Nuclear Chemistry/Physics Study Guide: Chapter 10 Nuclear Chemistry

radioactivity
is the process in which an unstable atomic nuclus emits charged particles and energy

radioisotopes
an atom containing an unstable nucleus

nuclear radiation
is charged particles and energy that are emitted from the nuclei of raidioisotopes

alpha particle
is a positively charged particle made up of two protons and two neutrons

beta particle
an electorn emitted by an unstable nulceus

gamma ray
is a penetrating ray of energy emitted by an unstable nucleus

background radiation
nuclear radiation that occurs naturaly in the enviorment

Geiger counter
uses a gas filled tube to measure lonizing radiation

half-life
is the time required for one half oa a sample of a radioisotope to decay

radioactive dating and radiocarbon dating
the age of an object is determined by comparing the object’s carbo 14 levels with carbon-14 levels in the atmosphere

transmutation
is the conersion of atoms of one element to atoms of another

particle accelerators
in order for scientistist to have the radioactive element radium was used as alpha particles must use partivle acceleraters

transuranium elements
elemnets with atomic number greater than 92

strong nuclear force
the attravive force that binds protons and neutrons toghther in the nucleus

fission vs. fusion
the splitting of an atomic nucleus into smaller parts vs. a process in which nuclei of tow atoms combine to form a large nucleus

Albert Einstein’s mass-energy equation
E= mc^2

chain reaction
neutrons released during the splitting of an initial nucleus have a series of nuclear fissions

critical mass
the smallest possible mass of a fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction

plasma
is a state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their electrons

tracers
map out specific locations in the body