Organizational Behavior Apple vs Scania
Organizational Behavior is a field of Study which investigates the impact that persons groups and construction have on organisations. for the intent of using such cognition towards bettering organisation effectivity. ( Huczynsky. 2010 ) The manner people behave separately or jointly in order to make a common end. Organizational behaviour includes in it such issues as organisational design. civilization. Group determination devising. teamwork and leading. ( Dictionary of Business and Management. 2009 ) In this study two companies Apple and Scania are compared to each other in footings of their organisational behaviour such as: design. civilization. construction leading and etc.
The study is written based on the two cardinal surveies provided in the appraisal and via extra beginnings and researches. The study starts with brief information about the background of the companies. Further the companies are compared by using theories such as: Continuum leading theory of Tannenbaum and Schmidt. Abraham Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of demands. Managerial grid Leadership theory of Blake and Mouton. and etc. The team-work attacks in both of the companies are extremely focused. discussed and followed by recommendations.
‘A genuinely charming and radical merchandise. What this device does is extraordinary. It is the best browse experience you’ve of all time had… It is incredibly great… A manner better than laptop. manner better than a Smartphone. ’ Steve Jobs 2010
We could non even conceive of how our phones and computing machines would look like today. The bulky and considered luxury machines are now innovated and updated devices owned by every individual individual and even few by each. One of the major functions in development of IT engineering during all these old ages has the transnational American company called Apple. Established in 1976. the company was ab initio named Apple computing machine. Inc. but subsequently on in 2007 it was renamed into merely Apple.
The company’s merchandises are known as iPad. iPod. iPhone and Macintosh Computers or merely Mac Books. Apple has a really strong planetary market place as it has penetrated world’s biggest markets. Harmonizing to the informations provided in 2011. Apple has 46. 600 full clip employees around the universe and 2. 800 impermanent full clip employees and company’s gross revenues are acquiring higher seasonally. Meanwhile Apple is considered to be a really successful company with a really high public presentation quality of its employees. ( M. A. Lusted. 2012 )
Another Successful company taken its beginning in Sweden and founded in 1891 is Scania. Scania is one of the largest and best Swedish heavy truck and coach Manufacture Company with globally recognized repute. Scania’s merchandises are created merely the manner their clients wish including in it Maximum usage and minimal injury to the environment. Scania’s merchandises are designed to devour less energy. less natural stuffs and chemicals in order to hold as lower impact on environment as possible. Along with its repute Scania makes high net incomes runing in more than 100 states worldwide and using 35. 000 people worldwide. ( Scania web. 2012 )
Analysis based on theories.
Harmonizing to the instance survey provided by Robins S and Jude T. A. the hierarchy did non work in most of the companies. but it is effectual in instance of Apple. Was that because Steve Jobs was a alone leader who could pull off the whole company by his consistent advanced thoughts? At the really get downing. Apple had a comparatively level and informal construction. but subsequently on when Jobs was back into company in 1997. it was wholly changed. If before the employees and directors gathered on Friday for a beer to discourse some issues and show their thoughts and even kick. after the market became more concentrated with rivals. Apple was focused on altering its construction to be able to vie. maintain trade name and control costs.
Since than company improved and became a major portion of the digital universe. As a consequence of all these. the company’s programs and scheme was no longer discussed through the full company and Jobs was the lone generator of thoughts turn outing the complete hierarchy.
( Debra L. Nelson. James Campbell Quick. PH. D. 2011 )
Unlike Apple. Scania tens to trust less on hierarchy holding a more level company construction based on independent groups public presentations with the high concern on human factors and environmental issues. For illustration. Scania successfully uses the Sociothechnical systems theory where director controls the environmental factors that influence the company’s internal operations and coordinates the societal and proficient subsystems. ( Ricky W. Griffin. Gregory Moorhead. 2010 ) Harmonizing to the Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s continuum theory of leading behaviour ( 1958. 1973 ) leaders should measure the state of affairs before the execution of a peculiar leading manners. The continuum leading behavior’s theoretical account theory is based on earlier surveies concentrating on the differentiation of undertaking versus employee or human orientations and demonstrates two types of leading manners across the continuum: boss-centered ( undertaking ) and subordinate-centered ( relationship ) . ( Borkowski. 2011 ) .
In the Apple’s state of affairs. the determination shaper or the determination ‘seller’ was Steve Jobs. During the all clip when Jobs was the CEO of Apple. he was frequently called ‘dictator’ or ‘despot’ . Jobs ne’er asked anyone for feedback. However he could ever teach and simplify the capablenesss of the complicated devices apprehensible merely by its Godheads. he thought traveling about and inquiring his employees about the confusing maps of his merchandise is useless. Alternatively. occupations played the device by. took notes of his reactions and considered it as the lone necessary feedback required. ( Leander Kahney. 2009 )
Whereas in Scania the full company relies on client feedback and development of material thoughts so. if Apple has the construction where every individual employee is responsible merely for his portion of occupation and has no opportunity to play any of import function in doing determinations. Scania has the construction there employees split into the groups brainstorm together on a certain thought or job and together pick the optimum solutions. ( Scania web. 2012 ) Based on all this we can presume that Apple is Boss-centered structured company and Scania is a more Subordinate-centered structured company. Figure 1. 1 below demonstrates the locations of both Apple and Scania on a sample Continuum leading behavior’s graph.
Harmonizing to the graph. where Apple is closely fitted in the entire boss-centered country and Scania is fitted closer to the subordinate-centered country. the two companies are wholly different in their construction and leading. but at the same clip both companies are successful and globally recognized and are in their adulthood province today. In another words. Apple has an Autocratic leader. where he dictates and forces his employees or even threatens them to acquire the consequence his manner. unlike Scania that has democratic leader who encourages engagement in determination devising and considers other’s feelings and seeks to fulfill most of parties. ( Hungeryager and Heekman. 1967 )
Here comes the inquiry: Despite the hierarchy and bossy leading in Apple and level structured and democratic system in Scania. how come they both being so different be able to accomplish ends holding high employee public presentation? The best reply for this inquiry would likely be the motive which is present in both companies but caused by different factors. Humanity would non make any degree of development without the motive. Abraham Maslow ( 1908-1970 ) introduced a theory focused on psychological demand of employees divided into 5 degrees organizing a pyramid. and he believed that individual needs all 5 to experience satisfied with his occupation. ( Necessities of Management. 2009 ) .
Hierarchy: ‘Common. pyramid-like organisation where one individual is in charge of a functional country with one or more subsidiaries managing the sub-functions. In an hierarchal organisation ( whether concern. military. political. or spiritual ) higher degrees imply greater high quality and domination than the lower 1s. and the concatenation of bid extends directly from the top to the bottom’ . ( Business Dictionary web. 2012 )
( Image extracted from googleimage. com )
While using the following theory on Apple. it is obvious that the employees in the company are about on the 4th degree depending on their occupation place. But in general. with the repute that Apple has worldwide everyone would be proud to be employed by such a company and motivated by the fiscal facet. In fact. the manner the pyramid narrows towards up. the same manner. the figure of people with those installations narrows down. Even in instance of Scania. though the employees might be satisfied with their occupation and position. they might be besides distracted by household or any other personal issues which could do them experience de-motivated. Adam’s Equity theory provinces that. employees attempt to accomplish some equity between input and end product. and if there is a difference between input and end product. such as end product less than input. the employees public presentation quality tends to be lower due to his/her occupation dissatisfaction. In another words. all parts should be reasonably rewarded. Traveling back to Apple can presume that there is a perfect balance between end product and input.
Having high salary makes the employees experience right about non taking any portion in doing determinations ; in fact they might experience more relaxed for non holding large duties. But in Scania. while taking portion in treatments and determination devising. employees feel more of import. motivated but on the other manus they feel more duty force per unit area because in negative results they all will hold to portion the loses. Looking at it more general. the lone fact that might actuate the employees in both companies is the money. Due to the economic downswing which caused high rate of unemployment. the fact that one has a occupation. already makes him/her experience satisfied. but non for long. Once people get used to their occupation and wage they start acquiring bored and de-motivated. Harmonizing to Guardian 2012. ‘many of those who worked for Apple. feels cut off from the existent universe. suspended in a cultural vacuity inside the walls of the company’ .
The deficiency of communicating with co-ops. socialising and team-working leads to employees’ dissatisfaction. To avoid such mistakes. Scania depending on foreign labour. in order to maintain high productiveness degree. created a humanisation plan which was to use a new group assembly attack. The plan was all about team-work and group determinations called Saab-Scania. The groups consisted of 5-12 people and were given the power to do determinations within the given bounds. Along with production groups Scania formed development groups each composed of chief. industrial applied scientists and representatives. Such groups were responsible for introducing and developing the new working methods favourable for the employees.
As a consequence. such team-working attack saved productivity clip. increased products’ quality and raised occupation satisfaction of the employees. so since this experiment Scania finds its success in team-working construction. ( A. . Rashid. 1982 ) Coming back to apple. one could merely add. that high productiveness and quality with the deficiency of team-working. is being reached merely by holding continues inventions and strong trade name place. merely strong selling. Further analysing the instance of apple we can add that. a immense multinational company where everyone is responsible merely for his spot of work. merely being a bantam replaceable item of a mechanism. and where the chief duty is on CEO. team-working is non that of import every bit long as the company’s ends are being reached.
The Managerial Grid or the grid theory now called as Leadership theory of Blake and Mouton states that there are two types of directors: concern for production and concern for people. and the perfect director would be the who could exhibits both people and production concern. The leading grid is graded from 1 to 9 from both axes placing 5 chief types of leaders: state nine direction. squad direction. centrist direction. destitute direction and authorization direction. ( Miller. 2012 ) The grid expressions as follow:
Trusting on the leading grid. we can presume that Apple with the bossy attack and higher concern on production and lower on people. is classified as a company with the Authority-Compliance Management leading and Scania. meriting to be placed on the other side of the grid is a company with Team-management leading. holding high concern on people instead than on production. The modern squad system of Scania is extremely relied on bunch directors. The bunch director is the director who has overall duty for the squad consisting of 20-25 employees. Each bunch consists of people with different experience and accomplishments and trained before going to the full operative. Often there are besides little impermanent squads. Thought the bunch has a director. the employees have the sense of belonging to a squad and holding major function in it.
A centered team-working construction helps the company to maintain strong Company-oriented company civilization. ‘No one must be able to state that is non my concern. I am non responsible for that’ said the senior director of the company. Although Apple can non tout with its tem-work direction Leadership as Scania. it motivates the employees supplying the chance to acquire promoted from an intern into a director. The preparations provided free by Apple itself makes the procedure much easier for the employees. In add-on. little competitions such as replying the most hard inquiry of the clients are followed by wagess. Another of import fact is that. Apple provides big occupation chance to immature pupils using them. full-time. part-time or doing them pupil representatives at their schools. ( Apple Inc. ’s Ethical Success and Challenges web. 2011 )
While summing it all but. it is right to advert that. while comparing the companies and analysing their organisational behaviours the entire difference of the companies has been identified. Apple is a transnational bossy company holding high concern on production and lower concern on people. despite this it is able to actuate the employees by wagess. fillips and publicity chances showing itself as a originative company disputing for inventions with the strong belief in its successful bright hereafter and seeking for the genus employees from immature coevals. to take portion in those inventions. The instance of Apple has proved that. the employees are non pressurized by dictator. as it is expected in an Authority-Manager company. but inspired to work with such alone leaders.
Scania. along with its rich Swedish civilization wholly relays on the team-working director Leadership with the ability to equilibrate both concern for people and production and giving the employees the opportunity to experience themselves portion of a whole mechanism. The direction in Scania believes that. every employee in the company despite the occupation place should experience the duty and portion it with the collogues and experience that he/she does non work for person. but works together with everyone. Fortunately. for Scania being farther from hierarchy unlike Apple. adds advantages in footings of organisational behaviour. turn outing the democratic construction of the company. whereas Apple proves to be truly a alone company for being able to success with deep hierarchy in it.
Thought Apple is satisfied with its production and the company in whole. it should besides pay attending to its employees by supplying them some other activities to do them experience as a squad. For illustration. Apple could make groups or squads responsible non for the chief operations of the organisation. but side operations or undertaking such as charity. where the employees could take portion in determination devising procedure without the engagement of CEO. Another option for Apple could be forming research squads with squad leaders. as employees feel to a greater extent motivated when they are committed in the alterations.
Because the directors in Scania are really transnational. the company should pay attending to cultural difference of the employees. It would be really relevant to educate the bunch directors in footings of civilization of the other members of the squad and than sent them to the Angers works. Obviously the enlargement of company by making more squads in Scania is advantageous on one manus. but on the other manus it makes the company’s construction excessively sophisticated and excessively monolithic and moreover. adding a new bunch may cut down the infinite of other bunchs. That is why Bunchs should be added within the restrictions. or smaller groups should be created as smaller groups make better public presentation and do faster determinations.
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