Nutrition Ch. 16

question

What would be a normal body weight after 1 year for a healthy infant with a birthweight of 8 lbs?
answer

24lbs
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What is the typical weight gain (lbs) of an infant between the first and second year of life?
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10
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What is the approximate energy requirement of infants, in calories per kilograms body weight?
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100
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Infants showing symptoms of acidosis, dehydration, diarrhea, elevated blood ammonia and urea , and fever may be reacting to the nutritional problem of –
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protein overload
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Which of the following is a feature of energy metabolism in infancy?
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Infants fed fat-free milk are at risk for protein overload
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When expressed per kilogram body weight, the nutrient needs of infants are markedly higher than those of young adults for all of the following nutrients except
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iron
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What organ in the infant uses more than half of the day’s total energy intake ?
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Brain
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What is the relative weight of an infant brain compared to an adult’s brain?
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Six times as much
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All of the following are features of nutrition and metabolism in infancy except
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the protein content in breast milk can be high enough to occasionally induce protein overload
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The recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals for infants are based on
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average amounts ingested by thriving infants breastfed by well-nourished mothers
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Which of the following is a feature of water in infancy?
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Much of the infant’s body water content is located extracellulary
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All of the following are characteristics of breastfeeding frequency and duration execpt
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more infrequent and short-duration feedings are preferable to stimulate lactation and bread-filling.
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For optimal breast-feeding benefits, it is recommended that the infant be encouraged to suckle on each breast for about
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10-15 minutes
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All of the following are features of breast milk composition except
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The concentration of protein is slightly higher than for cow’s milk
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According to the American Academy of Pediatrics and Canadian Pediatric Society, breastfeeding of full-term infants is
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strongly recommend
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What is the chief reason that breast-fed infants usually need to eat more frequently than formula-fed infants?
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Breast milk is digested faster
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Which of the following is a finding regarding the importance of fatty acid intake for preterm infants fed formulas?
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Formulas enriched with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid resulted in improved visual acuity compared with standard formulas.
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What is the chief protein in human breast milk
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Alpha-lactalbumin
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Breast milk as the sole source of nutrition, up to the first 6 months in healthy infants, is satisfactory for all nutrients except –
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Vitamin D
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Nutrient characteristics of human breast milk include all of the following except
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the vitamin D content meets optimal growth requirements
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Which of the following vitamin-mineral supplements need not to be prescribed for an infant breastfed
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Vitamin E
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What is colostrum?
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A milk like substance secreted right after delivery
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Which of the following is an advantage of breastfeeding compared with formula feeding?
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It provides immunological protection
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Which of the following is a feature of infant development and nutrition?
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Breast-fed infants obtain iron-binding proteins that inhibit bacterial infections
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Which of the following is associated with bifdus factors?
answer

increased bacterial growth
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What factor is breast milk binds iron and prevents it from supporting the growth of the infants intestinal bacteria ?
answer

Lactoferrin
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What is lactadherin?
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A breast milk protein that inactivates a GI virus that causes diarrhea
question

You are presenting a talk on the benefits of breastfeeding to a new mothers with a Peace Corps group in Zimbabwe. There have been numerous cases of infant diarrhea within this population over the past several years. Why is breastfeeding especially important under these circumstances?
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The lactadherin protein present in breast milk attacks diarrhea-cauing viruses
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All of the following are features of breast milk banks except
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they accept milk from mothers who smoke cigarettes but not marijuana
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Which of the following describes the results of studies on weight gain of people who were either breastfed or formula fed
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The findings on weight gain of people who were formula fed or breastfed are inconsistent
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Which of the following is not known to be an advantage of breastfeeding?
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Breastfed infants born prematurely grow more slowly than formula-fed infants born prematurely
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Compared with cow’s milk, breast milk contains
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less protein and calcium
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To gradually replace breast milk with infant formula or other foods appropriate to an infants diet is to
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wean
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Which of the following formulas is available for infants with lactose intolerance?
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Soy
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Which of the following is a feature of infant soy formulas ?
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They contain cornstarch and sucrose rather than lactose
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Features of infant formulas include all of the following except
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they contain antibodies
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What type of formula is available for infants with milk allergy
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soy
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Which of the following is a common source of lead poisoning in infants?
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Contaminated water used to make infant formula
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What is the most realistic advice for reducing lead exposure from the tap water used to prepare infant formula?
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Because the first water drawn from the tap each day is highest in lead, let the water run a few minutes before using it
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Goats milk is inappropriate for infants due to its low content of
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folate
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An infant diagnosed with “goat’s milk anemia” is most likely deficient in
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folate
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Which of the following sources of nutrition for infants is least likely to become contaminated with microorganisms?
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breast milk
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Which of the following defines nursing bottle tooth decay?
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Marked tooth decay of an infant due to prolonged exposure to carbohydrate rich fluids from a bottle
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Low-fat or nonfat milk should not be given routinely to a child until after the age of
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2 years
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What term defines the condition of infant tooth deterioration resulting from chronic exposure to carbohydrate-rich fluids from a bottle?
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Nursing bottle tooth decay
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During the first year of life, cow’s milk is considered an inappropriate food due to all of the following except
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it is too low in sodium …. (cow milk is not too low in sodium)
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Which of the following should not be fed to an infant
answer

whole milk
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Approximately what % of infants are born prematurely
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12%
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Which of the following feeding practices is recommended for preterm infants?
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They should be fed preterm breast milk, occasionally fortified with specific nutrients
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Of the following cereals, which is most likely to result in an allergic reaction upon 1st feeding?
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Wheat
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What is beikst?
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A term that describes any nonmlik food offered to an infant
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Which of the following represents a good age to introduce solid food to infants?
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Five months
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At what age does the normal infant first develop the ability to swallow solid food?
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4-6 months
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Why should new foods be introduced to an infant one at a time?
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Any allergic reactions can be detected
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What should be the first cereal introduced to the infant?
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Rice
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Roberta’s first child is now 8 months old. Roberta has been breastfeeding and would like to begin to introduce solids foods. She read somewhere to introduce one food at a time to the infant. Which of the following would be the best choice for the first
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Rice
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Which of the following nutrients need to be supplied first by solid foods in a baby’s diet?
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Vitamin C and iron
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Infants should not be given canned veggies due to excessive amounts of
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sodium
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Infants fed honey or corn syrup are at increased risk for
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botulism
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What is the principal reason that info about fat on food labels of infant foods is intentionally omitted?
answer

To prevent parents from restricting their infants fat intake
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Foods containing sorbitol or other sugar alcohols should not be given to infants because they
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promote diarrhea
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All of the following are characteristics of vegetarian diets and infancy expect
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Rice milk may substitute for other beverages from the age of 12 months and on.
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Which of the following is the primary factor in the development of milk anemia?
answer

Excessive intake of cow’s milk
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Young children who drink more than 2 to 31/2 cups of milk a day are most likely at increased risk for deficiency of
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iron
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A child who drinks a lot of milk at the expense of other foods is at high risk of showing signs of
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anemia
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The consumption of milk by children should not exceed 4 cups per day in order to lower the risk for
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iron deficiency
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What should be the parent’s response when a one-year old child wants to clumsily spoon feed himself?
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Let the child try to feed himself so that he will learn
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Which of the following is associated with energy metabolism of the preschool child?
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A 1-year-old needs 800kal/day would require only about 1600 kcal at 6 years
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Approximately how many kcal per day does an average 6 year old need to obtain?
answer

1600
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How much more total energy does a normal-weight 10 year old need vs. a 1 year old?
answer

150%
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A reasonable daily fiber intake for a 5 year old would be
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25g
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Which of the following is a characteristic of fat in the diet of children?
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Fat intakes below 30% of total energy do not impair growth provided that total energy intake is adequate.
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Which of the following is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency amount U.S. and Canadian children?
answer

Iron
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Which of the following is a feature of nutrition in childhood?
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Children who fail to consume vitamin D-fortified foods should receive a daily supplement of 10 micrograms
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Which of the following is a characteristic of meal planning for children?
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Children 1 1/2 years of age consume more french fries than any other vegetable
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Which of the following is a characteristic of hunger and behavior in children?
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Children who eat nutritious breakfasts are absent from school less often than their friends who do not
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Which of the following is most likely reason that teachers promote the consumption of midmorning snacks for children?
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It provides carbohydrate for maintenance of blood glucose and brain function
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Which of the following is characteristic of children who regularly eat breakfast or skip breakfast?
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Breakfast-skippers actually show lower scores on IQ tests than those who eat breakfast
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Jenny is a 13 year old Hare Krishna who follows a vegan diet due to religious beliefs. She has not been performing as well as her non-vegetarian study friend on math tests and has been very upset about it. The teacher reports to Jennys mom that she does not appear focused in class . Which of the following may provide an explanation?
answer

The diet provides insufficient bioavailable iron and she may be anemic
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All of the following are features of iron nutrition in children except
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the brain appears to be less sensitive to iron deficiency than the rest of the body
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Which of the following is a characteristic of iron deficiency in children?
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It affects brain function before anemia sets in
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Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition and behavior in children?
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Children who had iron-deficiency anemia as infants perform poorly even after iron status improves
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All of the following are common signs of mild lead toxicity except –
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dermatitis
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Which of the following is a characteristic of lead exposure and health?
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Absorption of lead is higher on an empty stomach
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What is the prevalence of hyperactivity in children?
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5-10%
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All of the following are characteristics of hyperactivity in children except
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in many cases, it responds favorably to dietary manipulations such as limiting sugar intake
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All of the following are characteristics of hyperactivity in children except
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excessive amounts of sugar may cause or aggravate hyperactivity
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What is the term given to the child who is hyperactive with severe and impulsive behavior ?
answer

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
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A child who develops antibodies to a certain food is said to have a
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food allergy
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An adverse reaction to food that does not signal the body to form antibodies is termed a
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food intolerance
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Which of the following is a characteristic of a food allergy?
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It always involves the production of antibodies
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You have just stated work as a summer camp counselor and completed a training session for all new employees on safety. Counselors were instructed to prohibit campers from eating pb&j sandwiches anywhere other than the caf. You believe that the most likely explanation for this rule is to
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minimize peanut exposure for campers without peanut allergies
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Which of the following foods are most often the cause of allergies
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Eggs, peanuts, and milk
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What food is responsible for the most life-threatening allergic reactions in people
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peanuts
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A life-threatening whole-body allergic reaction is known as
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anaphylactic shock
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A child known to be allergic to peanuts who begin to show signs such as difficulty breathing, swelling of the tongue, and severe abdominal discomfort is most likely in immediate need of life-saving injection of
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epinephrine
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All of the following are features of food allergies except
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the presence of antibodies always coincides with physical symptoms
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A child with a true allergy to milk is actually allergic to the milk’s
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casein
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If a child is allergic to soy, which of the following should be avoided
answer

textured vegetable protein
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People who show adverse reactions to foods such as increased pulse rate, nausea, and hives , but do not show antibodies to the offending foods are displaying
answer

food intolerances
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Approx. what % of the US children between 2-19 years of age are overweight
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32%
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Which of the following is a characteristic of obesity in childhood
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A non obese child of non obese parents has less than a 10% chance of becoming obese in adulthood
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What are the odds that an overweight 18 year old with only one obese parent will become and obese adult ?
answer

1 in 5
question

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, what is the maximum number of hours/days of tv viewing for a child under 2 years of age?
answer

question

What population group consumes the most soft drinks each day at school?
answer

teenage boys
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The typical can of soft drink contains the equivalent of how many teaspoons of sugar?
answer

10
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5 cans of soft drinks provide approx. how many kcal’s?
answer

750
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To help imporve a child’s BMI, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends limiting tv and video time for children older than 2 years to how many hours per day
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2 hours per day
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All of the following describe influences of tv and video gaming on nutrition except –
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children are exposed to thousands of TV commercials each year but their requests for advertised foods are heeded by their parents only half the time
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All of the following are typical growth characteristics of overweight children except
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they can achieve a normal appearance after losing excess fat
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Which of the following two conditions are associated with tv’s influence
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obesity and high blood lipids
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What is the most likely explanation for the increased prevalence of obesity in children over the past 30 years?
answer

They are less active physically
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What is the leading cause of high blood pressure in children?
answer

Obesity
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Which of the following is a feature of nutrition and behavior in children?
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Tv commercials featuring snack foods have been found to affect children’s food preferences
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Mike is a 10 year old inactive child who weighs 150 pounds. He has come to your practice with his parents for help on losing weight. What advice should be given to the parents?
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Maintain weight and do not encourage weight loss during growth and development
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To lower the risk of obesity in children, which of the following practices should parents institute for their children?
answer

Teach them to take appropriate food portions
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Which of the following is an effective strategy for dealing with obesity in a child?
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Engage the individual in at least 1 hour per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity
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Why is it recommended that overweight children not follow a low-kcalorie diet?
answer

diet restriction can interfere with growth and development
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Who is best able to manage the growth and weight gain of overweight children?
answer

Health care professional
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Which of the following steps should be undertaken by the parent or guardian to ensure that young people eat well?
answer

Control the availability of food
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Which of the following practices is not among the recommendations to help children develop an interest in vegetable?
answer

Serve veggies with the promise that after they are eaten, dessert will follow
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Even in preschoolers whose habits are being established, existing dietary attitudes are relatively resistant to change. How should wise parents react”?
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Be patient and persistent
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All of the following are food preferences in children except
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hot foods are preferred to warm ones
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All of the following are features of snacking in children except
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snacking should be prevented
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Which of the following is not among the recommended methods for introducing new foods to children
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Present new foods at the end of the meal
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If a child is reluctant to try a new food , it is best to
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quietly remove it and present it again at another time
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When children are allowed to eat freely from a variety of foods they usually select foods high in
answer

sugar
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The single most effective way to teach nutrition to children is by
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example
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What minimum fraction of the RDA for key nutrients for children 10-12 years of age should be provided by public school lunched?
answer

1/3
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Which of the following is a feature of public school food programs?
answer

They must follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans
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All of the following are influences that undermine healthful food intake and food selection at schools except
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reducing the prices of nutritious foods does not promote their purchase by students
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The adolescent growth spurt
answer

begins and ends earlier in girls than boys
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what is the approx duration of the adolescent growth spurt
answer

2 1/2 years
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Which of the following is a characteristic of the adolescent period?
answer

Obesity occurs more often in African-American females
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All of the following are features of the iron RDA for adolescents except
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the frequency of iron deficiency is similar among males and females of the same age
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A local high school has just added milk to the vending machines. Parents were very supportive of this change, however; not all students find it useful. You have a few minutes to speak to the student body, your talk should –
answer

point out that milk is a good source of calcium, which is required for teens during peak bone growth
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What is menarche?
answer

A female’s time of first menstruation
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Adolescent women may fail to reach peak bone mass for all of the following reasons except –
answer

lactose intolerance begins to intensify during the teen years
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All of the following are characteristics of adolescents’ food intakes except –
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eating breakfast results in higher overall daily intakes of protein and fat but unchanged intakes of iron and zinc compared with breakfast skippers
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Which of the following is a feature of beverage intake in adolescents?
answer

four standard colas a day proves enough caffein to alter behavior
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Approx. how much caffeine is delivered by a typical cola beverage?
answer

30-55 mg
question

What is considered to be the minimum pharmacologically active dose of caffeine?
answer

200mg
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Approx what fraction of an average teens daily energy intake is derived from snacks?
answer

1/4
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About how many meals each week are eaten outside the home by adolescents ?
answer

7
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of cig smokers and nutrition?
answer

They have higher intakes of carotene-rich foods
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A cigarette smoker who is planning to quit should expect a weight gain in the first year of about
answer

10 pounds
question

Which of the following is a characteristic of tobacco use and adolescents?
answer

smokers require more vitamin C to maintain body stores
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All of the following are characteristics in the development of antheroslerosis except
answer

once plaque is formed, it can be contained but cannot regress
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The association of cholesterol to the health of children is described by all of the following except
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there appears to be only a very weak correlation between obesity in children and their blood cholesterol levels
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All of the following are characteristics of blood cholesterol in children except
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acceptable total cholesterol levels are up to 240 mg/d
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of physically active children and blood lipids?
answer

They respond differently than do physically active adults towards changes in blood lipids
question

Which of the following is not a dietary recommendation for children?
answer

Children with high blood cholesterol should be treated first with statin drugs .

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