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Nutrition 121 Exam 3 Notes UNLV

question

Formation of free radicals can increase your risk for cancer and heart disease. True or False.
answer

True
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Which of the following statements regarding free radicals is FALSE?
answer

Free radicals donate electrons to unstable compounds. This answer is false. When free radicals are formed in cell membranes, they steal electrons from the phospholipid layer, resulting in unstable compounds. This results in damage to the lipid molecule and generates more free radicals. Once the lipid molecule is destroyed, the cell integrity is lost, and the membrane can no longer repel water. Antioxidants donate electrons to the free radical without undergoing any change themselves.
question

Selenium is considered an antioxidant. True of False.
answer

True
question

When our diet is deficient in vitamin A, mucus production by epithelial cells increases. True or False.
answer

False
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The term oxidation refers to __________.
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an oxygen-fueled chemical reaction that causes a stable atom to lose an electron and become a reactive free radical
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What do antioxidants do to free radicals?
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Stabilize them so they no longer damage the body’s molecules or structures.
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Beta-carotene is a plant chemical that also __________.
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is an inactive form of vitamin A
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The most abundant sources of vitamin A in the diet are __________.
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animal-based foods
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Which form of vitamin A enables the eye to react to changes in light?
answer

retinal
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The retina is composed of rods and cones. True or False.
answer

True
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The pigment molecules responsible for night vision are called __________.
answer

rhodopsin
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When light energy hits the retina, the retinal changes from a trans to a cis configuration. True or False.
answer

False
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Functions of chloride
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– Assists with maintaining fluid balance – Assists the immune system – Component of HCI in the stomach
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Recommended intake of chloride
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– Minimum recommendation is 2.3 g/day -Virtually all dietary chloride comes in the form of sodium chloride
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What if you consume too much chloride?
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– May lead to hypertension in salt-sensitive parents – No Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) has been set for chloride
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What if you do not consume enough chloride?
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This is rare but can occur in people with eating disorders
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Functions of Phosphorus
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– The major intracellular negatively charged electrolyte required for fluid balance – Critical role in bone formation (85% of body’s phosphorus is found in bone) – Regulates biochemical pathways by activating or deactivating enzymes – Found in ATP, DNA, RNA
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Recommended Dietary Intake (RDA) for phosphorus is
answer

700 mg/day
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Sources of phosphorus
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– Widespread in many foods – Found in high amounts in foods that contain protein (e.g. meat, milk, eggs) – Animal sources are better absorbed – Phyic acid: Form stored in plants
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Common Food Sources of Phosphorus
answer

Cheese, cheddar – 3 oz Yogurt, nonfat, plain – 8 oz Lentils, cooked – 1 cup Black beans, cooked – 1 cup Milk, 2% fat – 1 cup Chicken, roasted – 3 oz Ground beef, extra lean, broiled – 3 oz Soy milk – 1 cup Peanut butter, smooth – 2 tbsp
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What if you consume too much phosphorus?
answer

– High blood levels of phosphorus can occur with kidney disease or when taking too many vitamin D supplements – Causes muscle spasms, convulsions
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What if you do not consume enough phosphorus?
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– Deficiencies of phosphorus are rare
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Phosphorus is commonly found in
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our animal-products (e.g. meat, dairy, eggs, cola)
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Serious health problems that can occur when fluid excretion exceeds intake include
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dehydration and heat illnesses
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_____ occurs when water loss exceeds water intake.
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Dehydration
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Infants and the elderly are more at risk because
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1) they do not have the ability to concentrate their urine, 2) kidney does not function as well in conserving fluid, and 3) elderly have an impaired thirst mechanism.
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Other common causes of dehydration include
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– diarrhea – vomiting – fever – burns, including sunburn – poorly managed diabetes (high-blood sugars causes the kidney to excrete some blood glucose and pulls water with it) – abuse of diuretics or laxatives (alcohol, coffee, tea)
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Signs of Dehydration
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– noticeable thirst – muscle cramps weakness decreased performance – difficulty paying attention – headache – nausea – fatigue – lightheaded feeling or dizziness
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Classifying dehydration
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Classified in terms of percentage of weight loss that is exclusively due to the loss of fluids
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Determine sweat loss by ____ daily.
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weighing
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Weight should stay ____ if successfully rehydrated.
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constant
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Goal is to finish exercise within _% of starting weight.
answer

2
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Drink at least _ cups of fluid approximately _ hours BEFORE physical activity.
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2; 2
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Drink _ ounces every _ minutes DURING physical activity.
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5-10; 15-20
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Drink _ cups for each ___ of body weight lost during activity AFTER physical activity.
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2; pound
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Adequate hydration
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Urine color: Using urine color is a good way to gage hydration status.
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Minor dehydration
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clear to pale yellow: think lemonade not apple juice
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Minor to severe dehydration
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is indicated as urine color gets darker
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Three common types of heat illnesses closely linked to dehydration are
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– heat cramps (least severe) – heat exhaustion – heat stroke (most severe)
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Heat ____ are painful muscle cramps, usually in the abdomen, arms, or legs.
answer

cramps
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Heat ____ develop during vigorous activity sessions in the ___.
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cramps; heat
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Heat cramps are ____ that can last seconds or minutes.
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spasms
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What to do when you have heat cramps
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– stop activity immediately – cool down – rest
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Heat ____ may develop after several days in high heat when fluids are inadequate.
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exhaustion
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Heat exhaustion symptoms include
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– cramps – weakness – vomiting – dizziness – elevated blood pressure and pulse
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Heat exhaustion must be treated promptly and aggressively to prevent ____ from developing.
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heatstroke
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____ typically occurs if the body’s temperature regulation mechanisms fail.
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Heatstroke
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Heatstroke occurs in ____ environments.
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hot, humid
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______: skin will be damp and clammy
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Heat exhaustion
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______: skin will be hot and dry
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Heatstroke
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Alcohols are chemical compounds characterized by a _____
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hydroxyl group
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In common usage, beverages contain ____ made from fermented fruits, vegetables, or grains
answer

ethanol
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1 gram of alcohol is
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7 kcals
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1 gram of carbohydrates is
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4 kcals
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What is moderate alcohol intake for beer, wine, whiskey/gin/scotch/vodka, and wine cooler?
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– 12 oz of beer – 4 to 5 oz of wine – 1 1/2 oz 80-proof of whiskey, gin, scotch, and vodka – 10 oz of wine cooler
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A ___ is defines as the amount of a beverage that provides 1/2 fluid ounce of pure alcohol
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drink
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___ is a measurement of alcohol content.
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Proof
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What is the moderate alcohol intake per day for men and women?
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Men = up to two drinks per day Women = up to one drink per day
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Benefits of moderate consumption include
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– Stress and anxiety reduction – Appetite improvement – Lower rates of heart disease – Possible lower risks for diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and liver disease
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Phytochemical found in red wines
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Resveratol
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Concerns about moderate alcohol intake include
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– Women appear to be at higher risk for breast cancer – Increased risk for hypertension – Higher rates of bleeding in the brain – Relatively high Calorie content – Potential for adverse drug interactions
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Small amounts of alcohol are absorbed in the ____ and ____.
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mouth; esophagus
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Alcohol is readily absorbed in the ____, but food will dilute the alcohol and delay gastric emptying.
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stomach
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The primary site of alcohol absorption is the ____.
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upper small intestine
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Alcohol easily diffuses in and out of cells, so most alcohol is absorbed unchanged. True or False.
answer

True
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Alcohol requires no digestion and is absorbed easily all along the gastrointestinal tract via simple diffusion. True or False.
answer

True
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Alcohol absorption depends on ___ of stomach emptying.
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rate
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For liquor, wine, and beer, what absorbs the fastest to slowest?
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(fastest) wine -> liquor -> beer (slowest)
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Alcohol is found where?
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Wherever water is found in the body (e.g. sweat)
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Alcohol absorption easily moves through the ____.
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cell membrane (damaging it)
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Alcohol dehydrogenase (AHD) and Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is what?
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– Converted to fatty acids – Metabolized for energy
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Alcohol and metabolism depends on what?
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– gender – race – size – food – physical condition – alcohol content
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Majority of alcohol and is metabolized by the ___, also known for detoxification.
answer

liver
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Alcohol can be stored in the body. True or false.
answer

False
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Alcohol has priority in metabolism. True or false.
answer

True
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Physical activity, such as walking around, will speed up the break-down of alcohol. Why is this a myth?
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Muscles do not metabolize alcohol; the liver does.
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Drinking a lot of coffee will keep you from getting drunk. Why is this a myth?
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Coffee does not cause alcohol to be excreted in the urine.
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Using a sauna or steam room will force all of the alcohol out of your body. Why is this a myth?
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Very little alcohol is lost in the sweat; the alcohol will remain in your bloodstream.
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Herbal and nutritional products are available that speed up the breakdown of alcohol. Why is this a myth?
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There is no scientific evidence that commercial supplements will increase the rate of alcohol metabolism; they will not lower blood alcohol levels.
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What are the three types of alcohol abuse?
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Alcohol abuse, binge drinking, alcoholism
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____ is excessive intake of alcohol.
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Alcohol abuse
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____ is a disease characterized by chronic dependence on alcohol.
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Alcoholism
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____ is consumption of five or more drinks per occasion.
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Binge drinking
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____ is the consequence of drinking too much alcohol.
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Hangover
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What are the symptoms of a hangover?
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– headache – fatigue – dizziness – muscle aches – nausea
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Even at low intakes, alcohol impairs reasoning and judgment, also known as ____.
answer

reduce brain function
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____ is a potentially fatal metabolic state involving cardiac or respiratory failure.
answer

Alcohol poisoning
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Alcohol abuse can lead to traumatic injury from what?
answer

– falls – drownings – assaults – traffic accidents
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Typical response of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of 0.02-0.05%
answer

Feeling of relaxation, euphoria, relief
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What is your Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) if your typical response is impaired judgment, fine motor control, and coordination; loss of normal emotional control; legally drunk in many states (at the upper end of the range)
answer

0.06-0.10%
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What is your Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) if your typical response is impaired reflexes and gross motor control; staggered gait; legally drunk in all states; slurred speech
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0.11-0.15%
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What is your Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) if your typical response is impaired vision; unpredictable behavior; further loss of muscle control
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0.16-0.20%
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What is your Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) if your typical response is total loss of coordination; in a stupor
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0.21-0.35%
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Typical response of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of 0.40% and above
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Loss of consciousness; come; suppression of respiratory response; death
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As blood alcohol concentration rise, different parts of the brain are affected. True or False.
answer

True
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Reduced liver function occurs when the rate of alcohol intake exceeds the ability of the liver to
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break alcohol down
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Liver cells are damaged or destroyed due to alcohol abuse. True or False.
answer

True
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___ is an early but reversible sign of liver damage.
answer

Fatty liver (fat build up in liver)
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____ results in loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and jaundice.
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Alcohol hepatitis
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____ of the liver involves permanent scarring, reduced blood flow to lives after years of alcohol abuse.
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Cirrhosis
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Advanced stages of cirrhosis are reversible. True or False.
answer

False.
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Enlarged fat cells, fatty infiltration of the liver, increased synthesis of fat, scar tissues, destruction of vital tissues regardless of diet are results of ____.
answer

cirrhosis
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Someone with cirrhosis has a 50% chance of death within 4 years. True or False.
answer

True
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Enlarged fat cells choke off ___ and ___ supply to liver cells
answer

nutrient; O2
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____ fat cells burst and die.
answer

Engorged
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Chronically high intakes of alcohol increases these 5 risks:
answer

– Impaired bone health – Pancreatic injury and diabetes – Cancer – Abdominal obesity – Malnutrition
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Impaired bone health impairs bone ____.
answer

formation
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Pancreatic injury and diabetes ____ body’s ability to respond to ____.
answer

decreases; insulin
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Cancer from alcohol develops in the GI tract, liver, and ___ in females.
answer

breast cancer
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What is malnutrition?
answer

Malnutrition is the loss of appetite for healthy foods.
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Malnutrition among alcoholics is common due to poor food choices and alcohol’s interference with the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of nutrients. True or False.
answer

True
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_____, a set of serious, irreversible birth defects, including physical, emotional, behavioral, and developmental problems.
answer

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
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_____, subtler consequences that may be exhibited later, including hyper activity, attention deficit disorder, and impaired learning abilities.
answer

Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE)
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____ are compounds that protect our cells from damage caused by oxidation.
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Antioxidants
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Atoms are composed of two particles. What are they?
answer

Nucleus and metabolism
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___ is the positively charged center portion of the atom
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Nucleus
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___ is the negatively charged particles surrounding nucleus
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Metabolism
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During metabolism, atoms exchange electrons. Then, electrons are lost (oxidation). True or false.
answer

True
question

During metabolism, atoms exchange electrons, then breaks down and builds up molecules. True or false.
answer

True
question

Where is the nucleus and the electrons in the structure of atoms?
answer

Nucleus is in the center, the electrons are orbiting around the nucleus
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What does the nucleus (positive charge) do to the negatively charged electrons?
answer

keeps them close by
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There are an odd # of electrons in orbit around the nucleus. True or False.
answer

False
question

Pairing of electrons is the chemical stable atom. True or False.
answer

True
question

Exchange Reaction consists of two parts: (1) During ___, atoms lose electrons (2) During ___, atoms gain electrons
answer

oxidation; reduction
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____ contain an even # of paired electrons.
answer

Stable atoms
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____ loses an electron during oxidation, left with an odd # of electrons in its outermost shell (unpaired electrons).
answer

Unstable atoms
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____ is an atom that has lost an electron and is left with an unpaired electron. It is highly reactive and can cause damage to molecules in the cell.
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Free radical
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Our body uses ____ and ____ to generate the energy (ATP) it needs.
answer

oxygen; hydrogen
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Oxygen is from ____; hydrogen is from____.
answer

respiration; digestion
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Sometimes during metabolism, oxygen accepts a single electron that was released during the process. True or false.
answer

True
question

Oxygen atom can become an unstable free radical because of the unpaired electron. True or false.
answer

True
question

Many metabolic and physiological processes involve ____ reactions and can produce free radical.
answer

oxidation
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Immune system produces ____ to fight allergens or infections.
answer

inflammation
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Free radicals are also produced by 3 other things:
answer

– pollution – UV light and radiation – toxic substances
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Free radicals can destabilize other molecules and damage our cells. True or False.
answer

True
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What happens to the cell membrane as an impact of free radicals?
answer

Lipid heads are destroyed and cannot reply water. Cell loses integrity
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What four molecules and/or cells are affected by free radicals?
answer

Cell membranes, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), proteins in the cell, genetic material (DNA)
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Defective DNA leads to faulty protein synthesis. True or False.
answer

True
question

____ promotes blood vessel inflammation and formation of clots.
answer

Free radicals
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Name the 8 diseases linked to free radicals.
answer

– Cancer – Heart disease – Type 2 diabetes – Arthritis – Cataracts – Kidney disease – Alzheimer’s disease – Parkinson’s disease
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Free-radical formation is generally kept under control by these 3 antioxidants.
answer

Vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals
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_____ donate electrons or hydrogen atoms to free radicals to stabilize them.
answer

Antioxidant vitamins A and C
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_____ act as cofactors required to activate enzymes.
answer

Antioxidant minerals
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What 4 antioxidant minerals act as cofactors required to activate enzymes?
answer

Selenium, zinc, copper, manganese
question

Antioxidant minerals work within antioxidant enzyme systems that convert free radicals to less damaging structures. True or False.
answer

True
question

____ are plant chemicals that help stabilize radicals and prevent damage.
answer

Phytochemicals
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____ is an example of a phytochemical.
answer

Beta-carotene
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RDA of vitamin E (fat soluble) for men and women is _
answer

15 mg alpha-tocopherol
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RDA of vitamin C (water soluble) for men is _
answer

90 mg
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RDA of vitamin C (water soluble) for women is _
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75 mg
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RDA of vitamin C (water soluble) for smokers is _
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35 mg more per day than RDA
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RDA of selenium (trace mineral) for men and women is _
answer

55 ug
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RDA of beta-carotene (fat soluble; provitamin for vitamin A) is _
answer

none at this time
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RDA of vitamin A (fat soluble) for women is
answer

700 ug
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RDA of vitamin A (fat soluble) for men is
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900 ug
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Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin made of ____ and ____.
answer

tocotrienol; tocopherol
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The difference between tocotrienol and tocopherol.
answer

Tocotrienol: biologically inactive form Tocopherol: biologically active form
question

The primary role of vitamin E is as an ____.
answer

antioxidant
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Vitamin E is prevalent in our adipose tissues and ____.
answer

cell membranes
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Vitamin E protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) & lowdensity lipoproteins (LDLs) from being ____.
answer

oxidized
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Vitamin E lowers our risk for ____.
answer

heart disease
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Tolerable upper limit (UL) for vitamin E is ___ per day.
answer

1,000 mg
question

What are good sources of vitamin E?
answer

Vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, wheat germ, soybeans
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What are poor sources of vitamin E?
answer

Animal and dairy products
question

Exposure to oxygen, metal, heat destroys vitamin E. True or False.
answer

True
question

What are the 9 common food sources of vitamin E?
answer

Total cereal – 3/4 cup Sunflower seeds – 1/4 cup Marinara sauce – 1 cup Mixed nuts, dry roasted – 1/4 cup Avocado – 1 medium Canola oil – 1 tbsp Peanuts, dry roasted – 1 oz Peanut butter, smooth – 1 tbsp Spinach, fresh – 2 cups
question

What if you do not consume enough vitamin E?
answer

– Can result in fragile red blood cells (erythrocyte hemolysis) – Can cause loss of muscle coordination and reflexes – Can impair immune function
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Vitamin C is a ___ vitamin that must be consumed in the human diet.
answer

water-soluble
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Vitamin C is not an antioxidant. True or False.
answer

True
question

Vitamin C is the synthesis of ____.
answer

collagen
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Vitamin C prevents the disease ____.
answer

scurvy
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Vitamin C enhances the immune system. True or False.
answer

True
question

Vitamin C regenerates ____ after oxidation.
answer

vitamin E
question

Vitamin C enhances the absorption of ____.
answer

iron
question

The UL for vitamin C is ___ per day for adults.
answer

2,000 mg
question

Sources of vitamin C is citrus and more ____ and ____.
answer

fresh fruits; vegetables
question

____ and ____ destroys vitamin C.
answer

Heat; oxygen
question

Cooked foods has a higher vitamin C content. True or False.
answer

False
question

What are the 10 common food sources of vitamin C?
answer

Bell peppers, green raw – 1 cup Strawberries, fresh – 1 cup Grapefruit juice, unsweetened – 8 fl. oz Pineapple, chunks – 1 cup Kiwi – 1 medium Orange – 1 medium Broccoli, cooked – 1/2 cup Cauliflower, cooked – 1/2 cup Sweet potato, baked, with skin – 1 Tomatoes, fresh – 5 slices
question

What if you consume too much vitamin C?
answer

– Mega doses (10x or more of the RDI) can cause nausea, diarrhea, nosebleeds, and abdominal cramps – Can cause iron toxicity in people with hemochromatosis – Can lead to kidney stone formation in people with kidney disease
question

____ is the most common vitamin C deficiency.
answer

Scurvy
question

What are the 9 symptoms of scurvy?
answer

– bleeding gums – loose teeth – wounds that fail to heal – swollen ankles and wrists – bone pain and fractures – diarrhea – weakness – depression
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Scurvy can occur after 1 month of a diet deficient in ____.
answer

vitamin C
question

____ can also result from vitamin C deficiency.
answer

Anemia
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____ is a trace mineral found in a few amino acids in the body.
answer

Selenium
question

Selenium is an antioxidant. True or False.
answer

True
question

Selenium produces ____, a thyroid hormone.
answer

thyroxine
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UL for selenium is __ per day.
answer

400 ug
question

What are the 5 rich sources of selenium?
answer

– organ meats – pork – seafood – fish – nuts
question

What are the 9 common food sources of selenium?
answer

Turkey giblets, cooked – 1 cup Halibut, cooked – 1/2 fillet Tuna, canned, in water – 3 oz Couscous, cooked – 1 cup Cheese, ricotta, part-skim milk – 1 cup Spaghetti, whole wheat, cooked – 1 cup Mixed nuts, oil roasted – 1 oz Pork loin chop, broiled – 3 oz Turkey, dark meat, roasted – 3 oz
question

What if you consume too much selenium?
answer

brittle hair, nails, skin rashes – can result from supplements
question

____ disease: a form of heart disease
answer

Keshan
question

____ disease: a type of arthritis
answer

Kashin-Beck
question

____ is a compound needed for proper functioning of an enzyme.
answer

Cofactor
question

Copper, zine, and manganese are ____ for the superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzyme system.
answer

cofactors
question

____ is an important cofactor in carbohydrate metabolism.
answer

Manganese
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Beta-carotene is in the class of chemicals called ___.
answer

carotenoids
question

What color are beta-carotenes?
answer

Red, orange, deep yellow
question

A ____ is an inactive precursor that must be converted to the active form of a vitamin in the body.
answer

provitamin
question

Beta-carotene is the precursor of ____, an active form of vitamin A.
answer

retinol
question

Beta-carotene is a relatively strong antioxidant. True or False.
answer

False
question

Beta-carotene is effective against ____ in cell membranes and LDLs.
answer

oxidation
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Carotenoids are known to do 3 things:
answer

– enhance the immune system – protect skin from damage by UV light – protect eyes from damage
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Beta-carotene is not considered an essential nutrient. True or False.
answer

True
question

No Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) or RDA has been established for beta-carotene. True or False.
answer

True
question

Fruits and vegetables that are red, orange, yellow, and deep green have rich sources of ____.
answer

beta-carotene
question

Carotenoids are better absorbed from cooked foods. True or False.
answer

True
question

What are the 8 common sources of beta-carotene?
answer

Pumpkin, canned – 1 cup Sweet potato, baked, with skin – 1 Spinach, frozen, cooked – 1 cup Kale, frozen, cooked – 1 cup Carrots, raw – 1 cup Spinach, raw – 2 cups Cantaloupe, fresh – 1 cup Broccoli, cooked – 2 cups
question

Large quantities of beta-carotene do not appear to be toxic. True or False.
answer

True
question

High intakes of ____ may turn skin yellow or orange; harmless and reversible
answer

beta-carotene
question

There are no known deficiency symptoms of beta-carotene. True or False.
answer

True
question

Vitamin A is a ____ vitamin.
answer

fat-soluble
question

Excess vitamin A is stored in what 4 places in the body?
answer

liver, adipose tissue, kidneys, lungs
question

What are the three active forms of vitamin A?
answer

Retinol, Retinal, Retinoic acid
question

____ is the alcohol form of vitamin A.
answer

Retinol
question

____ is the aldehyde form of vitamin A.
answer

Retinal
question

____ is the acid form of vitamin A.
answer

Retinoic acid
question

What 4 things does retinol and retinal contribute to?
answer

– vision – sexual reproduction – bone health – immune function
question

What 3 things does retinoic acid contribute to?
answer

– cell differentiation – bone health – immune function
question

____ the process by which cells mature and specialize.
answer

Cell differentiation
question

Vitamin A may act as an antioxidant. True or False.
answer

True
question

What vitamin is essential to sight?
answer

A
question

Vitamin _ enables us to react to changes in brightness of lights and to distinguish between various wavelengths of lights (color).
answer

A
question

Vitamin A is a component of two light-sensitive proteins, ___ and ___, that are essential for vision.
answer

rhodopsin; iodopsin
question

Rhodopsin is less sensitive to light than iodopsin and is more likely to become bleached. True or False.
answer

False
question

In the retina are two types of light absorbing cells, ___ and ___.
answer

rods; cones
question

Rods contain the protein ___, while cones contain the protein ___.
answer

rhodopsin; iodopsin
question

After light enters your eye through the ___, it travels to the back of your eye to the ___, which is located in the ___.
answer

cornea; macula; retina
question

The ___ allows you to see fine details and things that are straight in front of you.
answer

macula
question

As rhodopsin absorbs incoming light, the shape of ___ is altered, and it detaches from the rhodopsin.
answer

vitamin A
question

A process, called ____, causes a cascade of events that transmits visual messages through your optic nerve to your brain.
answer

bleaching
question

After bleaching, some ___ is lost.
answer

retinal
question

Retinol from the blood is converted to ___ to replenish what is lost.
answer

retinal
question

What are the 3 animal sources of vitamin A?
answer

liver, eggs, whole fat dairy products
question

What kind of plant sources have sources of vitamin A?
answer

Carotenoids (dark-green, orange, and deep-yellow fruits and vegetables)
question

What are the 9 common food sources of vitamin A?
answer

Beef liver, cooked – 1 slice Pumpkin, canned – 1 cup Carrots, cooked – 1 cup Sweet potato, canned – 1 cup Raisin bran cereal – 1 cup Cheese, ricotta, whole milk – 1/2 cup Skim milk, vitamin A fortified – 1 cup Broccoli, cooked – 1 cup Egg, hardboiled – 1 large
question

Vitamin A is highly toxic, especially from supplements. True or False.
answer

True
question

With vitamin A’s role in the cell differentiation process, birth defects and permanent damage to liver and eyes can result. True or False.
answer

True
question

____ is the most common disease of vitamin A deficiency due to inability for eyes to adjust to dim light.
answer

Night blindness
question

Irreversible blindness (xerophthalmia) is the harding of cornea and is caused by vitamin A deficiency. True or False.
answer

True
question

____ is the excessive accumulation of keratin (protein) in hair follicles and is caused by vitamin A deficiency.
answer

Hyperkeratosis
question

____ makes skin rough and bumpy, prevents proper sweating, skin dry and thick.
answer

Hyperkeratosis
question

____ is a group of related diseases characterized by cells growing “out of control”
answer

Cancer
question

Cancer progresses in these 3 stages.
answer

Initiation, Promotion, Progression
question

A cell’s DNA is mutated in this stage of cancer.
answer

Initiation
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An altered cell repeatedly divides in this stage of cancer.
answer

Promotion
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Cells grow out of control in this stage of cancer.
answer

Progression
question

What are the 3 cancers with highest mortality rate?
answer

Lung, colon and/or rectum, breast
question

What are the 5 factors that increase cancer risk?
answer

– family history of cancer – tobacco use – weight, poor diet, and secondary lifestyle – infectious agents (e.g. STDs) – sun exposure (UV radiation)
question

Cancer risk in tobacco use increases your risk of what?
answer

– lung cancer and cardiovascular disease – mouth cancer – premature wrinkle of skin, especially around the mouth
question

Cancers related to weight, poor diet, results in 1/4 to 1/3 of estimated cancer deaths. True or False.
answer

True
question

Cancer risk in infectious agents increases your risk of what?
answer

HPV – cervical cancer H. pylori – stomach cancer
question

What are the 11 signs and symptoms of cancer?
answer

– unexplained weight loss – fever – extreme fatigue – pain – skin changes – changes in bowel habits or bladder function – indigestion or trouble swallowing – white patches inside the mouth or on the tongue – unusual bleeding or discharge – any thickening or lump – nagging cough or hoarseness
question

Cancer treatments varies according to the ___, the ___ type, whether or not it has metastasized, and other individual factors.
answer

location; cell
question

What are the 3 major types of cancer treatments?
answer

Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
question

___ is the most effective type of cancer treatment when it can entirely remove the mass.
answer

Surgery
question

___ is the cancer treatment that delivers high energy x-rays, gamma rays, electron beams, or photons to tumor cells to kill them outright or damage their DNA so that they can no longer reproduce.
answer

Radiation
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___ is a drug therapy cancer treatment; any of more than 100 different drugs can be combined for different patient needs.
answer

Chemotherapy
question

4 simple ways to prevent cancer.
answer

Check, quit, move, nourish
question

____ may contribute to reducing the risk of cancer.
answer

Antioxidants
question

What are the 4 ways antioxidants may be used to reduce the risk of cancer?
answer

– enhance the immune system – prevent oxidative damage to cells – inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and tumors – inhibiting the capacity of cancer cells to avoid aging and programmed cell death (apoptosis)
question

____ and ____ are substances composed of freely moving molecules.
answer

Fluids; electrolytes
question

Fluids and electrolytes have the ability to conform to the shape of the container that holds them. True or False.
answer

True
question

_% to _% of a healthy adult’s body contains fluid.
answer

50; 70
question

2/3 of the body’s fluid is ____.
answer

intracellular fluid
question

1/3 of the body’s fluid is ____.
answer

extracellular fluid
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____ flows between the cells within tissues and organs (muscle and liver).
answer

Tissue fluid
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____ is the fluid portion of blood that carries the blood cells.
answer

Plasma
question

The body fluid composition of tissues varies by 3 factors.
answer

Tissue type, gender, age
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The body fluid composition of tissues varies by ___, because lean tissues have higher fluid content than fat tissues (muscle is 73% water; fat is 20% water).
answer

tissue type
question

The body fluid composition of tissues varies by ___, because males have more lean tissue and therefore more body fluid.
answer

gender
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The body fluid composition of tissues varies by ___, because lean tissue is lost with age, and body fluid is lost with it.
answer

age
question

___ is substances that disassociates in solution into positively and negatively charges ions.
answer

Electrolytes
question

In intracellular fluid, ___ and ___ are the predominant electrolytes.
answer

potassium (K^+)G; phosphorus (HPO4^2-)
question

In extracellular fluid, ___ and ___ predominate.
answer

sodium (Na^+); chloride (CL^-)
question

There is a slight electrical charge difference on either side of the cell membrane. True or False.
answer

True
question

Fluids dissolve and transport substances. True or False.
answer

True
question

Water is an excellent ___ because it can dissolve many different substances.
answer

soluent
question

Since blood is mainly water, it is able to transport a variety of ___ .
answer

solutes (dissolved material)
question

___ include ions, carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals.
answer

Fluids
question

Fat does not dissolve in water. True or False.
answer

True
question

Lipids and fat soluble vitamins are either attached to or surrounded by ___ proteins then transported into the blood to the cells.
answer

water-soluble
question

____ is the amount of fluid in the blood.
answer

Blood volume
question

Increased blood volume can cause blood pressure to rise (___).
answer

hypertension
question

Decreased blood volume can cause low blood pressure (___).
answer

hypotension
question

What are 3 symptoms of hypotension?
answer

Confusion, dizziness, lethargy (tiredness)
question

Fluids help maintain ___, which is one of the key functions of fluid.
answer

body temperature
question

Water has a low heat capacity. True or False.
answer

False
question

The temperature of our body fluids remains quite stable, therefore it takes a lot of energy to raise its temperature. True or False.
answer

True
question

Body fluids are our primary coolant. True or False.
answer

True.
question

____ cooling occurs when heat is transported from the body core through the bloodstream to the surface of the skin.
answer

Evaporative
question

Body fluids are the most important means of heat loss during exercise. True or False.
answer

True
question

Fluids help maintain body temperature. True or False.
answer

True
question

___ fluid protects the brain and spinal column.
answer

Cerebrospinal
question

___ fluid protects the fetus.
answer

Amniotic
question

___ fluid is a lubricant around joints.
answer

Synovial
question

___ allow for easy passage of material.
answer

Digestive secretions
question

___ fluid covering the lungs allows friction-free expansion and retraction.
answer

Pleural
question

Electrolytes help regulate ___ balance.
answer

fluid
question

Water follows the movement of electrolytes, moving by ___ to areas where the concentration of electrolytes is high. This allows for the controlled movement of ___ into and out of cells. Some illnesses that lead to protracted ___ and ___ can alter this balance.
answer

osmosis; fluids; vomiting; diarrhea
question

When you are appropriately hydrated, engaged in moderate exercise, and not too hot, the concentration of electrolytes is likely to be ___ inside and outside cell.
answer

equal
question

Strenuous exercise with rapid and high water intake results in ___ concentration of electrolytes outside and ___ concentration of electrolytes inside.
answer

lower; higher
question

Strenuous exercise with inadequate fluid intake results in ___ concentration of electrolytes outside and ___ concentration of electrolytes inside.
answer

higher; lower
question

Electrolytes enable our nerves to respond to ___.
answer

stimuli
question

Movement of ___ and ___ across the membrane of nerve cells changes the electrical charge across the membrane. This change in electrical charge carries the nerve ___ along the nerve ___.
answer

sodium (Na^+); potassium (K^+) impulse; cell
question

In the ___ state, intracellular fluid has slightly more electrolytes with charge.
answer

resting
question

___ causes an influx of sodium into the interior of the cell. Sodium charge inside of cell is slightly ___.
answer

Depolarization; positive
question

If enough Na enters the cell, an electrolyte signal is transmitted to adjacent region of ___.
answer

cell membrane
question

___ is the release of potassium to exterior of the cell allowing the first portion of the membrane almost immediately to return to resting state.
answer

Repolarization
question

Electrolytes signal our muscles to ___.
answer

contract
question

The movement of ___ into a muscle cell stimulates the muscle to contract.
answer

Ca^2+
question

Ca^2+ is pumped back out of the cell after the muscle ___.
answer

contraction
question

Cluster of nerve cells in the ___ stimulates our desire to drink.
answer

hypothalamus
question

What 2 factors stimulates our desire to drink?
answer

– Increased concentration of salt and other dissolved substances in our blood – Reduced blood volume/blood pressure (sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, low fluid intake)
question

___ weigh before and after training session; consume 3 cups for every pound lost.
answer

Athletes
question

Thirst mechanism is always sufficient. True or False.
answer

False
question

Amount of fluids people drink may not be enough to achieve fluid balance. True or False.
answer

True
question

Most water enters the body through ___.
answer

beverages
question

___ water contributes about 10-14% of the water the body needs.
answer

Metabolic
question

Water is formed as a by-product of our body’s metabolic ___.
answer

reactions
question

Water contributes to the break down of carbohydrates, proteins, and ___.
answer

fats
question

What are the percentage water contents of these foods listed? Iceberg lettuce, whole raw cucumber, raw peaches, raw pineapple, ripe canned olives, baked sweet potato, broiled lean pork chop, almonds
answer

Lettuce, iceberg – 96% Whole cucumber – 95% Raw peaches – 89% Raw pineapple – 86% Ripe canned olives – 80% Baked sweet potato – 76% Broiled lean pork chop – 61% Almonds – 5%
question

___ water loss is water loss noticed by a person; occurs through urine and sweat.
answer

Sensible
question

___ water loss is water loss not noticed by a person; occurs through evaporation from the skin or exhalation from the lungs, and through feces
answer

Insensible
question

What are 5 ways you can lose fluids in the body?
answer

urine, sweat, evaporation, exhalation, feces
question

Most water is lost through sweat. True or False.
answer

False. Most water is lost through urine.
question

Kidneys control how much water is reabsorbed. True or False.
answer

True
question

___ is substances that increase fluid loss via the urine.
answer

Diuretics
question

Pregnancy increases fluid loss due to ___.
answer

breast feeding
question

You can lose fluids due to ___ conditions such as high altitudes, cold or hot temperatures, or low humidity.
answer

environmental
question

Water is essential for life. True or False.
answer

True.
question

___ is required for fluid and electrolyte balance and many metabolic reactions.
answer

Water
question

The DRI of water is the same for everyone. True or False.
answer

False. Varies by age, body size, health status, physical activity level, exposure to environmental conditions
question

The DRI of water for males aged 19-50 years is __ per day; __ from beverages.
answer

3.7 L; 3.0 L
question

The DRI of water for females aged 19-50 years in __ per day; __ from beverages
answer

2.7 L; 2.2 L
question

What is the DRI for sodium?
answer

1.5 g/day
question

What is the DRI for potassium?
answer

4.7 g/day
question

What is the DRI for chloride?
answer

2.3 g/day
question

What is the DRI for phosphorus?
answer

700 mg/day
question

___ water comes from lakes, rivers, and reservoirs.
answer

Surface
question

___ water comes from underground rock formations called aquifers.
answer

Ground
question

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets and monitors standards for public water systems and is responsible for regulation of bottled water. True or False.
answer

True
question

“___ water” is relatively high in calcium.
answer

Hard
question

Becoming overhydrated is rare because ___ work efficiently and it will get rid of the excess water.
answer

kidneys
question

Drinking too much water can dilute sodium in the body, also known as ___.
answer

hyponatremia
question

___ sweating is commonly seen in a marathon runner.
answer

Excessive
question

Athletes sweating for long periods of time need to replenish with electrolyte solutions. True or False.
answer

True
question

You can lose Na^+ (sodium) in sweat. True or False.
answer

True
question

There are different levels of dehydration. True or False.
answer

True
question

Loss of too much body water impairs ___ function.
answer

physical
question

___ and ___ are especially vulnerable to dehydration because both do not have the ability to concentrate urine as do older adults.
answer

Infants; elderly
question

Thirst mechanism tends to be impaired in the ___.
answer

elderly
question

Low-fat and ___ provide protein, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, and, usually, vitamin A.
answer

skim milk
question

___ consumption of beverages with caffeine is safe and potentially healthful (phytochemicals).
answer

Moderate
question

Most soft drinks, juice drinks, flavored waters, and bottled tea and coffee drinks have added ___.
answer

sugars
question

“___ waters” with added nutrients and/or herbs can add more than 300 calories to the day’s intake and rarely contribute to better health.
answer

Designer
question

___ drinks contain a high amount of caffeine, which can cause a dramatic rise in blood pressure and heart rate. They also contain a significant amount of added sugar.
answer

Energy
question

___ beverages and ___ water provide water, electrolytes, and a source of carbohydrate. ___ water is marketed for its electrolytes and “natural sugars”
answer

Sports; coconut; Coconut
question

___ is associated with blood pressure and pH balance in the body.
answer

Sodium
question

Sodium is required for nerve __ transmission.
answer

impulse
question

Sodium assists in the transport of certain nutrients (e.g., glucose) into body cells. True or False.
answer

True.
question

Sodium balances ___ and ___.
answer

fluids; electrolytes
question

The DRI for sodium is __ per day in order to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance.
answer

1.5 g
question

No more than __ per day is recommended for sodium DRI due to sodium’s role with hypertension.
answer

2.3 g
question

The typical intake of sodium is __ per day.
answer

2300-4700 mg
question

Processed foods and restaurant foods are generally high in sodium, therefore it is important to read labels. True or False.
answer

True
question

___ is an abnormally high blood sodium concentration.
answer

Hypernatremia
question

Sodium toxicity can occur in patients with congestive heart failure or ___ disease.
answer

kidney
question

Kidney plays an important role in excreting ___; if it is not properly functioning, ___ in the blood will increase.
answer

sodium; sodium
question

Sodium toxicity results in high blood volume, ___, and high blood pressure.
answer

edema
question

___ is an abnormally low blood sodium level.
answer

Hyponatremia
question

Sodium deficiency can result from prolonged vomiting, ___, or sweating.
answer

diarrhea
question

Sodium deficiency has been seen in marathon athletes who consume too much ___ and fail to replace sodium.
answer

water
question

Sodium deficiency is a very dangerous condition, as it not corrected an individual can slip into a ___.
answer

comma
question

___ and ___ balance is a function of potassium.
answer

Fluid; electrolyte
question

Potassium is very important in muscle contractions and transmission of nerve ___.
answer

impulses
question

High-potassium intake helps to maintain a lower ___.
answer

blood pressure
question

Hypertension ___ diet is rich in fruits and vegetables, which are great sources of potassium and helps to maintain blood pressure.
answer

DASH
question

Potassium helps to maintain ___-base balance.
answer

acid
question

The DRI for potassium is __ per day.
answer

4.7 g
question

Processed foods are usually high in potassium. True or False.
answer

False
question

Fresh fruits and whole grains are good sources of ___.
answer

potassium
question

What are the 8 common food sources of potassium?
answer

Potato, whole, baked – 1 medium Yogurt, nonfat, plain – 8 oz Tomato juice – 1 cup Halibut, cooked – 3 oz Orange juice, from concentrate – 1 cup Banana, raw – 1 cup Cantaloupe, raw – 1 cup Spinach, raw – 1 cup
question

___: a high blood potassium level
answer

Hyperkalemia
question

Potassium toxicity can occur in patients with ___ disease.
answer

kidney
question

Kidney helps to ___ potassium in the body.
answer

potassium
question

Potassium toxicity can alter normal heart rhythm, resulting in a ___.
answer

heart attack
question

___: a low blood potassium level
answer

Hypokalemia
question

Potassium deficiency can be seen in patients with ___ disease or ___ acidosis.
answer

kidney; diabetic
question

Potassium deficiency can occur when taking certain ___ medications.
answer

diuretic
question

Chloride assists with maintaining ___ balance and assists the ___ system.
answer

fluid; immune
question

Minimum recommendation of chloride is __ per day.
answer

2.3 grams
question

Virtually all dietary chloride comes in the form of ___ chloride.
answer

sodium