Nursing theory, Research and Evidence based Nursing practice

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Nursing is a
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science, science is research based
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Scientific discipline
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A branch of instruction or field of learning based on the study of a body of facts [e.g., research findings] about the physical or material world” (Black, 2014, p. 355).
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Theory
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comes from the…word for ‘…viewing’ or ‘contemplating'” (Black, 2014, p. 266). “…a system of ideas that is presumed to explain a given phenomenon….a major, very well-articulated idea about something important” (Berman & Snyder, 2012, p. 40).
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Theory cont.
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a group of related concepts, definitions, and statements that describe a certain view of nursing phenomenon from which to describe, explain, or predict outcomes” (Chinn & Kramer, 1998; as cited in Black, 2014, p. 266). Theories represent tentative, abstract ideas rather than concrete, research supported facts (Black, 2014, p. 266).
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Purposes of theory
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describe, explain, predict, control
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Two key reasons theory is important for nursing
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nursing as a profession is strengthened when nursing knowledge is built on sound theory” (Black, 2014, p. 267). “The ultimate goal of nursing theory is to support nursing practice” (Black, p. 267). theory is a useful tool for reasoning, critical thinking, and decision-making…” (Black, 2014, p. 267).
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Theory Guides the Professional Nurse in:
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Making sound clinical judgments based on evidence: Determining which data are important Organizing, analyzing, and understanding connections in patients data Planning appropriate nursing interventions – i.e., evidence-based nursing practice Evaluating outcomes of interventions
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Philosophies
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identify the phenomena; present a set of beliefs, definitions & meanings of the phenomena; provide a broad general view
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Conceptual models/framework
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identify the phenomena, related concepts, & relationships among concepts
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Theories
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identify the phenomena, related concepts, relationships among concepts, & propose outcomes
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Systems theory
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The concepts of systems theory are integral to professional nursing practice” (EKU BSN Student Handbook). Sub-Concepts of Systems* Patient/Client System Health Care System
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General systems theory
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Originally developed by von Bertalanffy in 1936 Provides a way of examining interrelationships and deriving principles of understanding relationships among nursing’s basic concepts.
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Key concepts of general systems theory
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A system is a set of interrelated parts. The parts form a meaningful whole. The whole is different from and greater than the sum of its parts. Systems may be open or closed. All living systems are open systems. Systems strive for homeostasis. Systems are part of suprasystems. Systems have subsystems. A change in one part of a system creates change in other parts.
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Research
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A profession has “…a special body of knowledge that is continually enlarged through research” (Kelley, 1981, p. 157; as cited in Black, 2014, p. 55 & 56). -systematic, scientific inquiry
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knowledge
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an awareness or perception of reality acquired through learning or investigation” (Tomey & Alligood, 1998, p. 3).
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Ways of acquiring knowledge in nursing
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Tradition Authority Borrowing Trial and Error Personal Experience Role-Modeling Intuition Reasoning Nursing Research
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Purposes of nursing research
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Validates & refines existing nursing knowledge Generates new nursing knowledge “Nursing Research…the key to building an evidence-based practice in nursing” (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 4). Describe, Explain, Predict, Control
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Nursing research methods
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Quantitative – “…a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world” (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 20). Theory-testing research Types: Descriptive Correlational Quasi-Experimental Experimental Qualitative – “…a systematic, subjective approach used to describe life experiences and situations and give them meaning” (Munhall, 2007, as cited in Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 20). Theory-generating research Types: Phenomenological Grounded Theory Ethnographic Historical
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Evidence based nursing practice
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The ultimate goal of theory and research is evidence-based nursing practice. Care that integrates the best research with clinical expertise and patient values for optimum care’ (IOM, 2003)…the delivery of safe and effective patient-centered care across the lifespan” (EKU BSN Student Handbook). “…promotes quality, cost effective outcomes for patients, families, healthcare providers, and the healthcare system [the ultimate goal of nursing]” (Burns & Grove, 2011, p. 4).
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Roles of the Baccalaureate Degree Nurse in Research & Evidence-Based Nursing Practice
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Apply research findings (consumer of research) for evidence-based nursing practice. Work with others to identify potential research problems. Collaborate on research teams. Disseminate evidence of best practices from research.

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