Organic Chemistry Biology Quiz Essay

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monosaccarides
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any of the class of sugars (e.g., glucose) that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar. (carbohydrate)
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saturated fats
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fat molecules that have no double bonds between carbon molecules
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polymer
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long chains of monomers
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sterols
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any of a group of naturally occurring unsaturated steroid alcohols, typically waxy solids.
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dehydration synthesis
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to put together while losing water
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enzymes
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proteins that make reactions faster
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protein
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organic compound composed of one or more chains of amino acids
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cellulose
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insoluble substance, a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers
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waxes
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complex, vary mixtures of lipids /fatty acids bonded to long chain alcohols or carbon rings
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polysaccarides
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a carbohydrate (e.g., starch, cellulose, or glycogen) whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together, bonding patterns will result in different behaviors
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glycerol
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simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid
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fatty acid
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carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group
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phospholipids
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a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule, e.g., lecithin.
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nucleic acids
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chains of nucleotides, esp. in DNA or RNA, one of 4 biomolecules,
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organic
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of, relating to, or derived from living matter
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carbohydrate
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organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
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nucleotide
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SMALL ORGANIC MOLECULES CONSISTING OF A 5 CARBON SUGAR, A PHOSPHATE GROUP AND A NITROGENOUS BASE
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functional groups
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A CLUSTER OF ATOMS, COVALENTLY BONDED TO A CARBON ATOM, THAT IMPART SPECIFIC CHEMICAL PROPERTIES TO A MOLECULE.
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glycogen
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substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide that forms glucose on hydrolysis.
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unsaturated fats
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tends not to raise the level of LDL (‘bad’) cholesterol in the blood.
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monomer
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subunits of larger molecules
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triglycerides
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THE MOST ABUNDANT AND RICH ENERGY SOURCE IN VERTEBRATE BODIES. THEY ARE CONCENTRATED IN ADIPOSE (FAT) TISSUE.
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hydrolosis
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the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water
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hydrophobic
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tending to repel or fail to mix with water
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4 organic compounds
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carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
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carbohydrates
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monomer: monosaccarides
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lipids
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monomer: glycerol and fatty acids
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nucleic acids
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monomer: nucleotides
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proteins
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monomer: amino acids
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carbohydrate function
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short term energy source
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lipid function
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long term energy storage, components of the membrane
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nucleic acid function
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information molecule, hereditary molecule
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protein function
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structural in hair and skin, digestive enzymes
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saturated difference
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moleculeswith single covalent bonds, solid at room temperature
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unsaturated difference
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liquid at room temperature, 1 or more double covalent bond, found in kinks which prevents fat from packing tight
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Primary protein structure
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1st structure: POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN SEQUENCE
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Secondary protein structure
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2nd structure: A COILED LIKE, OR SHEET LIKE, ARRAY HELD TOGETHER BY HYDROGEN BONDS BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE CHAIN
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Tertiary protein structure
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3rd structure: THE COILS AND SHEETS TWIST AND FOLD INTO DOMAINS LIKE BARRELS (which create tunnels) OR POCKETS (which provide binding sites)
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Quarternary protein structure
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4th structure: WHEN TWO OR MORE POLYPEPTIDE CHAINS BOND TOGETHER TO FORM A GLOBULAR PROTEIN (hemoglobin for example)
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functional groups
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hydroxyl, methyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino
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hydroxyl
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OH, present in alcohols and many other organic compounds.
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carboxyl
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COOH, present in most organic acids.
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polymer
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formed by a large number of molecules called monomers are joined sequentially, forming a chain, broken down by hydrolysis, which means “to split water,”
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amino acid structure
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NH2 group connected to carbon atom
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nucleotide structure
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built by the sugar, the base, and the phosphate in DNA
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lipid
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FATTY, OILY, WAXY ORGANIC COMPOUNDS THAT ARE INSOLUBLE IN WATER.

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