Nuclear Chemistry/physics Study Guide: Chapter 10 Nuclear Chemistry Answers

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radioactivity
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is the process in which an unstable atomic nuclus emits charged particles and energy
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radioisotopes
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an atom containing an unstable nucleus
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nuclear radiation
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is charged particles and energy that are emitted from the nuclei of raidioisotopes
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alpha particle
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is a positively charged particle made up of two protons and two neutrons
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beta particle
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an electorn emitted by an unstable nulceus
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gamma ray
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is a penetrating ray of energy emitted by an unstable nucleus
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background radiation
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nuclear radiation that occurs naturaly in the enviorment
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Geiger counter
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uses a gas filled tube to measure lonizing radiation
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half-life
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is the time required for one half oa a sample of a radioisotope to decay
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radioactive dating and radiocarbon dating
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the age of an object is determined by comparing the object’s carbo 14 levels with carbon-14 levels in the atmosphere
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transmutation
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is the conersion of atoms of one element to atoms of another
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particle accelerators
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in order for scientistist to have the radioactive element radium was used as alpha particles must use partivle acceleraters
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transuranium elements
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elemnets with atomic number greater than 92
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strong nuclear force
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the attravive force that binds protons and neutrons toghther in the nucleus
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fission vs. fusion
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the splitting of an atomic nucleus into smaller parts vs. a process in which nuclei of tow atoms combine to form a large nucleus
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Albert Einstein’s mass-energy equation
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E= mc^2
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chain reaction
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neutrons released during the splitting of an initial nucleus have a series of nuclear fissions
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critical mass
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the smallest possible mass of a fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction
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plasma
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is a state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their electrons
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tracers
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map out specific locations in the body

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