a period, how does electronegativity change?
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Increases
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When moving out a period, how does electron affinity change?
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Increases
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When moving out a period, how does metallic character change?
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Decreases
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When moving down a family, how does atomic radii change?
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Increases
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When moving down a family, how does electronegativity change?
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Decreases
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When moving down a family, how does first ionization energy change?
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Decreases
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When moving down a family, how does electron affinity change?
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Decreases
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When moving down a family of metals, how does melting point change?
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Decreases
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When moving down a family of metals, how does boiling point change?
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Decreases
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When moving down a family of nonmetals, how does melting point change?
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Increases
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When moving down a family of nonmetals, how does boiling point change?
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Increases
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Why does atomic radius decrease as you move out a period?
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Stronger attractive forces in atoms (as you go from left to right) between the opposite charges in the nucleus and electron cloud cause the atom to be ‘sucked’ together a little tighter.
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Why does atomic radius increase as you move down a family?
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There is a significant jump in the size of the nucleus (protons + neutrons) each time you move from period to period down a group. Additionally, new energy levels of elections clouds are added to the atom as you move from period to period down a group, making the each atom significantly more massive, both in mass and volume.
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Why does electronegativity increase as you move out a period?
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Elements on the left of the period table have 1 -2 valence electrons and would rather give those few valence electrons away (to achieve the octet in a lower energy level) than grab another atom’s electrons. As a result, they have low electronegativity. Elements on the right side of the period table only need a few electrons to complete the octet, so they have strong desire to grab another atom’s electrons.
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Why does electronegativity decrease as you move down a group?
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Elements near the top of the period table have few electrons to begin with; every electron is a big deal. They have a stronger desire to acquire more electrons. Elements near the bottom of the chart have so many electrons that loosing or acquiring an electron is not as big a deal. This is due to the shielding affect where electrons in lower energy levels shield the positive charge of the nucleus from outer electrons resulting in those outer electrons not being as tightly bound to the atom.
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Why does first ionization energy increase as you move out a period?
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Elements on the right of the chart want to take others atom’s electron (not given them up) because they are close to achieving the octet. The means it will require more energy to remove the outer most electron. Elements on the left of the chart would prefer to give up their electrons so it is easy to remove them, requiring less energy (low ionization energy).
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Why does first ionization energy decrease as you move down a group?
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The shielding affect makes it easier to remove the outer most electrons from those atoms that have many electrons (those near the bottom of the chart).
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Refers to how likely or vigorously an atom is to react with other substances.
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Reactivity
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How does metallic reactivity change as you move out a period?
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Decreases
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How does metallic reactivity change as you move down a group?
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Increases
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How does nonmetallic reactivity change as you move out a period?
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Increases
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How does nonmetallic reactivity change as you move down a group?
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Decreases
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Why does metallic reactivity decrease as you move out a period?
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The farther to the left, the easier it is for electrons to be given or taken away, resulting in higher reactivity.
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Why does metallic reactivity increase as you move down a group?
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The farther down the periodic chart you go, the easier it is for electrons to be given or taken away, resulting in higher reactivity.
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Why does nonmetallic reactivity increase as you move out a period?
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The farther right you go on the periodic table, the higher the electronegativity, resulting in a more vigorous exchange of electron.
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Why does nonmetallic reactivity decrease as you down a group?
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The farther up you go on the periodic table, the higher the electronegativity, resulting in a more vigorous exchange of electron.
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In what group would you find this electron configuration ending: 4s1?
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IA
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In what group would you find this electron configuration ending: 4s2?
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IIA
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In what group would you find this electron configuration ending: 4s2 3d10 4p1?
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IIIA
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In what group would you find this electron configuration ending: 4s2 3d10 4p2?
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IVA
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In what group would you find this electron configuration ending: 4s2 3d10 4p3?
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VA
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In what group would you find this electron configuration ending: 4s2 3d10 4p4?
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VIA
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In what group would you find this electron configuration ending: 4s2 3d10 4p5?
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VIIA
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In what group would you find this electron configuration ending: 4s2 3d10 4p6?
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VIIIA

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