OB Vocabulary Flashcard

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Elective abortion
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is the interruption of a pregnancy before the 20th week of gestation at the woman’s request for reasons other than maternal health or fetal disease.
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Follicular phase
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Is the period during which an ovum matures. It begins w/ 1st day of menstrual cycle and ends about 14 days later in a 28 day cycle. Estrogen and Progesterone FALL and FSH & LH RISE.
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Ovulatory phase
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Near the middle of a 28 day reproductive cycle and about 2 days before ovulation. LH & FSH Rise and these surges cause a slight fall in follicular estrogen production and a rise in progesterone secretion, which stimulates final maturation of a single follicle and release of its ovum.
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Informed Consent
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permission granted in the knowledge of the possible consequences, typically that which is given by a patient to a doctor for treatment with full knowledge of the possible risks and benefits.
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Puberty
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the period during which adolescents reach sexual maturity and become capable of reproduction.
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Gonadotropin -releasing hormone
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secreted by the hypothalamus to initiate puberty by releasing FSH & LH
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Follicle- stimulating hormone
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it is produced by anterior pituitary and targets Ovaries in female and Testes in male. *Females – stimulates final maturation of follicle. stimulates growth and maturation of graafian follicles before ovulation. *Males – stimulates Leydig cells of testes to secrete testosterone.
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Luteal phase
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*After ovulation and under the influence of LH, the remaining cells of the old follicle persist for about 12 days as a corpus luteum. *This corpus luteum will secrete LARGE amounts of estrogen and progesterone to prepare for a fertilized ovum. *The LH and FSH decrease because of the large amount of estrogen and progesterone *If the ovum is fertilized, it secretes a hormone that causes persistence of the corpus luteum to maintain an early pregnancy. *If the ovum if not fertilized, FSH and LH fall to low levels, and the corpus luteum regresses. *Decline in estrogen and progesterone levels along with corpus luteum regression results in menstruation
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Proliferative phase
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the phase of the menstrual cycle after menstruation. Under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary, the ovary produces increasing amounts of estrogen, causing the lining of the uterus to become dense and richly vascular. The phase is terminated by rupture of a mature follicle and subsequent ovulation.
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Secretory phase
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the phase of the menstrual cycle after the release of an ovum from a mature ovarian follicle. The corpus luteum, stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH), develops from the ruptured follicle. It secretes progesterone, which stimulates the development of the glands and arteries of the endometrium, causing it to become thick and spongy. In a negative-feedback response to the increased level of progesterone in the blood, the secretion of LH from the pituitary decreases. In the absence of an embryo and its secretion of chorionic gonadotropin, the secretory phase ends. The corpus luteum involutes, progesterone levels fall, and menstruation occurs.
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Menstrual phase
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the fourth phase of the human menstrual cycle, following the luteal phase and occurring only if fertilization has not taken place. The corpus luteum regresses and is shed through menstruation, and growth begins for the ovarian follicle, leading to the follicular phase of the next menstrual cycle. It usually last 5 days
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Trisomy
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the presence of an additional (third) chromosome of one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
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Teratogens
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it is an environmental agent that can cause defects in a developing baby during pregnancy.
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Oogenesis
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formation of gametes (ova) in the female.
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Placenta
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fetal structure that provides nourishment and removes wastes from the developing baby and secretes hormones necessary for the continuation of pregnancy.
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Umbilical cord
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The flexible cordlike structure connecting a fetus at the navel with the placenta and containing two umbilical arteries and one vein that transport nourishment to the fetus and remove its wastes
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Monozygotic twinning
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two offspring born of the same pregnancy and developed from a single fertilized ovum that splits into equal halves during an early cleavage phase in embryonic development, giving rise to separate fetuses. This will always be the same sex. *Identical Twins
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Dizygotic twinning
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two offspring born of the same pregnancy and developed from two ova that were released from the ovary simultaneously and fertilized at the same time. They may be same or opposite sex. *Fraternal Twins
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EDD/ EDC
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Estimated Date of Delivery
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Amenorrhea
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absence of menstruation. Primary is a delay of the 1st menstruation and Secondary is cessation of menstruation after its initiation.
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Chadwick’s Sign
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bluish purple discoloration of the cervix, vagina, and labia during pregnancy as a result of increased vascular congestion.
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Quickening
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The initial signs of fetal life felt by the mother as a result of fetal movement
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Ballottement
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a movement by a sudden tap on the cervix during vaginal examination may cause the fetus to rise in the amniotic fluid and then rebound to original position.
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Heger’s Sign
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softening of the lower uterine segment that allows it to be easily compressed at 6 to 8 wks of pregnancy.
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Goodell’s sign
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softening of the cervix during pregnancy.
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Menses
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the monthly flow of blood from the female genital tract
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Gravida
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a pregnant woman; also refers to a woman’s total number of pregnancies, including the one in progress.
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Para
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a woman who has given birth after a pregnancy of a least 20 wks. of gestation; also designates the number of a woman’s pregnancies that have ended after a least 20 wks. of gestation
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Nagele’s rule
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A rule used as a means of estimating date of delivery by counting back three months from the first day of the last menstrual period and adding seven days
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Fundal height
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The distance (in centimeters) from the portion of the uterus above the insertion of the fallopian tubes to the symphysis pubis. Antepartum: The standard fundal height at 20 weeks gestation is at the maternal umbilicus. Thereafter, measurement from the pubic symphysis to the top of the fundus (in centimeters) should equal the number of weeks of gestation.
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Papanicolaou smear
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Pap smear.
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Leopold’s maneuvers
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provides a systematic method for palpating the fetus through the abdominal wall during the later part of pregnancy. This maneuver provides valuable info. about the location and presentation of the fetus.
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Rupture of membranes
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*rupture of amniotic sac *show drainage of fluid from the vagina as the nurse manipulates the cervix and presenting part
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Multiparity
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women who has delivered 2 or more pregnancies at 20 or more wks. of gestation; also informally used to describe a pregnant woman before the birth of her 2nd child
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Folic Acid
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can decrease the occurrence of neural tube defects. Its very important before conception and during the 1st trimester. Daily intake of 600 mcg in recommended while pregnant.
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Iron
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helps form some enzymes necessary for metabolism and is important in the formation of hemoglobin.
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Calcium
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is necessary for bone formation, maintenance of cell membrane permeability, coagulation, and neuromuscular function. Very important for mineralization of fetal bones and teeth.
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Anemia
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is if your hemoglobin is less than 11 grams or hematocrit is less than 33%
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Pica
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ingestion of odd materials during pregnancy; like laundry starch, clay or ice.
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VBAC
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vaginal birth after cesarean
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Effleurage
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massage of the abdomen or another body part performed during labor contractions.
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Amniotic Fluid
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it cushions the fetus and circulation within the umbilical cord, maintains a stable temp., and promotes normal prenatal structural development.
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Supine hypotension
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When the preganant woman is in the supine position, in late preganancy the weight of the uterus partially occludes the vena cava and the aorta. This occlusion diminishes return of blood from the lower extremities and reduces cardiac return.
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Nulligravida
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never pregnant or completed a 20wk pregnancy
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Primigravida
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1st time pregnant
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Gestational age
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Prenatal age of the developing baby (measured in wks.) calculated from the 1st day of the woman’s last menstrual period; approximately 2 wks. longer than the fertilization age
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Fertilization age
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Prenatal age of the developing baby, calculated from the date of conception
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Couvade syndrome
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pregnancy related rituals or a cluster of symptoms experienced by some prospective fathers during pregnancy and childbirth.
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Therapeutic Communication
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PG. 18-19 in book!
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FHR
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fetal heart rate
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Basic US
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the standard scan includes a general survey of the fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid volume.
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Comprehensive US
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the specialized scan is done fi abnormalities are found during the standard scan or w/ laboratory or other test results.
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Limited US
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this is done to address a specific question such as fetal presentation *INDICATIONS FOR THIS IS: -Determine placental location -Detect presence or absence of fetal cardiac activity -Access volume of amniotic fluid -Determine fetal presenting part -Guide delivery of the 2nd twin in a vaginal birth -Assist w/ amniocentesis and external cephalic version -Assess fetal well-being (such as an amniotic fluid index) -Identify problems if mother uses unprescribed or illegal drugs, alcohol or tobacco.
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Alpha- fetoprotein
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Plasma protein produced by the fetus. *is the predominant protein in fetal plasma and is synthesized by the embryonic yolk sac, developing fetal liver, and gastrointestinal tract. *this diffuses from fetal plasma into fetal urine and is excreted into the amniotic fluid. *a portion of the AFP in amniotic fluid is swallowed and digested by the fetus, the remainder crosses placental membranes into the maternal circulation. *AFP can be measured in maternal serum (MSAFP) and amniotic fluid (AFAFP). *Abnormal concentrations of AFP are associated w/ serious fetal anomalies.
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Chorionic villi
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are microscopic projections from the outer membrane (chorion) that develop and burrow into endometrial tissue as the placenta is formed. * The villi are fetal tissues and reflect the chromosomal, metabolic, and genetic makeup of the fetus.
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Amniocentesis
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transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac to obtain a sample of amniotic fluid that contains fetal cells and biochemical substances for laboratory examination.
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Gestational hypertension
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is a condition of high blood pressure during pregnancy which can lead to a serious condition called preeclampsia (also sometimes referred to as toxemia).
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Phosphatidylglycerol
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PI – a phospholipid of surfactant that is produced and secreted in increasing amounts as the fetal lungs mature. ** Test for this when doing a fetal lung maturity test in a diabetic pt.
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L/S ratio
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ratio of two phospholipids in amniotic fluid used to determine fetal lung maturity; ratio of 2:1 or greater usually indicates fetal lung maturity.
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Nonstress Test (NST)
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observing the fetal heart rate response to fetal movement
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Accelerations
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is an abrupt, temporary increase in the FHR that peaks at least 15 bpm above the baseline and lasts at least 15 sec. *They often occur with fetal movement *They may be nonperiodic (having no relation to contractions) as well as periodic. *They may occur w/ vaginal examinations, uterine contractions, and mild cord compression and when the fetus is in a breech presentation. *They are a reassuring sign, reflecting a responsive, noacidotic fetus that is >32wk. of gestation.
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Decelerations
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these are classified into 3 types based on their shape and relationship to uterine contractions; early, late and variable
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CST
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Contraction stress test observing the fetal heart rate response to contractions.
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BPP
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Biophysical profile.. method for evaluating fetal status during the antepartum period based on five variables originating with the fetus: fetal heart rate, breathing movements, gross body movements, muscle tone, and amniotic fluid volume.
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Kick counts
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Instructions on Counting Your Baby’s Movement. A simple way to check your baby’s well-being is to pay attention to how much your baby is moving. Most babies move at least ten (10) times within two hours. Count your baby’s movements once a day, at the same time each day
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Fetal alcohol syndrome
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a group of physical, behavioral, and mental abnormalities that are the most serve effects of fetal alcohol exposure.
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Spontaneous abortion
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is a miscarriage; spontaneous loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy.
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Threatened abortion
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vaginal bleeding occurs
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Inevitable abortion
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membranes rupture, and cervix dilates
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Incomplete abortion
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some products of conception have been expelled, but some remain.
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Complete abortion
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all products of conception are expelled from the uterus.
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Missed abortion
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occurs when the fetus dies during the 1st half of pregnancy but is retained in the uterus.
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DIC
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Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation is a life threatening defect in coagulation that may occur with several complications of pregnancy such as abruption placentae or hypertension.
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Ectopic pregnancy
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is an implantation of a fertilized ovum in an area outside the uterine cavity
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Hydatidiform mole
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a cluster of fluid-filled sacs formed in the uterus by the degeneration of chorionic tissue around an aborting embryo.
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Placenta previa
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abnormal implantation of placenta in the lower uterus.
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Marginal placenta previa
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placenta is implanted in lower uterus but its lower border is >3 cm from internal cervical os.
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Partial placenta previa
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lower border of placenta is within 3 cm of internal cervical os but does not fully cover it.
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Total placenta previa
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placenta completely covers internal cervical os.
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Abruption placentae
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premature separation of a normally implanted placenta
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Hypovolemic shock
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acute peripheral circulating blood failure resulting from loss of circulating blood volume.
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Hyperemesis gravidarum
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is extreme, persistent nausea and vomiting during pregnancy that can lead to dehydration.
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Preeclampsia
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a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and proteinuria.
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Eclampsia
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form of hypertension of pregnancy complicated by generalized (grand mal) seizures.
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DTR
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HELLP syndrome
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Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome. is life threatening; half of these pt.s have severe preeclampsia as well. *May occur during postpartum period.
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Magnesium toxicity
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Chronic hypertension
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Rh incompatibility
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Indirect Coomb’s test
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ABO incompatibility
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is a common and generally mild type of haemolytic disease in babies. The term haemolytic disease means that red blood cells are broken down more quickly than usual which can cause jaundice, anaemia and in very severe cases can cause death.
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Diabetes mellitus
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a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a relative or complete lack of insulin secretion; characterized by gluycosuria (glucose in urine) and hyperglycemia.
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Dystocia
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Hydramnios
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excessive volume of amniotic fluid, more than about 2000 mL at term.
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Sickle cell anemia
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Thalassemia
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Lupus erythematosus
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Cytomegalovirus
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Rubella
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Herpes simplex
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Group B strep
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Preterm Labor
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Toxoplasmosis
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Cervical length
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Shirodkar- Barter procedure
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Acme
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Peak, or period of greatest strength, of a uterine contraction
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Decrement
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period of decreasing strength of a uterine contraction
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Duration
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Anterior fontanel
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Posterior fontanel
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Fetal lie
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Presenting part
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Cephalic presentation
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Breech presentation
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Braxton Hicks
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Irregular, usually mild uterine contractions that occur throughout pregnancy and become stronger in the last trimester.
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Lightening
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descent of fetal head
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Cervical ripening
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Effacement
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is the process by which the cervix prepares for delivery. After the baby has engaged in the pelvis, it gradually drops closer to the cervix; the cervix gradually softens, shortens and becomes thinner.
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Dialtion
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opening
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Prodromal Labor
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Latent phase
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onset of regular contractions; mild lasting 20-40 sec with freq of 3-30min; women are not too uncomfortable yet; responsive to teaching about breathing and other tech for coping w/labor contractions; as long as there are no contraindications (vaginal bleeding) women are encouraged to ambulate b/c upright positions shorten labor; nurse should offer clear liquids or ice chips at freq intervals; encourage freq position changes; orient family to room, equipment, and procedures; not uncommon for women to vomit during first stage just reassure the women and provide oral care
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Active phase
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contractions have freq of 2-3min a duration of 50-60 sec and moderate intensity; contractions need to be palpated every 10-15 min; the cervix dilates from 4-7cm and vaginal discharge and bloody show increase; women should be encouraged to void every 1-2hrs b/c full bladder can interfere w/fetal descent; FHR is ascultated every 30min and 15min for high risk; if water hasn’t broke yet then CNM may do so during this phase; the fluid should be clear with no odor; encourage pt to maintain breathing patterns, quiet environment, give back rubs, cool cloth to forehead, support with pillows
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2nd stage
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(complete)-cervix is completely dilated (10cm) and ends with birth of infant; completed w/in 2 hrs; women have urge to push and crowning occurs, women feel burning sensation as the perineum distends; feels out of control, helpless, panicky, or happy that she can take more active role in pushing; assist women in pushing, assume position of comfort, provide encouragement and praise for efforts and keep couple informed of progress
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Transition phase
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contractions are every 2-3min, duration 60-90sec, and intensity is strong, cervical dilation 810cm and heavy amount of bloody show is usually present; contractions are palpated every 15min, maternal BP, pulse and respirations are taken every 30 min and FHR every 15min; pt becomes less aware of what’s going on and intensely aware of contractions, women’s ability to speak in coherent sentences can be impaired; women’s mouth can become dry due to rapid breathing so encourage to breathe in through nose and out mouth; encourage rest between contractions, encourage and ensure her that she is doing a good job
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3rd stage
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focuses on providing initial newborn care and assisting with delivery of the placenta; first priority is to maintain respirations so newborn is placed in side position to aid drainage of mucus form the nasopharynx and trachea and also suctioned with bulb syringe; second priority to maintain warmth so newborn is dried immediately with warmed soft infant blankets
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4th stage
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-period immediately following expulsion of the placenta, usually lasts 1-4 hrs after birth or until vitals are stable, immediately after placenta is expelled, the episiotomy or vaginal lacerations are repaired; uterus palpated every 15min for an hour until bleeding is with in normal limits; cold pack may be placed on perineum to decrease swelling/bruising, if mom prefers to shower after birth, the nurse can assist her as needed and change the bed linens while mother is up; nurses responsibility to assess moms BP, pulse, firmness and position of fundus and amount and character of vaginal blood flow every 15min for first 1-2hrs; fundus should be firm and below the umbilicus, the umbilicus should not be messaged unless boggy (pooling of blood occurs in the vaginal vault and may result in formation of clots or heavy flow when the mother ambulates for the first time).
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Amniotomy
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AROM – artificial rupture of the fetal membranes
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Episiotomy
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Surgical incision of the perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening.
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SROM
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spontaneous rupture of membranes
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Fetal compromise
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*fetal heart rate outside the normal range of 110 – 160 bpm for a term fetus or loss of fetal heart rate variability with electronic FHR monitoring. *Meconium-stained (greenish) amniotic fluid. *cloudy, yellowish, or foul smelling amniotic fluid (suggests infection). *incomplete uterine relaxation and intervals shorter than 30 seconds b/w contractions (reduces placental blood flow) *maternal hypotension (may divert blood flow away from the placenta to ensure adequate perfusion of the maternal brian and heart). *maternal hypertension (may be associated with vasospasm in spiral arteries, which supply the intervillous spaces of the placenta). *maternal fever (38c or 100F or higher.
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Crowning
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appearance of the fetal scalp or presenting part at the vaginal opening.
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Apgar score
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is a simple assessment of how a baby is doing at birth, which helps determine whether your newborn is ready to meet the world without additional medical assistance.
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Fundus
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Lochia
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the normal discharge from the uterus after childbirth.
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Nitrazine paper
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If the Nitratest paper color is yellow to olive green, the corresponding pH is 4.0-6.0 and the test is NEGATIVE for amniotic fluid. If the NitraTest paper color is blue-green to deep blue, the corresponding pH is 6.5 to 7.5 and the test is POSITIVE for amniotic fluid.
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Nuchal cord
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occurs when the umbilical cord becomes wrapped around the fetal neck 360 degrees
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Amnioinfusion
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infusion of a sterile isotonic solution into the uterine cavity during labor to reduce umbilical cord compression; may also be done to dilute meconium in amniotic fluid and reduce the risk that the infant will aspirate thick meconium at birth.
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EFM
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Scalp electrode
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fetal scalp electrode detects electric signals from the fetal heart. The device can be applied to the buttocks in a breech position.
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Toco
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detects uterine activity and fetal movement, is secured to the maternal abdomen.
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Intrauterine pressure catheter
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(IUPC) is a device placed into the amniotic space during labor in order to measure the strength of uterine contractions.
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Variablility
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denotes the fluctuations in the baseline FHR within a 10 minute window that cause the printed line to have an irregular rather than a smooth appearance.
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Analgesic
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systemic agent that relieves pain w/ out causing loss of consciousness.
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Anesthesia
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loss of sensation, especially to pain, w/ or w/ out loss of consciousness.
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Epidural
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Gate control theory
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Subarachnoid block
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Pudendal block
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Hypertonic contractions
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uterine contractions that are too long or too frequent, have too short a resting interval, or have an inadequate relaxation period to allow optimal uteroplacental
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Oxytocin
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hormone that plays an important role in keeping the uterus contracted to prevent excessive bleeding and it also stimulates the milk-ejection reflex after childbirth.
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Version
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turning the fetus from one presentation to another before birth, usually from breech to cephalic.
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Operative vaginal birth
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Cesarean birth
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Pfannenstiel
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Molding
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Uterine rupture
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Uterine inversion
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Prolapsed cord
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Occult prolapse
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Uterine dystocia
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Pelvic dystocia
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CPD
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Hemorrhage
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Hematoma
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localized collection of blood in a space or tissue
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Colostrum
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breast fluid secreted during pregnancy and the early days after childbirth.
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Kegel exercises
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Lactation
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Involution
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REEDA
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Lacerations
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Rubella
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Atony
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absence or lack of usual muscle tone
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Distended bladder
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Sitz bath
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Ecchymosis
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Bonding
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development of a strong emotional tie of a parent to a newborn.
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Attachment
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development of strong affectional ties as a result of interaction b/w an infant and a significant other (such as mother, father, sibling, caretaker).
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Puerperal phases
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Postpartum blues
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Postpartum depression
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Subinvolution
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Placenta accrete
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Fundal massage
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Methergine
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DVT
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Pulmonary embolism
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Puerperal infection
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Endometritis
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Mastitis septic pelvic
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Thrombophlebitis
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BUBBLE-HEB
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Postpartal diuresis
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Retained placental fragments
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Metritis
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Parametritis
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Thrombophlebitis
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Postpartum psychosis
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