Nursing Research Quiz Week 10

information acquired in a variety of ways that is expected to be an accurate reflection of reality and is used to guide practice

nursing research
a scientific process that validates and refines existing knowledges and generates new knowledge that directly and indirectly influences nursing practice

inductive reasoning
reasoning from specific to general

personal experience
gaining knowledge by being personally involved in a situation, such as providing care to patients in ICU

deductive reasoning
reasoning from general to specific or from a general premise to a particular situation

knowledge generated from research that includes evidence for identifying and understanding the nature of nursing phenomena for practice

insight or understanding of a situation or event as a whole that usually cannot be logically explained

knowledge generated from research that clarifies relationships among variables.

outcomes research
an important scientific methodology that was developed to examine the end results of patient care.

knowledge generated from research that enables one to estimate the probability go a specific outcome in a given situation

the appropriation and use of knowledge from other fields or disciplines to guide nursing practice

role modeling
learning by imitating the behaviors of an expert and the process of teaching less-experienced professionals by demonstrating model behaviors.

processing and organizing ideas to reach conclusions and examples include problematic and logistics

Evidence based practice
the conscientious integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values and needs in the delivery of high quality, cost-effective health care

clinical expertise
knowledge and skills of the health care professional providing care and is determined for a nurse by years of clinical experience, current knowledge of research and clinical literature, and educational preparation.

Best research evidence
the strongest empirical knowledge available generated from the synthesis of quality study findings to address a practice problem

evidence based guidelines
rigorous explicit clinical guidelines developed based on the best research evidence available in that area

critical appraisal of research
careful examination of all aspects of study to judge its strengths, limitations, meaning and significance

systematic review
structured, comprehensive synthesis of quantitative and outcomes studies and meta-analysis in a particular health care area to determine the best research evidence available for expert clinicians to use to promote evidence-based practice

process for synthesizing qualitative research findings to sum the findings across reports in a target area

integrative review
the identification, analysis, and synthesis of research findings from independent quantitative, outcomes, and qualitative studies to determine the current knowledge in a particular area

qualitative synthesis technique that provides a fully integrated novel description or explanation of a target event or experiences versus a summary of that event.

a type of study and research synthesis that statistically pools the results from previous studies into single quantitative analysis and provides one of the highest levels of evidence for an intervention’s efficacy.

qualitative research methods
ethnographic research, grounded theory research, historical research, phenomenological research

quantitative research methods
correlational research, descriptive research, experimental research, quasi-experimental research

BSN’s role in research
uses research evidence in practice with guidelines; critically appraises study

MSN’s role in research
critically appraises study; collaborates in conducting research projects

DNP’s role in research
participates in the development of evidence-based guidelines; collaborates in conducting research projects; critically appraises studies and synthesizes research evidence to develop and refine protocols and policies for selected health care agency

PhD’s role in research
coordinates research teams of BSN-MSN-DNP prepared nurses

Post-Doctorate’s role in research
mentors PhD prepared researchers; coordinated research teams

quantitative research process
formal, objective, systematic process to describe, test relationships, and examine cause-and-effect interactions among variables

location for conducting research that can be natural, partially controlled, or highly controlled

applied research
scientific investigations conducted to generate knowledge that will directly influence clinical practice

imposing rules by the researcher to decrease the possibility of error and increase the probability that the study’s findings are an accurate perception of reality

process of selecting groups of people, events, behaviors, or other elements that are representative of the population being studied

basic research
scientific investigations for the pursuit of knowledge for knowledge-sake or for the pleasure of learning

extension of the implications of the findings from the sample that was studied to the larger population

pilot study
smaller version of a proposed study conducted to develop and/or refine the methodology, such as the treatment or intervention, measurement instruments, or data collection process to be used in the larger study

the specific goal or purpose of a study that directs the remaining steps of the research process

theoretical limitations
the limitations that restrict the abstract generalizations of the findings and are reflected in the study framework and the conceptual and operational definitions of the variables

quasi-experimental research
type of quantitative research that is conducted to examine causal relationships or to determine the effect of an independent variable on the dependent variable but lacks the control of an experimental study

descriptive research
type of quantitative research that involves the exploration and description of phenomena in real-life situations

methodological limitations
limitations, such as small sample size, or poor measurement methods that can decrease the credibility of the findings and restrict the population to which the findings can be generalized.

the abstract, theoretical basis for a study that enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge

blueprint for the conduct of a study that maximizes control over factors that could interfere with the study’s desired outcome

correlational research
type of quantitative research that involves the systematic investigation of relationships between or among variables.

interpretation of research findings
step in the research process that identifies the gap in nursing knowledge needed for practice and indicates an area for further research

statements that are taken for granted or are considered true even though they have not been scientifically tested.

human rights
claims and demands that have been justified in the eyes of an individual or the consensus of a group of individuals and are protected in research

condition in which a subject’s identity cannot be linked, even by the researched, with his or her individual responses.

informed consent
agreement by a prospective subject to participate voluntarily in a study after they have indicated an understanding of the essential information about the study

non therapeutic research
research conducted to generate knowledge for a discipline. the results might benefit future patients, but will not benefit the research subjects.

institutional reviews
process of examining studies for ethical concerns by a committee of peers

discomfort and harm risks
the degree of risk subjects might experience while participating in research. Include no anticipated effects, temporary discomfort, unusual levels of temporary discomfort, risk of permanent damage, or certainty of permanent damage

privacy act
freedom of an individual to determine the time, extent, and general circumstances under which private information will be shared with or withheld from others.

benefit-risk ratio
ratio considered by researchers and reviewers of research as they weigh potential benefits and risks in a study to promote the conduct of ethical research

therapeutic research
research that provides a patient with an opportunity to receive an experimental treatment that might have beneficial results.

ethical principles
principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice that are relevant to the conduct of research

management of private data in research in such a way that subjects’ identities are not linked with their responses.

research misconduct
practices such as fabrication, falsification, or forging data; dishonest manipulation of the study designs or methods; and plagiarism

individually identifiable health information
any information, including demographic information, collected from an individual that is created or received by health care providers, health plan, or health care clearinghouse

autonomous agent
humans who have the freedom to conduct their lives as they choose, without external controls

the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results or words without giving appropriate credit, including those obtained through confidential review of others’ research proposal and manuscripts.

Simple hypothesis
hypothesis stating the relationship (associative or causal) between two variables

research hypothesis
alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis; states that a relationship exits between two or more variables.

causal hypothesis
hypothesis stating a relationship between two variables in which one variables (independent variable) is thought to cause or determine the presence of the other variables (dependent variable).

nondirectional hypothesis
hypothesis stating that a relationship exists but not predicting the exact nature of the relationship

complex hypothesis
hypothesis predicting the relationships (associative or causal) among three or more variables

associative hypothesis
hypothesis stating a relationship in which variables that occur or exist together in the real world are identified; thus when one variable changes, the other variable changes.

directional hypothesis
hypothesis stating the specific nature of the interaction or relationship between two or more variables

null hypothesis
hypothesis stating that no relationships exist among the variables being studied.

extraneous variable
variables that exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables; the researcher attempts to control the influences of these variables so that do not impact the study findings.

research problem
area of concern or gap in the knowledge base that is needed for practice and thus requires study

operation definition of variable
description of how variables will be measured or manipulated in a study

research question
concise interrogative statement developed to direct a study; focuses on description of variables, examination of relationships among variables, and determination of differences between two or more groups.

research topic
concept or broad problem area that provides the basis for generating numerous research problems.

independent variable
the treatment or experimental activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable.

formal statement of the expected relationships between or expected outcome from two or more variables in a specified population.

conceptual definition of variable
definition that provides a variable or concept from connotative (abstract, comprehensive, theoretical) meaning; established through concept analysis, concept derivation, concept synthesis, or qualitative studies.

dependent variable
the response behavior, or outcome that is predicted or explained in research; changes in this variable are presumed to be caused by the independent variable.

demographic variable
variables that are identified and data that are collected from the study subjects so the sample can be described.

elements of informed consent
1. disclosure of essential study information to the subject
2. comprehension of this information by the subject
3. competency of the subject to give consent
4. voluntary consent by the subject to participate in the study

essential information in a study consent form
a. introduction of research activities
b. statement of the research purpose
c. explanation of study procedures
d. description of risks for discomfort and harm
e. description of benefits
f. disclosure of alternatives
g. assurance of anonymity and confidentiality
h. offer to answer questions
i. options to withdraw
j. contact information for the researchers.

Grounded theory
developed by Glaser and Strauss to formulate, test and refine theory of the grieving process; inductive research technique; qualitative research method

logical positivism
quantitative approach toward scientific inquiry emerged from this branch of philosophy, which operates on strict rules of logic, truth, laws, and predictions.

applied research
scientific investigation conducted to generate knowledge that will directly influence or improve clinical practice

field setting
a natural, uncontrolled, real-life situation where a study might be conducted.

descriptive research
conducted to explore, identify, and describe phenomena in real-life situations

examples of methodological limitations
small sample size, large sample mortality, measurement methods with inadequate reliability and validity, poorly controlled treatment.

theoretical limitation examples
omitting the conceptual definitions of the variables; restrictions of abstract generalizations of the findings. Examples include: a concept that lacks clarity of definition in the theory used to develop the study framework; the unclear relationship among some concepts in the theorist’s work; a study variable that lacks a clear link to a concept in the framework; and an objective, question or hypothesis that lacks a clear link to a relationship or proposition expressed in the study framework

the outcomes from data analysis that are generated fro each research objective, question, or hypothesis

translated and interpreted from results of the study

synthesis and clarification of the meaning of the study findings

nursing implications
meaning of the research conclusions for the body of nursing knowledge and practice.

involves clustering and interrelating ideas from several sources to develop an understanding of what is known and not known about an area of concern or research problem

Four major parts of research report

operational definition
provides a description of how each variable will be measured or manipulated in study (Depression scale would be an example of an operational definition for the variable)

quasi-experimental study
type of quantitative research conducted to determine causality by examining the impact of treatment (independent variable) on a dependent variable.

descriptive study
conducted with large numbers of subjects, in natural settings, with no manipulation of the situation in any way. Researchers are able to discover new meaning, describe what exists, determine the frequency with which something occurs, and categorize information; study conducted on a new area of research where little information is available and provides a basis for the conduct of other types of quantitative research.

experimental research
objective, systematic, highly controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena in nursing practice. In an experimental study, causality between the independent and the dependent variables is examined under highly controlled conditions. Most powerful quantitative method because of the rigorous control of variables.

complete review
required when a study contains greater than minimal risk to its participants. Vulnerable populations require safety mechanisms to minimize risks, ensure informed consent is sought appropriately, and a plan is in place to promote safety and privacy.

Studies that involve the collection or examination of existing data, documents, records, or pathological specimens are usually determined to be exempt from review. Also includes studies that have no apparent risks for the subjects are usually designated as exempt from IRB review

Declaration of Helinski
defined therapeutic research as research that provides patients with an opportunity to receive a treatment that might have beneficial results.

covert data collection
with covert collection, subjects are unaware that research data are being collected.

associative hypothesis
proposes relationships among variables that occur or exist together in the real world, so that when one variable changes, the other changes.

Directional hypothesis
states the nature (positive or negative) of the interaction between two or more variables.

operational definitions
derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a researcher performs to receive sensory impressions that indicate the existence or degree of existence of a variable.

research objective
clear concise, declarative statement aimed at describing the variables of a study

explanatory research
builds on descriptive knowledge and clarifies relationships among phenomena

nursing research
a scientific process that validates and refines existing knowledge and generate new knowledge that directly and indirectly influences nursing practice.

quantitative research methods
descriptive research
correlational research
quasi-experimental research
experimental research

quantitative research characteristics
philosophical origin: logical positivism
focus: concise, objective, reductionistic
reasoning: logistic, deductive
basis of knowing: cause-and-effect relationships
theoretical focus: tests theory

qualitative research methods
phenomenological research
ground theory research
ethnographic research
historical research
focus groups

qualitative research characteristics
philosophical origin: naturalistic, interpretive, humanistic
focus: broad, subjective, holistic
reasoning: dialectic, inductive
basis of knowing: meaning, discovery, understanding
theoretical focus: theory development

outcomes research
focus on patients, families, providers, health care systems. Outcomes used change practice and develop policy.