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Nursing Research Chp 5-8

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Metaparadigm
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Four broad concepts core to nursing: Person, environment, health and nursing
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Proposition
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A statement about the relationship between two or more concepts
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Construct
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A word or phrase used to communicate a specific key idea to others
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Conceptual Definitions
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Definitions of concepts contained in a theory that sound like dictionary definitions
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Operational definitions
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Explicitly state how the variable will be measured or ope rationalized
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Empirical indicators
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Measures of the variables being studied
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Theoretical framework
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The structure of a study that links the theory concepts to the study variable
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Model
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Pictorial representation of concepts and their interrelationships
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A concept at the abstract level is comparable to a _______ at the operational level
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Variable
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A ______ at the abstract level is comparable to a hypothesis at the operational level
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Proposition
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Quantitative research typically ____ theory, while qualitative research typically _____ theory
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Test… Builds
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T or F? Theory, research and practice should be developed in isolation
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F
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T or F? Nurses are encouraged to collaborate with researchers and theorist to expand nursing knowledge
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T
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T or F? Concepts of the metaparadigm of nursing include: nursing, health, disease, social interaction and persons.
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F
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T or F? In the discipline of nursing, it is easy to follow how knowledge has developed because theorist have carefully provided citation for their ideas.
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F
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T or F? Giving credit to those who provide the basis for ideas is ethical practice
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T
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Casualty
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The relationship between a cause and its effect
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Probability
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Likelihood or chance that an event will occur in a situation
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Manipulation
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The ability of researchers to control the independent variable
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Extraneous variable
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Factors that interfere with the relationship between the independent and dependent variable
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Randomization
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An effective way to control extraneous variable; The selection, assignment or arrangement of elements by chance
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Bias
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When extraneous variables influence the relationship between the independent and dependent variables
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Random sampling
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Technique for selecting elements whereby each has the same chance of being selected `
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Random Assignment
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Subjects have an equal chance of being either in the treatment or control group
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When designing a study, which of the following should the researcher consider: 1. research question, 2. review of literature, 3. Theoretical framework, 4. study purpose
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All of the above
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Which of the following is not a purpose of non-experiemental designs? 1. Describe phenomenon, 2. explain relationships, 3. predict relationships, 4. Examine casualty.
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4. Examine Casualty.
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The researchers ability to manipulate or regulate extraneous variables is known as: 1. Control, 2. Manipulation, 3. Bias, 4. probability.
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1. Control
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When a researcher assigns subjects to groups by tossing a coin, the researcher is using.. 1. Random selection, 2. Random assignment, 3. Bias, 4. Within groups design
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2. Random assignment
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Internal validity
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The degree to which one can conclude that the independent variable produced changes in the dependent variable. -selection bias, hx, maturation, testing, instumentation, mortality and statistical conclusion validity
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Maturation
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A threat to the internal validity when subjects change by growing or maturing
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Instrumentation
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Threat to internal validity when there are inconsistencies in data collection
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Type II error
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when researcher inaccurately conclude that there is no relationship between the IV and DV
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External validity
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The degree to which the results of the study can be generalized -Construct Validity
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Construct validity
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A threat to external validity when the instrument does not accurately measure the theoretical concepts
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Hawthorne Effect
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Subjects’ behaviors affected by personal values or desires to please experimenters
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Double blind experimental designs
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Studies where subjects and researchers are unaware if they’re receiving experimental interventions or standard of care
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The degree to which the results of studies can be generalized to other individuals… 1, external validity 2. construct validity 3. Internal validity 4. statistical conclusion validity
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1. External validity
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During a study examinging nurse’ job satisfaction, the union decides to hold a strike. This is what type of threat to internal validity? 1. Selection bias, 2. Mortality, 3. History, 4. Testing
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3. History
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A researcher plans to observe children in kindergarden class. Students have always been told to be on their best behavior when guest are present in the classroom. What is the greatest threat to the external validity? 1. Construct validity 2. Hawthorne effect 3.selection 4. interaction of treatment setting.
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2. Hawthorne Effect
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Retrospective Design
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Time Design: Research design when researchers look back in time to determine possible causative factors. “Ex post facto”
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Cross- sectional
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Time Design: Non experimental designs used to gather data from a group of subjects at only one point in time
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Crossover
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Time Design:Experimental design using two or more treatments, subjects receive treatments in random order
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T or F? In retrospective designs, also known as Ex post facto designs, the researcher manipulates the IV?
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F
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T or F? Cohort comparison studies can save time b/c more than one group of subjects is studied.
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T
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T or F? The threat of mortality is greater in cross sectional designs than in longitudinal?
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F
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T or F? Any study that involves collecting data at multiple points in times is a longitudinal study.
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F
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Inductive Research:
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Used to develop a theory and is usually quaLItative designs! -Data collection begins BEFORE reading the literature
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What is a variable?
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An observation that can be measured by assigning a number to each dimension
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What is a hypothesis?
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A special type of proposition that can be tested empirically
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Deductive Research:
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Used to develop a theory and is usually quaNTItative designs! -Formulate hypothesis through CLEAR definitions of concepts and variables
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Theory
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A set of concepts linked through propositions to provide an explanation to provide an explanation of phenomenon
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Change of knowledge overtime..
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Knowledge changes overtime and ineffective practices are replaced with innovation. -This compels nurses to continue learning
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Research Designs: Non-Experimental
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Quantitative Design – describe a phenomenon in detail, -explain relationships & differences among variables – predicting relationships and differences among variables.
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Research Designs:Experimental
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Used for the purpose of examining casualties. -Researchers can actively manipulate the IN or aka the casual variable
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Multicasualty
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When outcomes have many causes causing the outcome.
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Independent Variable
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-Casual Variable -Researchers can actively manipulate
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Dependent Variable
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-Outcome Variable
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Study Validity
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Ability to accept results as logical, reasonable, and justifiable based on evidence presented
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concept
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a word or phrase that conveys an idea ot mental image that is relevant to the theory
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why should we cite our sources?
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because it creates a trail where nurses can follow the building of nursing knowledge
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Quantitative Design: Experiemental
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Design involving random assignment to groups and manipulation of IV -Pre/pos test -Most valued for evidence based practice -Shows that there is a relationship that exist
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Three main components of Experimental Design?
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1. Randomization 2. Control of extraneous variables 3. manipulation of IV
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True Experimental Designs: Two groups pre/post test
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Type of “True Experimental Designs” -Classic Experimental Design Subjects are randomized into either experimental or control group
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Solomon Four Group?
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Type of True Experimental Design -4groups: 2 placebo, 2 intervention -One control/experimental group gets tested before and After -One control/experimental group tested ONLY after
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Limitations of the Solomon Four Group Design..
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Sample size is large! This means cost increases, recruitment of subjects will be available and subjects must be available.
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Factorial Design
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True Experimental: Allowed manipulate more than one intervention
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Quasi-Experimental
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Involved with manipulation of IV but they lack a random assignment or control group
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Non Experimental Design
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Lacks manipulation of IV and random assignment Important when: -there is little known about the phenomenon -When its unethical to manipulate -When not practical to conduct experiement
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Correlational Design
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Used when researchers are interested in establishing a relationship between two or more variables
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Comparisons: QuanTitive Research
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-Deductive -Researcher: Controlled and structured -Controls/manipulates -Independent -Large number of subjects -NonExperimental, Correlational, Quasi, Experiemental
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Comparisons: QuanLitive Research
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-Inductive -Researcher: Participative & outgoing -Allows situations to unfold/words/themes -Dependent -Small number of participants -Phenomenology, Ethnography, Grounded Theory, Historical
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QuaLitive Research: Sources of Data?
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-in depth interviews -direct observations -Artifacts: written documents/photos/physical objects
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Fieldwork
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QuaLitative Research -Time researcher spends interacting wit participants
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QuaLitative Research: Sample size?
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-Smaller -Participants/informants -6-10 -Determined by the information provided
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Data Saturation
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-Qualitative Research- -When no new data is obtained and there s a repetition of information
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Snowball sampling
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-QuaLitative research- Recruiting participants based on word of mouth or referrals from other participants/informants
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Purposive: type of sampling method?
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-QuaLitative Research- Sapling method to recruit SPECIFIC people who could provide inside information
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Interview
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-QuaLitative Research- -Used to obtain as much information as possible -Audio/video -Long: 30-90minutes -Open ended and direct quotes -Questions change as as researcher collects more data
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Data Analysis
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QuaLitative Research -Involves description, data reduction, analysis, and interpretation -Analysis occurs WHILE data is being collected
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Credibility
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-Elements of evaluations Believing in findings -Equivalent to validity in Quantitative research
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What are the four elements of evaluation within QuaLitative Research?
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-Credibility -Transferability -Dependability -Conformability
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Transferability
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Applications of finding to different situation
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Dependability
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Finding are reflective of data
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Confirmability
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Findings can be substantiated by participants
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What are the strategies of establishing credibility?
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Persistent observation, Peer debriefing, referential adequacy, and member check
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Persistent Observation
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A strategy to obtain credibility in QuaLitative research -Spending quality time with participants attempting to thoroughly describe the phenomenon
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Peer debriefing
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A strategy to obtain credibility in QuaLitative research -Researcher enlist help of peer to discuss the data findings
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Referential adequancy
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A strategy to obtain credibility in QuaLitative research -When multiple sources of data are compared and the findings hold true
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Member Checks
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A strategy to obtain credibility in QuaLitative research -Sharing the results with the participants to ensure no of the findings conflict
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What are the four main type of QuaLitative Research?
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-Phenomenology -Ehnography -Grounded theory -Historical
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Type of QuaLitative research: Phenomenology
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Lived experience -Describing this lived experience to gain participants oerspective
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Type of QuaLitative research: Grounded Theory
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Process -Examines the process of the phenonminon and culminaes in the generation of thory
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Type of QuaLitative research: Ethnography
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A type of research where it describes culture
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Type of QuaLitative research: Historical
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The Past -Explaining events/people from the past to guide present and future
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Ethical standards
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Research within Qualtiative research are held to the same standard as everyone else -Consent -Ensur eprivacy -Put participants interest first -Avoid exploitation -Protect rights of interest -Exempt status from IRB –
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Meta-Analysis
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To examine outcomes across a number of studies
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Quantitative Design: Researchers role
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Noting the occurrences of variables and determining relationship -Structured/controlled