Ormrod Educational Psychology Ch. 5 – Flashcards

question
Diversity in abilities and characteristics (intelligence, personality, etc.) among students at a particular age and within a particular gender or cultural group.
answer
Individual Differences
question
Practice of individualizing instructional methods and possibly also individualizing specific content and instructional goals to align with each student's existing knowledge, skills, and needs.
answer
Differentiated Instruction
question
Ability to apply prior knowledge and experience flexibly to accomplish challenging new tasks.
answer
Intelligence
question
Theoretical general factor in intelligence that influences one's ability to learn and perform in a wide variety of contexts.
answer
g
question
Ability to acquire knowledge quickly and adapt effectively to new situations.
answer
Fluid Intelligence
question
Knowledge and skills accumulated from prior experience, schooling, and culture.
answer
Crystallized Intelligence
question
Enhancement of thinking through the use of physical objects and technology, concepts and symbols of one's culture, and/or social collaboration and support.
answer
Distributed Intelligence
question
General measure of current level of cognitive functioning; often used to predict academic achievement in the short run.
answer
Intelligence Test
question
Score on an intelligence test, determined by comparing a person's performance with that of others in the same age-group.
answer
IQ Score
question
Characteristic way in which a learner tends to think about a task and process new information; typically comes into play automatically rather than by choice.
answer
Cognitive Style
question
General inclination and desire to approach and think about learning and problem-solving tasks in a particular way; typically has a motivational component in addition to cognitive components.
answer
Disposition
question
Students different enough from their peers that they require specially adapted instructional materials and practices to maximize their learning and achievement.
answer
Students with Special Needs
question
Practice of educating all students, including those with severe and multiple disabilities, in neighborhood schools and general education classrooms.
answer
Inclusion
question
U.S. federal legislation granting educational rights from birth until age 21 for people with cognitive, emotional, or physical disabilities.
answer
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
question
Most typical and standard educational environment that can reasonably meet the needs of a student with a disability.
answer
Least Restrictive Environment
question
Written description of an appropriate instructional program for a student with special needs.
answer
Individualized Educational Program (IEP)
question
Any electronic or non electronic device that can enhance certain abilities or performance areas for students with disabilities.
answer
Assistive Technology
question
Approach to diagnosing a cognitive impairment in which students are identified for in-depth assessment after failing to master certain basic skills despite both whole-class and remedial small-group instruction that research has shown to be effective for most students.
answer
Response to Intervention (RTI)
question
Language usage in which a student's disability is identified after the student is named.
answer
People-first Language
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Deficiencies in one or more specific cognitive processes but not in overall cognitive functioning.
answer
Learning Disability
question
Disorder marked by inattention, hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, or some combination of these characteristics.
answer
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
question
Impairment in spoken language or language comprehension that significantly interfere with classroom performance.
answer
Speech and Communication Disorders
question
Emotional states and behavior patterns that consistently and significantly disrupt academic learning and performance.
answer
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
question
Symptoms of an emotional or behavioral disorder that has a direct effect on other people (e.g. aggression, lack of self-control).
answer
Externalizing Behavior
question
Symptoms of an emotional or behavioral disorder that adversely affects the student with the disorder but has little or no direct effect on other people (e.g. depression, social withdrawal).
answer
Internalizing Behavior
question
Disorders marked by impairment social cognition, social skills, and social interactions, presumably due to a brain abnormality; extreme forms often associated with significant cognitive and linguistic delays and highly unusual behaviors.
answer
Autism Spectrum Disorder
question
Mild form of an autism spectrum disorder in which students have normal intelligence and language skills but show significant deficits in social cognition and social skills.
answer
Asperger Syndrome
question
Disability characterized by significantly below-average general intelligence and deficits in adaptive behavior, both of which first appear in infancy or childhood; also known as mental retardation.
answer
Intellectual Disability
question
Behavior related to daily living skills or appropriate conduct in social situations; used as a criterion for identifying students with intellectual disabilities.
answer
Adaptive Behavior
question
Combination of two or more disabilities that, taken together, require significant classroom adaptations and highly specialized educational services.
answer
Severe and Multiple Disabilities
question
General physical or medical condition that interferes so significantly with school performance that special accommodations are required.
answer
Physical and Health Impairment
question
Malfunction of the eyes or optic nerves that prevents normal vision even with corrective lenses.
answer
Visual Impairment
question
Malfunction of the ears or associated nerves that interferes with perception of sound within the frequency range pf normal human speech.
answer
Hearing Loss
question
Usually high ability or aptitude in one or more areas, to such a degree that students require special educational services to help them meet their fell potential.
answer
Giftedness
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question
Diversity in abilities and characteristics (intelligence, personality, etc.) among students at a particular age and within a particular gender or cultural group.
answer
Individual Differences
question
Practice of individualizing instructional methods and possibly also individualizing specific content and instructional goals to align with each student's existing knowledge, skills, and needs.
answer
Differentiated Instruction
question
Ability to apply prior knowledge and experience flexibly to accomplish challenging new tasks.
answer
Intelligence
question
Theoretical general factor in intelligence that influences one's ability to learn and perform in a wide variety of contexts.
answer
g
question
Ability to acquire knowledge quickly and adapt effectively to new situations.
answer
Fluid Intelligence
question
Knowledge and skills accumulated from prior experience, schooling, and culture.
answer
Crystallized Intelligence
question
Enhancement of thinking through the use of physical objects and technology, concepts and symbols of one's culture, and/or social collaboration and support.
answer
Distributed Intelligence
question
General measure of current level of cognitive functioning; often used to predict academic achievement in the short run.
answer
Intelligence Test
question
Score on an intelligence test, determined by comparing a person's performance with that of others in the same age-group.
answer
IQ Score
question
Characteristic way in which a learner tends to think about a task and process new information; typically comes into play automatically rather than by choice.
answer
Cognitive Style
question
General inclination and desire to approach and think about learning and problem-solving tasks in a particular way; typically has a motivational component in addition to cognitive components.
answer
Disposition
question
Students different enough from their peers that they require specially adapted instructional materials and practices to maximize their learning and achievement.
answer
Students with Special Needs
question
Practice of educating all students, including those with severe and multiple disabilities, in neighborhood schools and general education classrooms.
answer
Inclusion
question
U.S. federal legislation granting educational rights from birth until age 21 for people with cognitive, emotional, or physical disabilities.
answer
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
question
Most typical and standard educational environment that can reasonably meet the needs of a student with a disability.
answer
Least Restrictive Environment
question
Written description of an appropriate instructional program for a student with special needs.
answer
Individualized Educational Program (IEP)
question
Any electronic or non electronic device that can enhance certain abilities or performance areas for students with disabilities.
answer
Assistive Technology
question
Approach to diagnosing a cognitive impairment in which students are identified for in-depth assessment after failing to master certain basic skills despite both whole-class and remedial small-group instruction that research has shown to be effective for most students.
answer
Response to Intervention (RTI)
question
Language usage in which a student's disability is identified after the student is named.
answer
People-first Language
question
Deficiencies in one or more specific cognitive processes but not in overall cognitive functioning.
answer
Learning Disability
question
Disorder marked by inattention, hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, or some combination of these characteristics.
answer
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
question
Impairment in spoken language or language comprehension that significantly interfere with classroom performance.
answer
Speech and Communication Disorders
question
Emotional states and behavior patterns that consistently and significantly disrupt academic learning and performance.
answer
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
question
Symptoms of an emotional or behavioral disorder that has a direct effect on other people (e.g. aggression, lack of self-control).
answer
Externalizing Behavior
question
Symptoms of an emotional or behavioral disorder that adversely affects the student with the disorder but has little or no direct effect on other people (e.g. depression, social withdrawal).
answer
Internalizing Behavior
question
Disorders marked by impairment social cognition, social skills, and social interactions, presumably due to a brain abnormality; extreme forms often associated with significant cognitive and linguistic delays and highly unusual behaviors.
answer
Autism Spectrum Disorder
question
Mild form of an autism spectrum disorder in which students have normal intelligence and language skills but show significant deficits in social cognition and social skills.
answer
Asperger Syndrome
question
Disability characterized by significantly below-average general intelligence and deficits in adaptive behavior, both of which first appear in infancy or childhood; also known as mental retardation.
answer
Intellectual Disability
question
Behavior related to daily living skills or appropriate conduct in social situations; used as a criterion for identifying students with intellectual disabilities.
answer
Adaptive Behavior
question
Combination of two or more disabilities that, taken together, require significant classroom adaptations and highly specialized educational services.
answer
Severe and Multiple Disabilities
question
General physical or medical condition that interferes so significantly with school performance that special accommodations are required.
answer
Physical and Health Impairment
question
Malfunction of the eyes or optic nerves that prevents normal vision even with corrective lenses.
answer
Visual Impairment
question
Malfunction of the ears or associated nerves that interferes with perception of sound within the frequency range pf normal human speech.
answer
Hearing Loss
question
Usually high ability or aptitude in one or more areas, to such a degree that students require special educational services to help them meet their fell potential.
answer
Giftedness