Occupational Therapy

OT Code of Ethics (7 Principles)
1. Beneficence 2. Nonmaleficence 3. Autonomy/Confidentiality 4. Social Justice 5. Procedural Justice 6. Vernacity 7. Fidelity
OT Code of Ethics (keywords)
OT Theory
occupation such as work, exercise, play were thought to have healing properties
Phillipe Pinel
Mid-Late 1700’s
Prescribed work and exercise for clients
Introduced work treatment for “insane”
Found it helped people recover
Benjamin Franklin
Worked with prisoners
Used light manual labor as prison sentence
Positive results were seen
Dr. Benjamin Rush
Worked helped aid recovery in physical ailments
Saw mind/body connection
Samuel Tuke
English Quaker Physician
Known for “moral treatment’
Not chained or punished
Encouraged to work or exercise
Civil War Effects
1860’s – Moral Treatment Declines
Focus moved to injured soldiers instead of using work as a treatment
Healthcare was not public interest for 25 yrs.
Adolph Meyer
Late 19th Century
Used activity treatment for patients
OT built on his philosophy
Promoted health by activities
“Rhythms of Life” – balance between work, rest, and play
Relationships & support systems important in recovery
Susan Tracy
1900’s -Nurse
Patients who participated in activities recovered faster
(Crafts/interpersonal relationships)
Herbert Hall
1900’s – Physician
Prescribed activity instead of medicine
Arts, crafts, hobbies and exercise had normalizing effect
*Diversion & remedial
activity prescribed to those in advanced stages of disease
activity for therapeutic reasons
Dr. William Rush Dunton
Occupation was most important medicine
Began “occupational therapy” term
Wrote OT newsletter (today is AJOT)
Eleanor Clark Slagle
Social Worker who became OT
Director of first OT school
OT education centered around psychiatric patients
George Edward Barton
Benefited from OT while suffering from TB
Built CONSOLATION HOUSE in NY to give patients a place to recover from illness and regain strength
Formed in 1917 by Barton, Dunton, Slagle, and Tracy
Today is AOTA
WWI Impact
Slagle wanted military leaders to provide OT to wounded
Small group sent to Europe called “Reconstruction Aides”
Reconstruction Aides
Small group of OT sent to assist soldiers
25 years old
US citizen
HS Graduate
Professional Training
WWII Impact
Therapists employed to rehab soldiers
1945 – 3,000 OTs
1947 – First OT book written
1950 – COTA initiated
1961- 500 COTAs
Types of Observations
Methods of Communication (Observation)
Parts of Interview
1. Initial contact – put client at ease
2. Information Gathering
3. Closure – Summarize, thank
Purpose of Interview
Collect information
Establish understanding of OT
Provide opportunity to discuss patient’s situation
Uses of Documentation
Accurate information
Reimbursement for actual treatment
Keeps tabs on progress/regression
Legal Document (workmans comp)
Communication between client, family, and doctors
R- Relevant
U- Understandable
M- Measurable
B- Behavior
A- Achievable
Dr. Lawrence Weed
Problem Oriented Medical Record
List problems
Best way to serve client
*SOAP* is a type
Common POMR
S = Subjective (Information stated)
O= Objective (Measurable Data)
A = Assessment (Judgement)
P = Plan (To Resolve Problems)
G = Goals
OT Process (3 Components)
1. Evaluation
2. Intervention
3. Outcomes
OT Process (Evaluation)
Referral – Order for OT
Screening – Observing patient needs
Occupational Profile – Demographics
Occupational Performance – Analyzing/Observing how patient is functioning
OT Process (Intervention)
Intervention Planning – use evaluation info to create treatment plan
Implementation – use plan to reach goals
Review of Intervention – adjust, changes, meeting goals?
OT Process (Outcomes)
Have your goals been met?
More OT?
Less OT?
Adapting task objectives
Changing methods (extensions/tools)
Modify environment
Train family or caregiver
Outcome Importance
To view progress or regression
To continue more/less OT or dismissal
Decision maker
OT Process (Steps)
1. Referral
2. Screening
3. Treatment Plan
4. Implementation
5. Review/Reflect/Change
6. Outcomes/Goals
Practice Setting
where OT treatment or services take place
Extended Care
Physician Office
Prison System
Group Home
Home health
Service Delivery
type of OT services being provided to facilitate change in patient performance
Spheres of Practice
Looking at OT in Bio, Psych, and Social Model
Continuum of Care
Various levels of care are utilized
How OT services can be used to help patient with healing process
Aunt Flossie (hospital – nursing home – rehab – home care – outpatient OT)
Holistic Approach
treatment should consider body, mind, and spirit while working towards goals
Bio-Psycho-Social Approach
Bio – disease/disorder, trauma, pain
Psycho – emotional, addiction
Social – ID, developmental delay, limitations, ASD
set of ideas that explain things
research based
Model of Practice
to organize our thoughts
Frame of Reference
Guide OT’s interventions
Research supported
Evidence based practice
Model of Human Occupation (best MOP)
“systems model” environment where engaged in OT activity
Complex interaction
Volition, habit, performance
MOHO – Habits/Roles/Process
Input – take info
Throughput – processing
Output – did they do it
Feedback – changes/adaptations

Input = volition/habit/performance = Output

OT Process (3 Components)
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