Oral COM Ch.16 and 18

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Outlining Speeches
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A good outline helps organize ideas and make sure you have enough evidence to support your claims. Also provides you with a safety net in case you forget what you intend to say.
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Working Outline
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Give speakers a basic map of the speech. Just for the speaker; it is her/his sketch of the speech. Speaker usually jots down many ideas to see how the ideas fit together. When finished, can tell where more evidence is needed, where ideas don’t seem well connected and so forth. Often include abbreviations and shorthand that only makes sense to speaker.
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Formal outline
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includes all main points and sub points, supporting materials, and transitions, along with a bibliography of sources. Has main headings for the introduction, body, and conclusion. Under each point (main) are sub points, references to supporting materials and abbreviated transitions. Also quotes, statistics and other evidence. Also do work cited.
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Key word outline
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Includes only key words for each point. Purpose is to trigger the speaker’s memory of each point. may include abbreviations and shorthand that makes sense only to speaker.
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Organizing the body of the speech
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Develops and supports the central idea/thesis statement, by organizing it into several points that are distinct yet related. 8 organizational patterns.
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Time pattern
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organize ideas on the basis of temporal relationships. Listeners find it easy to follow a time pattern because we often think in terms of temporal order. What follows what, what comes first and what comes next. Emphasizes progression, development or change. Useful for describing processes that take place overtime.
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Spatial pattern
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organize ideas according to physical relationships. Appropriate for speeches that describe or explain layouts, geographic relationships, or connections between objects or parts of a system. Used to structure both informative and persuasive speeches.
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Topical pattern
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order a presentation into several categories/classes/areas of discussion. Appropriate when topic breaks down into two/three areas that aren’t related temporarily/spatially/casually or otherwise. Be effective for persuasive speeches.
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Star pattern
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Includes several main points that work together to support a speech’s overall theme. A variation on the topical structure but it’s more organic in tying each point to an overriding theme. Also more flexible. 2 or 3 points that a speaker covers in the same order and to the same extent each time the speech is given.
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Wave pattern
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consists of repetition. Each main idea builds up from evidence and then crests in a main point. More evidence follows, leading to the crest of another wave. Each crest repeats the main theme, using the same words or variations on them.
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Comparative pattern
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Compare 2 or more objects/people/situations/events/other phenomena. Also called comparison/contrast and analogical organization. Encourages listeners to be aware of similarities/differences between 2 or more things. Effective in helping listeners understand a new idea/process/event. Appropriate for informative and persuasive speeches.
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Problem-solution pattern
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Divides a topic into major areas: a problem and a solution. Speaker describes a problem and its severity and then proposes a solution. Sequence sometimes flipped. Uses for informative and persuasive speeches.
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Cause-effect and effect-cause pattern
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Used to argue a direct relationship between 2 things, a cause and an effect. Speakers want to inform people that a situation, policy or practice results from certain previous choices/events. Others argue that a specific action (cause) will lead to a desired/undesired effect.
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Designing the introduction
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1st thing listeners hear. Accomplishes 4 goals: 1) Gets listeners’ motivation and attention 2) Presents a clear thesis statement 3) Enhances the speaker’s credibility 4) Previews how the speech will be developed.
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Getting listener’s attention and motivating them to listen
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First objective of an intro. Get accomplished because listeners are motivated to listen when something catches their attention. Ways to get people’s attention: Dramatic piece of evidence (quote, visual aid, statistic), a question, refer to current events, direct experience and humor.
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Presenting a clear thesis statement
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2nd function of an intro. Thesis statement/main message of your speech. Short clear sentence that directly states the overall theme of your presentation. Not a full description of the content of the speech. Should only announce the key ideas of speech so that listeners have a clear understanding of your focus.
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Building Credibility
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3rd function of an intro. Listeners regard a speaker as credible if he/she seems qualified to speak on a topic, shows good will toward them, and demonstrates dynamism or involvement with the topic.
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Previewing the body
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Final purpose of an intro. Tell listeners about coming attractions. Want to preview your major points so that listeners understand how you will develop ideas and can follow you. Preview announces the main points of your speech. Preview enumerates or lists the main points.
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Crafting the conclusion
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Speaker’s last chance to drive home the main points of a presentation. An effective conclusion summarizes content and provides a memorable final thought. In repeating key ideas and leaving the audience with a compelling final thought, a speaker provides psychological closure on the speech. Conclusions are short, taking less than 5% of total speaking time. Effective to restate your thesis and each major point. Can do this in a sentence or two. Offer listeners a final thought.
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Building in Transitions
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Final organizational issue. Words and sentences that connect ideas and main points in a speech so that listeners can follow a speaker. Signals you are through talking about one idea and are ready to connect it to the next one. Sign posts for listeners. Tell listeners where you have been, where you are and where you are heading. To move from 1 point to another, you can use statements that summarize what you’ve said in 1 part and point the way to another. Can also be nonverbal.
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Causes of communication apprehension
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2 types- Situational and chronic. Apprehension is likely to be present when talking to unfamiliar people/situations, being in the spotlight, being evaluated and past failure/failures in a particular speaking situation. Difficult to manage when it’s chronic.
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Reducing communication apprehension- Systematic desensitization
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method of treating many fears. Focuses on reducing the tension that surrounds the feared event. Teaches people how to relax and thereby reduce the physiological features of anxiety. Goal is to learn to associate feeling relaxed with images of oneself in communication situations.
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Reducing communication apprehension- Cognitive restructuring
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method of helping people change how they think about speaking situations. Speaking is not the problem. Rather, the problem is how we use irrational beliefs to interpret speaking situations. Teaching apprehensive people to identify and challenge negative self statements.
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Reducing communication apprehension- Positive visualization
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Aims to reduce anxiety by guiding apprehensive speakers through imagined positive speaking experiences.
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Reducing communication apprehension- Skills training
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Assumes that lack of speaking skills causes us to be apprehensive about speaking. Focuses on teaching people skills such as how to start conversations, organize ideas, build strong introductions and support claims.
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Oral style
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refers to speakers’ visual, vocal and verbal communication with listeners. Visual delivery concerns a speaker’s appearance, facial expressions, eye contact, posture, gestures, movement during a presentation and visual aids. Vocal delivery includes volume, pitch, pronunciation, articulation, inflection, pauses and speaking rate. Verbal delivery consists of word choices and sentence structure. It’s more personal.
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Styles of delivery- impromptu style
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Involves little preparation. Speakers speak off the cuff, organizing ideas as they talk and working with evidence that’s already familiar to them. Used when you make a comment in class and answer a question not anticipated. No time to prepare/rehearse. Highly informal, personal and immediate.
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Styles of delivery- extemporaneous style
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relies on preparation and practice, but actual words and nonverbal behaviors aren’t memorized. Requires research, organize ideas, select supporting evidence, prepare visual aids, outline the speech and practice delivery. Requires a fine balance between too little and too much practice. Practice but not to much. May result in being canned.
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Styles of delivery- manuscript style
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involves speaking from the complete manuscript of a speech. After planning, researching, organizing and outlining a presentation, a speaker writes the complete word for word text and practices the presentation using that text provides security to speakers. Limits the speaker to adapt on the spot to listeners.
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Styles of delivery- memorized style
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carries the manuscript one step further. A speaker commits the entire speech to memory and speaks from a manuscript that is in his/her head. An exact text exists, so everything is prepared in advance. Presentation may reflect written rather than oral style. Speaker has no safety net in case of memory lapses. Can limit effective delivery. Difficult to sound spontaneous when speech is memorized.
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Like all other communication, persuasive speaking
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aim to change others by prompting them to think, feel, believe or act differently.
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Persuasive is not coercion or force
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In artistic proof requires no art/skill on our part. Don’t have to respect others. Artistic uses reasons and words to motivate, not force. Persuasive relies on artistic, not inartistic proofs.
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Persuasive impact
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Usually gradual and incremental. Usually more gradually toward new ideas, attitudes and actions.
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The 3 Pillars of Persuasion- Ethos
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perceived personal character of the speaker. Tend to attribute high ethos to people if we perceive that they have integrity, they can be trusted, they have goodwill toward us, they know what they are talking about and they are committed to the topic.
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The 3 Pillars of Persuasion- Pathos
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refers to emotional reasons for attitudes, beliefs or actions. We are not just affected by logic but also our feelings: passions, fears, love, desire, personal values, shame and compassion. Appeals to emotions are powerful and dangerous.
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The 3 Pillars of Persuasion- Logos
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rational/logical proof. Logical proofs are arguments, reasoning and evidence to support claims.
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Forms of reasoning- inductive reasoning
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begins with specific examples and uses them to draw a general conclusion
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Forms of reasoning- deductive reasoning
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begins with a general claim that is widely accepted and familiar to listeners
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Toulmin model of reasoning
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includes qualifiers and rebuttals
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Toulmin model of reasoning- claim
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an assertion. On it’s own, it’s not convincing.
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Toulmin model of reasoning- grounds
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evidence/data that support the claim
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Toulmin model of reasoning- warrant
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an explanation of the relevance of the grounds to the claim
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Listener’s expectations
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In educational settings, listeners expect speakers to discuses more than one side on an issue. At campaign rallies, candidates often present only there own side. Expectations may also be shaped by pre speech publicity.
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Listener’s attitudes
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If they already favor your position, you may not need to discuss alternative positions in depth. If listeners favor a position different from yours, then it’s essential to acknowledge and deal with their views. Failure to consider listeners’ opposing ideas diminishes a speaker’s credibility.
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Listener’s knowledge
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What an audience already knows/ believes about a topic should influence decisions on whether to present one or more sides of an issue. Listeners may be persuaded by arguments that oppose yours if you haven’t inoculated them against those arguments.
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Inoculation
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persuasive inoculation \”immunizes\” listeners in audience against opposing ideas and argument that they may encounter in the future.
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Create common ground with listeners
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persuasive speaker tries to move listeners to a point of viewer action. Listeners will be more likely to move with the speaker if they perceive some common ground with him or her.
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Create common ground with listeners- identification
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reorganizing and enlarging commonalities between communicators.
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Adapt to listeners
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Adapted to specific listeners knowledge, attitudes, motives, experiences, values and expectations. Your job is to apply what you learn about your listeners as you develop and present your speech.
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Avoid fallacious reasoning
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An error in reasoning. Present false/flawed logic. Fallacies may be intentional/unintentional. They are not effective with educated or thoughtful audiences. Suggest that the speaker isn’t ethical.
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Fallacy
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an error in reasoning
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Ad Hominem arguments
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ones that go to their person instead of the idea. It isn’t ethical to argue for your point of view by attacking the integrity of someone who has taking a and opposing yours.
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Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
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\”after this, therefore because of this.\” Sometimes when one thing follows another, we mistakenly think the 1st thing caused the 2nd
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Qualifier
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word/phrase that limits the scope of your claim
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Rebuttal
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a response to listened reservations about a claim made by a speaker
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Understanding credibility
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Tied to how others perceive a speaker. A speaker’s credibility doesn’t reside in the speaker. It’s conferred by listeners or withheld if they find a speaker untrustworthy, unformed or lacking in goodwill.
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Credibility
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A speaker earns by convincing listeners that he/she has a personal integrity, is positively disposed toward them and can be trusted. Arises from 3 pillars of persuasion, ethos, pathos and logos.
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Types of credibility
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credibility isn’t static; it can change in the course of communication. Credibility can increase or decrease as a result of a speech.
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Initial Credibility
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expertise and trustworthiness recognized by listeners before a presentation begins. Based on titles, positions, experiences, or achievements that are known to listeners before they hear a speech.
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Derived Credibility
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the expertise and trustworthiness that listeners confer on speaker as a result of how speakers communicate during presentations. By organizing ideas clearly and logically.
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Terminal Credibility
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the credibility of speaker at the end of a presentation. May be greater or less than initial credibility, depending on how effectively a speaker has communicated.
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Enhancing Credibility- 1
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State your qualifications for speaking this topic: experiences you have had, titles or jobs you hold, research you have done.
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Enhancing Credibility- 2
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Show listeners that you care about them- that your speech is relevant to their welfare
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Enhancing Credibility- 3
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Appeal to listeners’ emotions, but be careful of overwhelming or alienating listeners with excessively dramatic appeals.
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Enhancing Credibility- 4
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Reason carefully, and avoid reasoning fallacies
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Enhancing Credibility- 5
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Use effective, ethical supporting materials
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Enhancing Credibility- 6
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Communicate both verbally and nonverbally that you care about the topic and are involved with it.
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Enhancing Credibility- 7
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Respond to questions fairly and with an open mind
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Organizing Speeches for Persuasive Impact- 1
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Your introduction should capture listeners’ attention, provide a clear thesis statement, establish your credibility and preview your speech.
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Organizing Speeches for Persuasive Impact- 2
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Your conclusion should summarize main points and end with a strong closing statement
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Organizing Speeches for Persuasive Impact- 3
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You should provide internal summaries of main points
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Organizing Speeches for Persuasive Impact- 4
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You should provide smooth transitions between points and the parts of your speech
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Organizing Speeches for Persuasive Impact- 5
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The body of your speech should be organized to reinforce your thesis and show listeners how your ideas cohere.
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5A- Motivated Sequence Pattern
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Developed by public speaking scholar Alan Monroe in the 1930s. Developed for organizing speeches. Follows a natural pattern of human thought by gaining listeners’ motivation and personal involvement w/ a problem and its solution. 5 steps: Listeners’ attention is drawn to the subject, establishes need by showing that a real and serious problem exists, a speaker recommends a solution, visualization and speakers move to the action step.
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5B- One-Sided and Two-Sided Presentations
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Either presenting only your own point of view or both sides of an issue. Not used for informative speeches. Depends on whether it’s effective. Cause of the particular audience a speaker addresses. Good audience analysis is critical to effective public speaking.
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The Bandwagon Appeal
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argues that because most people believe or act a particular way, you should too. More effective to give them good reasons why they should agree with you instead of persuading them to your point of view because other people have been.
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Slippery slope
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claims that once we take the 1st step, more and more steps inevitably will follow until some unacceptable consequence results.
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Hasty Generalization
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a broad claim based on too limited audience. Unethical to assert a broad claim when you have only anecdotal/isolated evidence/instances.
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Red Herring Argument
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speakers who try to deflect listeners from relevant issues. Say something that is irrevelant to their topic or doesn’t really respond to a listener’s question.
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Either-Or-Logic
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Implies there are only two options. Either and or. Simplistic and fallacious. Ex: Either abolish fraternities on our campus or accept that this is a party school where drinking is more important than studying.
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Reliance on the Halo Effect
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occurs when we generalize a person’s authority or expertise in a particular area to other areas that are irrevelant to the person’s experience and knowledge. It is wrong to think that because a person is knowledgeable on particular topics, he/she is knowledgeable on all topics.

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