Nutrition Chapters 1-3

major causes of death affected by nutrition
heart disease; some types of cancer; stroke; type 2 diabetes

lifestyle factors that contribute to some of the leading causes of death in the U.S.
poor dietary practices; cigarette smoking (drug use); excess alcohol consumption; lack of physical activity; genetics; age; environmental conditions

factors that influence personal food choices
family/friends/peers; advertising and media; beliefs (religious, nutritional, and health); moods; childhood experiences; ethnic background; education; occupation; income; rural vs. urban residence; food composition, conveniece, and availability; food flavor, texture, and appearance; current health status; habits

chemistry
the study of the composition and characteristics of matter, and changes that can occur to it

why do we study chemistry in this course?
the food you eat and your own cells are made of matter – to get the nutrients to your cells requires chemistry; your metabolism is all the chemical processes that happen within cells – most functions of cells are chemical processes; breaking down foods into nutrients to rebuild them to other structures uses multiple chemical reactions

how does an essential nutrient differ from other nutrients?
all nutrients are not classified as essential nutrients, essential nutrients are not simply nutrients necessary for life; the body can synthesize (make) many nutrients, such as the lipids, cholesterol, and fat, but about 50 nutrients are dietary essentials

what are the characteristics of an essential nutritent?
to be healthy, your diet needs to include all essential nutrients; typically, essential nutrients are vitamins and minerals

essential nutrient
must be supplied by food, because the body does not synthesize the nutrient or make enough to meet its needs; water is the most well known of these

what happens if an essential nutrient is missing?
1. if the nutrient is missing from the diet, a deficiency disease occurs as a result, displaying specific characteristics
2. when the missing nutrient is added to the diet, the abnormal physiological changes are corrected; as a result, signs and symptoms of the deficiency disorder resolve as normal functioning is restored and the condition is cured
3. after scientists identify the nutrient’s specific roles in the body, they can explain why the abnormalities occurred when the substance was missing from the diet

importance of phytochemicals
substances that are not nutrients, yet they may have healthful benefits; for example caffeine is a phytochemical naturally made by coffee plants that has a stimulating effect on the body

are phytochemicals necessary?
yes, many phytochemicals are antioxidants that may reduce risks of heart disease and certain cancers; they are important reasons to have a varied diet; even if you receive your necessary nutrients everyday, you may be missing out on helpful phytochemicals

what are risk factors for chronic diseases?
poor dietary practices; no physical activity; drug use (particularly tobacco and alcohol); genetics; age; environmetal conditions

what is the Healthy People report?
every 10 years the US department of health and human services issues a healthy people report; this report sets national health promotion and disease prevention objectives; a primary focus is developing educational programs that can help people prevent chronic and infectious diseases, birth defects, and other serious health problems

what are the Healthy People report’s goals for 2020?
encourages americans to: attain higher-quality, longer lives that are free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death; achieve health equity by eliminating disparities to improve the health of all groups; create social and physical environments that promote good health for all; promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages; reduce obesity rates across all age groups

be able to use the metric system, including units, formulas, and conversions
1 inch = 2.54 centimeter. Inches times 2.54 to get height in centi
1 ounce – 28 grams
1 pound = 454 grams
2.2 pounds = 1 kilogram. Pounds divided by 2.2 to get weight in kilograms

six classes of nutrients
carbohydrates; fats and other lipids; proteins; vitamins; minerals; and water

caloric intake of different nutrients
carbohydrate – 4 kcal/gram
protein – 4 kcal/gram
fat – 9 kcal/gram
alcohol – 7 kcal/gram

macronutrients
the body needs relatively large amounts (grams) of these nutrients daily; examples include: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins; supply energy for cells

micronutrients
the body needs very small amounts (milligrams or micrograms) of these to function properly; examples include: vitamins and minerals; do not supply energy for cells

key nutrition concepts
most naturally occurring foods are mixtures of nutrients; variety can help ensure the nutritional adequacy of a diet; there are no “good” or “bad” foods; enjoy eating all foods in moderation; for each nutrient, there is a range of safe intake; food is the best source of nutrients and phytochemicals; there is no “one size fits all” approach to planning a nutritionally adequate diet; foods and the nutrients they contain are not cure-alls; malnutrition includes under nutrition as well as over nutrition; nutrition is a dynamic science

undernutrition concerns
the lack of knowledge about nutritious foods or the importance of nutrition to health; people who are at risk of malnutrition include those who have severe eating disorders, low income, are addicted to drugs such as alcohol, or have certain serious medical problems, pregnant, infant/young children; body can’t develop properly; many die from it; food insecurity

food insecurity
describes individuals concerned about running out of food or not having enough money to buy more food; occurs in low-income families, especially in areas where food options are limited

overnutrition concerns
overnutrition is more common in the US than undernutrition; obesity is widespread in countries where most people have the financial means to buy food, have an ample food supply, and obtain little exercise

aspects of sustainable agriculture
includes farming methods that meet the demand for more food without depleting natural resources or harming the environment; stop expanding agricultural activity; find ways to increase crop yields on existing farms using biotechnology; find ways to use natural resources and pesticides more efficiently (irrigation systems); rely more on non-chemical methods of pest management; eat less meat; reduce food waste; help people where they live (assist growing more food more effeciently in food scarce areas)

basic steps of scientific method
1. make observations that generate questions
2. formulate hypotheses to explain events
3. experimentation, design studies, perform tests
4. collect data, analyze data and draw conclusions based on the results
5. share results with peers
6. conduct more research

hypothesis
question you are asking (and then testing/trying to answer) in a scientific experiment

old sources of information vs evidence based
in the past nutrition facts and dietary practices were based on: intuition, common sense, conventional wisdom, and anecdotes; today nutrition experts rely on results collected from scientific research (information obtained from scientific studies are deemed evidence-based information)

why are mice often used in research?
mice studies can test safety concerns and are very reliable sources of information for humans; used to test the safety and ethical concerns before the similar thing is tested on humans; they are inexpensive to house and food and other living conditions can be carefully controlled

treatment group
group that undergoes the treatment being studied; some studies have multiple of these groups

control group
does not receive the treatment; enables scientists to compare results b/w the two study groups to determine whether the treatment had any effect

provide examples of placebos; why are they administered?
a fake treatment such as a sham pill, injection, or medical procedure; mimics the treatment however has inert ingredients (substances that don’t produce any measurable physical changes); to reduce the concern of whether or not simply undergoing a “treatment” affects the result/ enables scientists to compare the extent of the treatment’s response with that of the placebo

placebo effect
the psychological phenomenon where some participants report a positive (or negative) result while receiving the placebo

experimental studies
experimental studies in humans may be used to obtain information about health outcomes related to specific dietary practices; human subjects are randomly assigned to either the treatment group or the control group; groups assignment is random, but the goal is to have a comparable set of individuals in each group; the participants will not know which group they have been assigned to, therefore, they don’t know if they are actually being treated

epidemiology studies
is the study of the occurrence, distribution, and causes of health problems in populations; observational epidemiological studies observe natural behavior without making changes; personal and family medical histories, eating habits, lifestyle behaviors, and other information is collected and compared; cannot establish causation

single-blind
when the doctor or scientist knows which group the participant is in but the individual doesn’t

double-blind
when neither the researchers nor the participants know who is in what group; a third party individual (such as a technician) would be administering the treatment

case-control studies
studies that examines individuals who have a health condition and compares them to individuals with similar characteristics but lack the condition

cohort studies
studies that measure variables fo a group of people over time

prospective studies vs retrospective studies
1. prospective – means “to look forward” – follows a group of healthy people into the future and looks for factors that may have contributed to changes in their health
2. retrospectice – means “to look back” – examines people’s past exposures to explain why some people are affected by a condition and not others

correlation (positive and negative)
a relationship b/w variables, occurs when two variables change over the same period;
positive: results when two variables change in the same direction
negative: results when two variables change in opposite directions

correlation vs. causation
causation – whether a practice is responsible for an effect (epidemiological studies cannot establish)
correlation – a relationship b/w variables, occurs when two variables change over the same period

importance of peer review
stwo or three experts in the field look over the research; they check for accuracy and common errors, as well as critique methodology, data, and conclusions for major concerns; not part of the study but do *above* and then if approved it will be published

how to assess nutritional information
do not assume that information in popular media is reliable; be wary of ads for nutrition-related products that rely on testimonials and anecdotes; even “based on science” information may be lying to you; consumers are responsible for questioning and researching the accuracy/reliability of nutrition information

how to assess nutritional information (cont.)
ask questions: what motivates the authors, promoters, or sponsors to provide the information?; is the source scientific, such as an artile in a peer-reviewed nutrition journal?; if a study is cited, how was the research conducted?; does source cite respected nutrition or medical journals or mention reliable experts?

how to assess nutritional information (cont.)
look for red flags: promises of quick and easy remedies; claims that sound too good to be true; scare tactics; personal attacks on registered dietitians or conventional scientists; statements about the superiority of certain dietary supplements or unconventional medical practices; results disclaimers, usually in small or difficult-to-read print; testimonials and anecdotes; information that promotes a product’s benefits while overlooking its risks; vague, meaningless, or scientific-sounding terms; sensational statements without citing references or sources; recommendations based on a single study; information concerning nutrients or human physiology that are not supported by reliable scientific evidence

how to assess nutritional information (cont.)
tips for searching the internet: be careful and consider sources of internet information; use multiple web sites, especially government sites; be wary of survey sites; rely on sites reviewed or managed by health professionals; look for “health on the net” or “utilization review accreditation commission” symbols; do not trust a site that attacks the medical or scientific establishment; avoid sites that provide online diagnoses or treatments; be wary of commercial sites (.com) even those with links to reliable sites; avoid providing your personal information

terms for reliable nutrition experts and their requirements
registered dietitian, registered dietician nutritionist, or licensed dietitian nutritionist: have had extensive training in nutrition and dietetics (the application of nutrition and food information); one must hold a bachelor’s degree in the field, pass a national exam, complete a supervised practice program, and keep up with new information through continuing professional educational requirement

what are dietary supplements?
adds to a person’s dietary intake and contains one or more dietary ingredients, including nutrients or botanicals (herbs or other plant materials); is taken by mouth; is not promoted as a conventional food or the only item of a meal or diet

what are examples of dietary supplements and their classifications?
examples: nutrient pills; protein powders; herbal extracts; energy bars and drinks
classifications: regulated as foods not as drugs; supplements by-pass strict FDA regulations imposed on drugs; FDA regulates labels on supplements and claims allowed on them

discuss the risks and benefits of dietary supplements
when used properly, micronutrient supplements are generally safe; herbal supplements may contain toxins; highly toxic or cancer-causing plants include comfrey, pennyroyal, sassafras, kava, lobelia, and ma huang; if you are thinking about using dietary supplements: determine if the supplement is necessary; consult a physician as soon as you develop signs and symptoms of serious illness; be wary of claims made about a supplement’s benefits and investigate by searching for reliable information

conventional medicine
a system in which medical doctors and other healthcare professionals (such as nurses, pharmacists, and therapists) treat symptoms and diseases using drugs, radiation, or surgery

complementary and alternative medicine
CAM includes: using supplements, such as herbal products, to treat disease or promote good health; chiropractic manipulations; homeopathy and naturopathy; massage theory
*when CAM practices are used along with conventional medical practices, the combination is called “integrative” medicine

nutrient requirement
smallest amount of a nutrient that maintains a defined level of nutritional health; meeting this should prevent the nutrient deficiency disease

dietary reference intakes – know all five

EAR (estimated average requirement)
daily amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of 50% of healthy people who are in a particular life stage/sex group

RDA (recommended dietary allowance)
standards for recommended daily intakes of several nutrients that meet the nutrient needs of nearly all (98%) of healthy people

EER (estimated energy requirement)
average daily energy intake that meets needs of a healthy person who is maintaining his/her weight

AI (adequate intake)
dietary recommendations that assume a population’s average daily nutrient intakes are adequate because no deficiency diseases are present

UL (tolerable upper intake level [upper level])
standard representing the highest average amount of a nutrient that is unlikely to be harmful when consumed daily

EARs vs RDAs

acceptable maconutrient distribution ranges (AMDR), know all three
macronutrient; AMDR (% of total energy intake); calories
carbodydrate – 45-65; 900-1300
protein – 10-35; 200-700
fat – 20-35; 400-700

five major food groups, including info for each
grains; dairy products; fruits; vegetables; protein-rich foods

whole grain vs “white” grain
whole grains provide more fiber and micronutrients than refined grains bc many nutrients are lost in the refining process; enrichment is returning nutrients that were lost in the refinement or cooking or foods; sometimes, extra nutrients are added to a food to increase the amount of nutrients. This fortification of foods adds in nutrients that never existed in the particular food

dietary guidelines; you may be asked to read some

what a healthy eating plan includes and excludes
has a ppropriate number of calories to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight, is nutritonally adequate, and reduces the risk of diet-related chronic diseases
ex: variety of vegetables, fruits (whole fruits), grains (whole grains), fat-free or low-fat dairy products; a variety of protein foods, and oils

sodium and saturated fats limits
*consume less than 10% of daily calories from added sugars
*consume less than 10% of daily calories from saturated fats
*consume less than 2300 mg of sodium per day

MyPlate and other food guides
Includes a variety of food, nutrition, and physical activity resources based on the recommendations of the dietary guidelines; Focuses on five food groups; Has 12 different healthy daily food patterns that range from 1000 to 3200 kcal; Each daily food pattern has some calories that remain after all of the recommended nutrient-dense foods (and fats & oils) are eaten; Myplate’s program super tracker collects personal information and estimates your daily energy needs and how much food you need from each food group; Supertracker can also track physical activities; MYPLATE also helps with healthy meal planning, including planning on a budget

exchange system
meal planning technique that categorizes food into 3 food groups:carbohydrates, Meat and meat substitutes, Fats; these foods have similar macronutrient composition; foods are categorized different than in MYPLATE, though other versions exist; Provides exchange list
Useful for people with diabetes or trying to lose weight; “Carb counting” may be used instead of the exchange system

nutrition facts panels, you may be asked to read some
Provides information about energy and nutrient contents of packaged foods; Indicates amount of a serving size and number of servings in package; The nutrient may be absent from the label if the nutrient is not in the food;
“Insignificant” amounts do not have to be posted; Not required on fresh fruit and vegetables, fish and shellfish, meat, and poultry

daily values
a set of nutrient intake standards developed for labeling purposes; DVs are more simplified and practical set of nutrient standards than RDAs; based on a 2000kcal/day diet; your goal is to obtain at least 100% of the DVs for fiber, vitamins, and minerals each day. On the other hand, you may need to limit your intake of foods that have high %DVs of total fat, saturated fat, and sodium; Thus, your goal is to consume less than 100% of the DV for total fat, saturated fat, and sodium each day

health – and nutrient – related claims
the health claim should: indicate that the product has health benefits when part of a healthy diet; Be complete, easy to understand, and honest; Refer to a product that contains 10% or more of the DV before fortification;bBe a product intended for people over age 2; Use may or might to describe the relationship b/w product and disease; Not quantify degree of risk reduction; Indicate that many factors influence disease

what dietary supplement labels must include
ingredients; serving size; amounts per serving; suggested use; manufacturer’s name and address; %DV; Required to have total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, fiber, sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron

organic foods, including categorizing examples
produced without use of antibiotics, hormones, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic improvements, or spoilage-killing radiation