Organic Chemistry Keywords Essay

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Homologous Series
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A series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2
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Functional Group
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A group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound
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Alkyl Group
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CnH2n+1
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Aliphatic
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A compound containing carbon and hydrogen joined together in straight chains, branched chains or non-aromatic rings
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Alicyclic
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An aliphatic compound arranged in non-aromatic rings with or without side chains
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Aromatic
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A compound containing a benzene ring
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Saturated
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Single carbon-carbon bonds only
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Unsaturated
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The presence of multiple carbon-carbon bonds including c=c c(triple)c and aromatic rings
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Structural Isomers
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Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae
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Homolytic Fission
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Covalent bonds breaking- each bonding atom receiving 1 electron from the bonded pair, forming 2 radicals
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Heterolytic Fission
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Covalent bonds breaking- one bonding atom receiving both electrons from the bonded pair
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Radical
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A species with an unpaired electron
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Curly Arrows
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The movement of an electron pair, showing either heterolytic fission or formation of covalent bond
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Alkane
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Saturated hydrocarbons containing single C-C and C-H bonds as sigma bonds – free rotation of the sigma bond
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Alkene
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Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing a c=c bond comprising a pie bond and a sigma bond – restricted rotation of the pie bond
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Sigma Bond
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Overlap of orbitals directly between the bonding atoms
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Pie Bond
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Sideways overlap of adjacent p-orbitals above and below the bonding c atoms
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Stereoisomer
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Compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement in space
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Electrophile
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Electron pair acceptor- usually positive ion/molecule containing atom with delta pos charge
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Nucleophile
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Attracted to electron rich area like pie bonds because they have slightly positive charge e.g H-Br
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Carbocation
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Has a positive charge on a carbon atom

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