Overpopulation and engineering for the real world
Overpopulation. Peoples talk a batch about it, but no one truly does something about it. By definition, overpopulation is the status where the figure of organisms exceeds the transporting capacity of their home ground ( Oak, 2009 ) . Talking about overpopulation, we could intend two things. First we could intend that there are excessively many people populating on this planet. For illustration, in 2050, we will be populating with 9,3 billion people on this planet. ( Bureau of the Census ) Second, we could look at the job as a deficit of resources. Harmonizing a study of Petrotech ( Laherrere, 2003 ) , the demand of oil exceeds the production all ready, and with oil militias diminishing, this job will even turn bigger. In this papers, we will look at the jobs overpopulation brings, and what we can make about it. In this study, we will show a solution to contend against this job, by concentrating on cut downing the figure of people populating on this planet.
How will the earth expression like in 50 old ages? Everybody has his ain thought about that, but each of those thoughts is more of a day of reckoning scenario than an idyllic image. If we keep on life like we do now, many of the natural resources will be depleted. Besides, planetary temperature will increase with a few grades, H2O degree will lift and there will be famine in the development states. All these phenomena can be contributed to overpopulation, because this seems to be the footing for all these jobs.
In the last century, universe population has increased with every bit much as 400 % , conveying it to the figure of 6,775 billion people populating on Earth now ( UN, 2004 ) .
If the planetary population supports on increasing as it does now, exponentially, this will hold black effects for the hereafter of many species on this planet. Harmonizing to research the population will transcend 9.000.000.000 worlds by 2050. The U.S. Bureau of Census estimates that there will be in between 7, 3 and 10, 7 billion people. Often, they talk about 9, 3 billion by 2050. ( Figure 1 ) This is due to lift in birth rate and a diminution in decease rate ( Oak, 2009 ) which is due to evolution in medical scientific discipline, better hygienic state of affairss and better nutrient supply. Besides,
When population rises, the demand of resources will lift, but the militias will worsen because the capacity of Earth is limited. In the last century, oil and gas demands have increased a batch, but since 1980, the demand has been higher than the find of new supply of oil and gas. We can besides see an addition in the monetary values for both, which besides indicates that demands exceed supply ( Laherrere, 2003 ) ( Figure 2 ) We can besides detect this job in the universe supply and demand of wood.
Figure 2: Oil/Gas demand, resources and monetary values
Harmonizing to a study from U.N. Water, if all the fresh water on the planet were divided every bit among the planetary population, there would be 5 000 – 6 000 mA? of H2O available for everyone, every twelvemonth ( UN H2O, 2007 ) . Experts say that we can talk about H2O scarceness, when people have less than 1 700 mA? of H2O available per twelvemonth, so it seems that there is no job. However, the fresh water is non every bit distributed, and it happens to be that the most dumbly populated parts, have the least fresh water available, because those are really warm parts, and there is a batch of poorness.
For nutrient, there is a similar tendency as for fresh water. The universe production of nutrient is high plenty to fulfill the demands, but the nutrient does non make all the people who need it. Besides, for agribusiness, people need H2O, so in parts where there is a deficiency of H2O, there is besides a high opportunity that there is a deficiency of nutrient. States that are rich plenty to import nutrient make non confront this job, so once more, nutrient is non every bit distributed amongst all people ( Sustainability Team, 2010 ) .
Besides, we would wish to state something about the extinction of species, economic system fails and planetary heating.
Overview of bing solutions
Due to the fact that an consciousness of overpopulation is bing a few decade now, there have been a batch of thoughts to cover with the job. The authorities of China was one of the innovators with their One Child Policy. They created a policy where they can merely hold one kid ( China ‘s One-Child Policy, 1999 ) , except for the rural countries, where people may hold two kids because they have to work on the land, after they make a request. When people do non subject to this regulation, the 2nd kid would non hold medical attention, the parents will hold to pay more revenue enhancements and will be paid less for their occupations. So in general, the household will be punished for holding more than one kid. In the metropoliss this system works rather good, except for the fact that people will hold abortions if they know that they will hold a girl. In rural countries, people frequently have more than one kid, but they do non describe it to the authorities ( Oak, 2009 ) .
Some people have come up with more technological thoughts. For illustration, some think that we could direct people to other planets. This, nevertheless, would non be really effectual. If we could transport off 100 000 people per twelvemonth, this would non hold a great consequence, because of the fact that every twenty-four hours, 258 000 kids are born ( Garrett, 1993 ) . Another illustration is more effectual agribusiness trough modified harvests. History Teachs us that this will hold an opposite consequence, as better nutrient means that less people will decease of dearth ( Kii, 1996 ) .
Another solution would be to give better instruction to people. This would take to better sexual instruction, and therefore fewer kids. However, this would besides take to a demand for a higher position of life, which would ensue in a higher demand of resources, which are already scarce. So this is non truly an option either. Giving adult females more rights is another option, because this would take to adult females traveling out to work alternatively of remaining place. But this will besides take to higher criterions of life ( Oak, 2009 ) .
We could besides choose for better wellness attention in developing states, so female parents would be certain their kids will last, and will do fewer kids. Today, female parents in hapless states think that non many kids will last the first old ages of their life, so in order to be certain to hold offspring, they make a batch of kids ( Johnston, 1999 ) .
Promoting the right to decease could an effectual manner to diminish population: really sick people must hold the pick to halt medical health care. Besides, people who are sentenced to life, should be given the pick. This would be a batch less excessively society. On the other manus, there are non that much people in such state of affairss.
A last option is to diminish the ecological footmark. Earth can back up the demands of all people who live here, if we cut down our footmark to 1, 8 hectares per individual. This would be a solution for the western states, but it would intend that people have to populate like people in Jordan or Uzbekistan, which is non a really attractive solution ( WWF, 2006 )
Own solution/ conceptual design
Our solution focuses chiefly on the lessening of the birth rate. The birth rate has a great influence on universe population, and hence we want to convey it down. Off class, there are other causes for overpopulation, but we ignore them on intent. First, we would do all people aware of the jobs of overpopulation. In order to make this, we could make a large advertisement run. Via this run we can advance preventives, so there would be greater usage of those merchandises. We besides make certain that this run is merely used in states that have a immense population roar e.g. developing states. This run consists out of 2 stages. The first stage consists out of a broadcast of musca volitanss on wireless and Television which covers the most common preventive merchandises. After this stage there is held a study to understand the effects of this run so far and to do accommodations possible. Phase 2 will be a multimedia run which chief mark group is the rural adult females of limited literacy. The chief ground why yesteryear runs have non worked is because the people who could non read besides do non understand the booklets and hoardings used. So now we try to explicate prophylactic usage through voluntaries. The advantage is that although we focus on the low-literate people, it can besides make the well-literate urban adult females.
Figure 3: Behaviour alteration theoretical account ( Domrei, 2008 )
This model shows the 2nd stage of our media run. At first we train the voluntaries to demo them the current prophylactic methods and the pros and Contrass of them. We besides teach them to portion accurate and positive information with the people. This manner we guarantee that no miscommunication is provided. So we besides make certain that no false rumours are repeated by the population.
The multimedia run takes topographic point chiefly on the wireless because it is one of the most effectual ways to make rural adult females of childbearing age. ( Domrei, 2008 )
There are besides people who do non have a wireless or Television, which is why we besides use print media. For illustration we use spines with a amusing targeted at low-literacy readers. Besides impudent charts are used to back up the voluntaries. Besides “ oral cavity to talk ” advertizement is used. “ Word of oral cavity ” is the 2nd most effectual beginning of information for adult females of generative age ( Domrei, 2008 ) . That is besides why we use voluntaries to travel to the small towns and metropoliss and learn them about preventive usage so they can state it to the remainder.
The chief challenge is to acquire all the authoritiess united. It is useless to transport out a policy if lone half of the states stick at it. That ‘s why we suggest doing a planetary agreement. One facet of this planetary agreement is to convey better instruction to the people. This will do adult females make household planning. It so happens to be proven that instruction of a population is straight related to the sum of kids per twosome ( UN, 2003 ) . Another solution to do the people competent to this job is more specific instruction. Today, merely in developed states is education guaranteed. It ‘s of import that the kids, all over the universe, have school responsibility with a specific instruction about ecology and overpopulation. The birth rate lessenings when the kids need to travel to school and so they have no economical usage, because they can non work at the farm ( Oded Galor and David N. Weil, 2000 ) .
This solution does non content a little alteration of today ‘s instruction theoretical account but contents an ambitious restructuring of the theoretical account. It is necessary that tomorrow ‘s kids, the small childs, acquire competent to the job about overpopulation so in the hereafter they can back up the solutions excessively.
It ‘s impossible to state that this alteration is possible in a few months because it will take old ages but that does non count. When those kids are grown to take the nature injury by working the natural resources without believing about the effects or believing about bearing kids, they will hold the age of 20. The people who are grownups today will be competent to this job by the media and authorities support.
There are two groups of people who have to be educated, foremost of all the small kids but secondly the unschooled grownups who live in the development states, particularly the adult females.
To do people competent to this job, there has to be a paradigm, a world-wide alteration of perceptual experience about this job called overpopulation. For the youngest childs, up to 12 old ages, it has no sense they get a lesson about overpopulation because they would non retrieve anything about it within a few old ages. Therefore we should associate this subject with every possible lesson they have, like utilizing books about overpopulation while larning the childs how to read or utilize overpopulation as a subject when to seek to work out some issues during mathematics, etc.
By allowing those childs in contact with this subject, we make appeal to their subconscious. It turns out that people observe something as true through their subconscious ( Freud ) . In this manner there is the greatest chance that those childs will alter the fortunes like they are today to some better 1s.
It ‘s really of import that those kids, when they get older, acquire instructed in the ecology and the usage of preventives because increasing the cognition besides gives another job. Because of the fact that they get the cognition of the developed states, they want to populate like people from the western universe with a high criterion of life and hence a big ecological footmark. However, this is impossible to accomplish because it will enlarge the job so therefore it is important to teach them in the ecology to guarantee that the ecological footmark would non lift.
The lessons in the usage of preventives are particularly utile for the adult females. The addition of cognition shall ensue in the expansion of the presence at the labour market. With the combination of cognition about preventives there will be a March of emancipation among adult females, so there will be terminal of the suppression of work forces ( Oded Galor and David N. Weil, 2000 ) . The adult females will travel to work, do their ain money and there will be less clip to raise the kids. Due the March of emancipation and the usage of preventives, fewer kids will be born. The disadvantage is, like we pointed out before, that the ecological footmark of the educated population will lift. We can counterbalance this by leaving this people of the necessity of lastingness. By making so, this people can even do an illustration for the remainder of the universe, who are non so wise about lastingness.
The authorities could make some great work in the rich states to convey back the ecological footmark. Here are some of the thoughts.
The authorities could put up a sort of ECO-label, with different classs. For illustration, A is the best category, B is still All right, and C is bad. Companies with the C-label are non permitted to publicize. Companies with the B-label are permitted, and companies with the A-label would even be supported by the authorities in advertisement.
Another thought is to coerce people to insulate their houses, and to put up solar panels on the roofs. In order to make this, there should foremost be some study of the fiscal province of the occupants. If the occupants do n’t hold adequate money to pay for these installings, the authorities could back up them.
With the acclivity of electrical autos, one of the jobs is the scope of the auto. So authorities could put in installings where you can refuel your batteries.
In Antwerp, there is a prohibition to drive quads. Government could widen this step. For illustration, they could forbid the usage of landrovers, athletics autos and quads. Merely people who truly need a landrover, would be permitted to drive one ( Gazet new wave Antwerpen, 2009 ) .
Besides in developing states, authorities could intend a batch. Measures like supra would non assist, because the ecological footmark in those states is non the job. Government could assist here by exciting the people to hold no more than two kids. For illustration, like in China, the first kid gets full medical support and gets money to travel to college. The 2nd kid would acquire less money, so the parents would be reticent to hold more than one kid.
Make sure that merely a liveable figure of people walk around on this planet, so our planet can still back up the human demands.
At this minute, Earth can non back up the figure of people populating on it. The ecological footmark exceeds greatly the capacity of the Earth. This must most desperately be reduced.
The planetary population. Everything we want to make is merely to be certain the universe population will still be able to populate on this Earth. Our end is to alter their manner of thought and moving without allowing them experience harmed.
Merely the universe leaders can guarantee a alteration on universe degree. This job is excessively large to be solved by people without power.
Finally, the universe population will hold to recognize the job. Everyone has to make his portion if we want to be successful.
Educational cost, spiritual influence, will of universe leaders, common competition, and resistance of companies.
Theory of planned behavior
Attitude towards the behaviour
Our solution is decidedly something that is good for everyone, because if we do non alter, the universe is non capable of feeding us all. Because we besides educate the people in salvaging the environment, it is besides good for the universe itself. The chief job is that it likely costs some clip and money.
Once we explained the job to everyone in such a manner that everyone understands the job, everyone has to be assured that there has to alter something. Our chief end is non to do everyone happy with our solution, but to do it liveable. So we do non concentrate on confrontation with the people but on a fluid passage to a better manner of life.
Perceived behavioural control
It decidedly has to be possible to alter the manner we act now. It is a must. The chief end in the beginning is to do certain that everyone knows that they have to assist and stride along with the solution in order to do our solution successful. Everyone needs to assist, non merely a few. Because when they do non, we have a major job.
We think our solution will work, because the common people wo n’t hold to make a great trade of work. In the Western universe, people will be pushed in a certain manner. They still have the pick to make whatever they want ( except for the isolating, and the prohibition to drive a landrover ) . When they want to purchase a new auto, they will be influenced by promotion, and since merely good autos are displayed in the media, people will more easy purchase a auto that is published.
In developping states, instruction will be obligated, so they will turn more competetent to cover with the jobs. Besides, people will still be able to hold more than two kids, but they will be affected negatively by making so.
By using our solutions, people all over the universe will merrily and unmindful do the right thing to salvage the universe.