Oceanography Questions And Answers

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Fram
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The ship that carried Nansen to the North Pole and laid the basis for the future of Arctic work.
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Fridtjof Nansen
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Tested the direction of ice drift in Arctic by freezing a vessel in the polar ice pack and drifting with it to reach the North Pole
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The Challenger Expedition
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Towed nets through the water and discovered new organisms, measured water temperature and salinity. Measured depth with anchor and cable – measured the Mariana Tench.
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John Ross
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Looking for the Northwest Passage. Took bottom samples at over 1800m with a bottom grab. Found worms and other animals living in the mud.
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Edward Forbes
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Began systematic surveys of marine wildlife. Collected organisms in deep water and proposed a system of ocean depth zones, each characterized by by specific animal populations.
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Charles Darwin
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Joined the survey ship “beagle” and described, collected and classified organisms.
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Eratosthenes
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From Egypt. Mapped his own known world and calculated the circumference of earth to be 40,250km.
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Pytheas
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One of the earliest voyages from the Mediterranean to England. Navigated by the sun, stars and wind. He recognized relationship with the moon and tides.
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Herodotus
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Mapped earth during era of ancient greeks. Could only map what they knew.
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Matthew Maury
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Worked with hydrographic office. Founded the Naval Depot of Charts: Systematic cllection of wind and current data from ships’ logs.
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Timothy Folger
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Cousin to Benjamin Franklin. Helped construct the Franklin-Folger chart.
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Benjamin Franklin
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Made Franklin-Forger chart of the Gulf stream current. Chart encouraged captains to sail with in the Guild Stream to Europe. Return via trade winds belt.
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James Cook
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Explored and charted the coasts of New Zealand and Eastern Australia.
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Isaac Newton
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Studied unifying law and gravity.
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Galileo Galilei
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Studied mass and acceleration
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Johannes Kepler
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Worked on studying the planetary motion.
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Ptolemy
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Produced first atlas and established world boundaries. Listed 8000 places by latitude and longitude.
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Ferdinand Magellan
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His voyage was the first circumnavigation of Earth.
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Nunez de Balboa
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Crossed Isthmus of panama and found the pacific ocean.
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Amerigo Vespucci
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Made several voyages to the new world, explored nearly 10, 000 km of South American coastline. Accepted South America as a new continent not part of Asia.
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Christopher Columbus
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Made 4 voyages across the Atlantic ocean in effort to find a new route to the East Indies. Relied on inaccurate estimates of the earth’s size – ended up in the New World.
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Deep Earth Quakes
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Often in the Pacific Ocean, close to the coast line where there are trenches. Destroys the oceanic lithosphere.
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Precambrian Era
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4.6 Billion Years ago, first era. Quartzite forms.
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What impacts density
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Temperature
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Arab Traders
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First descriptions of the reversal of the currents due to monsoon. Using the knowledge of winds and currents – established regular trade routes across Indian Ocean.
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Vikings
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Norse for piracy. Highly accomplished seamen who engaged in extensive exploration trade and colonization.
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Density
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Mass/Volume
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Transform Plate Boundary
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Plate tectonics slipping past each other.
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Convergent Plate Boundary
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Two plate tectonics moving toward each other.
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Divergent Plate Boundary
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Plate tectonics moving apart which creates mid oceanic ridges.
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Glass Blowing Concept
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When pressure is put on cool things they will break. When pressure is put on hot things they will bend.
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Cork Concept
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High density corks will sink. Low density things will float.
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Igneous Rock
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Crystallized from a liquid rock.
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Oceanic Lithosphere
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Beneath the ocean, made of basalt, high density and thin 0-70 km.
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Continental Lithosphere
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Under the continents, made of granite, low density and thick.
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Basalt
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An igneous rock, fine grained (cooled fast on the surface due to volcanism) and dark (high in iron and magnesium, low in silicon)
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Granite
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An igneous rock, coarse grained; cooled slowly inside the earth (intrusive), light pink (low in iron/magnesium, high in silicon).
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Isotasy
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Lithosphere is floating on the asthenosphere.
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Buoyancy
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How an object displaces it’s weight. Floats.
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Volcanic Hotspot
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Melting down in the athenosphere. Creates Volcanoes as the lithosphere moves.
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Conveyor Belt Concept
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age of rocks get older as the de-active volcanoes get farther away from the hotspot.
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Temperature
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The energy of motion, or average molecular velocity
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How the oceanic trench created
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created at the mid-oceanic ridge due to volcanism
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How the oceanic lithosphere destroyed
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Trenches
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Super Ball Concept
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Slow molecular velocity = cold temperature. Fast molecular velocity = hot temperature.
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Glomar Challenger
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A digging rig; dug up cores from the ocean. Cores track changes in the ocean/ocean floor.
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Sources of error in SONAR
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The higher the wave density, faster the speed of sound. Faster as it goes up, slower as it goes down. Things can obstruct SONAR from reaching the ocean floor.
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How to track global warming
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The changes in chemistry of the core layers show the past temperatures.
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Intertidal Area
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Area only covered by salt water, but only 1/2 of the time.
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James Hutton
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Discovered angular conformity at Siccar Point, in Scotland.
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Principle of superposition
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Oldest sediment will be on bottom, youngest will be on top.
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Principle of Cross-cutting
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The sediment cutting through the host sediment will be younger.
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Half-life
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Amount of time it takes for 1/2 of radioactive to breakdown into something else.
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Cenozoic Era
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Age of Mammals, 65 million years until present.
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Mesozoic Era
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Age of Dinosaurs, 245 million years ago.
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Paleozoic Era
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First Shells, 570 million years ago
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SONAR
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Sound Navigation Ranging. A sound is omitted into the ocean, hits bottom and returns to surface. Covert time into speed of sound. D=vel*time
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Voyage of the Meteor
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A german ship, unofficial rebirth of German Nationalism. first used Sonar.
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Displaced mid-oceanic ridges
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Due to the sphere of the earth.
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Fraction Zone
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Basalt dust between Transform plate boundaries
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San Andres Fault
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Continent-continent transform plate boundary. Powerful earthquakes
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Shallow earthquake
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0-100km
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Intermediate earthquake
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100-400km
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Deep earthquake
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400+ km
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Magnitude
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Energy that comes from the snapping plate. Based on a logarithmic scale. From 1 level to the next the intensity increases 30x.
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Subduction
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When one plate goes underneath another plate.
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Characteristics of Ocean-Ocean Divergent Plate Boundaries
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Volcanism present at mid oceanic ridges. Weak earthquakes present because the plates are warm.
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Characteristics of Ocean-Ocean Transform plate boundaries
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No volcanism because the plates slide. Weak earthquakes because of the warm lithosphere.
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Characteristics of Continent-Continent plate boundaries
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No Volcanism. Powerful earthquakes because the lithosphere is cold.
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Characteristics of Convergent Plate Boundaires
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Volcanism present because as the oceanic lithosphere submerges lower and eventually melts-then floats and causes explosive. ie. Andres All three types of earthquakes are found.
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Syrup Concept
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High silicon= high stickiness Low silicon = low stickiness Low stickiness means gases can flow easier, which does not create as much gas pressure and this decreases density = wants to float.
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Explosive Volcanos
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Has low silicon (low stickiness) and flows easier. It has low gas pressure (Decrease density) and it floats. As it floats it starts to partially melt in the continental lithosphere. There the silicon increases which makes it harder to move, thus increases pressure.
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Melted Oceanic Lithosphere
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Lithosphere with low stickiness
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Melted Continental Lithosphere
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Lithosphere with high stickiness

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