Non Performing Assets Essay Example
Non Performing Assets Essay Example

Non Performing Assets Essay Example

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  • Pages: 11 (2866 words)
  • Published: August 26, 2018
  • Type: Case Study
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The project is entitled “A study on The Management of Non-Performing Assets in the Canara Bank’s Loan Portfolio” is done at the Canara Bank, Donimalai Township, Sandur (TQ), Bellary (Dist), Karnataka State.


An efficient financial management is becoming inevitable for every manager in today’s corporate world. From a traditional aspect of raising funds whenever needed the importance has shifted to day to day financial decision making and problem solving.

When initially the stress was on the internal analysis of the firm, procurement of funds, management of assets and allocation of capital, the present importance has shifted to decision making within the firm. With the modern aspect of finance function the responsibilities of the finance manager has also increased. In the process of making optional decision, he makes use of certain analytical tools in th


e analysis, planning and control activities of the firm. Financial analysis is an essential prerequisite for making sound financial decisions.

However, banking as a kind of business i. e. , modern banking is of recent origin. It came into existence only after the industrial revolution. After the industrial revolution, with the increase in the size of industrial and business units, joint stock company people with small means to become shareholders of big industrial and business enterprises. Still, there were certain sections of public who were not prepared to invest their money on the shares of joint stock companies. However they were willing to part with a little surplus money, if they were assured of the repayment of their money with a little interest thereon.

The activities undertaken by commercial banks be subdivided into: a. Primary Functions. b. Subsidiary Functions

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a. Primary Functions: i. Acceptance of deposits: It is very important for banks as it forms the basis of all other activities of banks. It accepts various types of deposits. They are current deposit, saving deposit, fixed deposit and recurring deposits. ii. Lending of Funds: It is also the most important function of Commercial Banks as it fetches the major portions of the income of the banks.

Banks lend money by the way of loans, overdrafts, cash credit and discounting of bills. b. Subsidiary Functions: i. Agency Functions: The services rendered by banks as agent of their customers are called agency services. They are:  Banks collect cheque, bank draft, bills, interest, dividends etc on behalf of the customer.  Banks sells and purchases securities on behalf of the customers.  Banks arranges for remittance of funds from one place to another place.  Banks acts as trustees, executors, representatives of their customers. ii.

General Utility Services: Services rendered by banks to their customers as well as the general public are called as general utility services.  Banks accept precious articles, documents etc for safe custody. • Banks helps exporters and importers in foreign trade.  Banks issue travellers cheque, letter of credit, circular notes etc.  Banks acts as a reference and supply information about the financial standing of the customers to others. II. Activities of the Central Bank: A. Monopoly of Note issue. B. Banker, Agent, Advisor to the government. C. Custodian of cash reserves of the banks. D. Lender of the last resort.


The importance of banks in the modern economy cannot be denied. Banks play a significant role in

the economic development. Banks perform a number of functions. They are: 1. Banks mobilize the small scattered and ideal savings of the people, and make them available for productive purpose. In the sort, they aid the process of capital formation. 2. By accepting the savings of the people, banks provide safety and security to the surplus money of the depositors. 3. Banks provide a convenient and economical method of payment. The cheque system introduced by banks is convenient form making payments.

Again the use of cheque economies the time and trouble involved in settlement of business obligations. 4. Banks provide a convenient and economical means of transfer of funds from one place to another. Banks drafts are commonly used for remittances of funds from one place to another. 5. Banks helps the movement of capital from regions where it is no very useful to regions where it can be more usefully employed, by moving funds, banks increases the utility of funds. Again by moving funds from one place to another, banks contribute to the economic development of backward regions. 6.

Banks influence the rates of interest in the money markets. Through the supply of money (i. e. bank money or bank deposits) banks expert a powerful influence on the interest rates in the money market. 7. Banks help trade and commerce industry and agriculture by meeting their financial requirements. But for the financial assistance provided by the banks, the pace of growth of trade and commerce industry and agriculture would have been very slow. 8. Banks direct the flow of funds into production channels. While lending money, they discriminate in favor of essential

activities and against non essential activities.

Interest and /or installment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 180 days in respect of a Term Loan, ii. The account remains 'out of order' for a period of more than 180 days, in respect of an overdraft/ cash Credit(OD/CC), iii. The bill remains overdue for a period of more than 180 days in the case of bills purchased and discounted, iv. Interest and/ or installment of principal remains overdue for two harvest seasons but for a period not exceeding two half years in the case of an advance granted for agricultural purpose, and v.

Any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of more than 180 days in respect of other accounts. ’90 days’ overdue norm’ With a view to moving towards international best practices and to ensure greater transparency, it has been decided to adopt the '90 days overdue' norm for identification of NPAs, form the year ending March 31, 2004. Accordingly, with effect form March 31, 2004, a non-performing asset (NPA) shell be a loan or an advance where; i. Interest and /or installment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of a Term Loan, i. The account remains 'out of order' for a period of more than 90 days, in respect of an overdraft/ cash Credit(OD/CC), iii. The bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in the case of bills purchased and discounted, iv. Interest and/ or installment of principal remains overdue for two harvest seasons but for a period not exceeding two half years in

the case of an advance granted for agricultural purpose, and v. Any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of other accounts.

As a facilitating measure for smooth transition to 90 days norm, bank has been advised to move over to charging of interest at monthly rests, by April 1, 2002. However, the date of classification of an advance as NPA should not be changed on account of charging of interest at monthly rests. Banks should, therefore, continue to classify an account as NPA only if the interest charged during any quarter is not serviced fully with 180 days from the end of the quarter with effect from April 1, 2002 and 90 days from the end of the quarter with effect from March 31, 2004. Out of Order’ Status An account should be treated as ‘Out of Order’ if the outstanding balance remains continuously in excess of the sanctioned limit / drawing power. In cases where the outstanding balance in the principal operating account is less than the sanctioned limit / drawing power, but there are no credits continuously for 180 days (to be reduced to 90 days, with effect from March 31, 2004) as on the date of Balance Sheet or credits are not enough to cover the interest debited the same period, these accounts should be treated as ‘out of order’. ‘Overdue’

Therefore, the banks should not charge and take to income account interest on any NPA. However, interest on advances against term deposits, NSCs, VIPs, KVPs, and Life policies may be taken to income account on the due date, provided

adequate margin is available in the accounts. Fees and commissions earned by the banks as a result of re-negotiations or rescheduling of outstanding debts should be recognized on an accrual basis over the period of time covered by the re-negotiated or rescheduled xtension of credit. If Government guaranteed advances become NPA, the interest on such advances should not to be taken to income account unless the interest has been realized. REVERSAL OF INCOME: If any advance, including bills purchased and discounted, becomes NPA as at the close of any year, interest accrued and credited to income account in the corresponding previous year, should be reversed or provided for if the same is not realized. This will apply to Government guaranteed accounts also.

In respect of NPAs, fees, commission and similar income that have accrued should cease to accrue in the current period and should be reversed or provided for with respect to past periods, if uncollected. THE CONCEPT OF GROSS NPA: Income recognition is not possible once an account becomes NPA. Interest accrued on non performing loan accounts is debited to the respective account and credited to the interest suspense account instead of the profit and loss account. Usually no debits are permitted in non performing asset expect unavoidable expenditure like litigation expenses, insurance etc.

Hence the balance outstanding in an NPA account includes: 1. Balance as on date of becoming an NPA. 2. Interest accrued but not realized. On balance sheet date banks make provisions for loan losses. This provision is calculated not on the balance outstanding but on the net balance, balance net of the amount kept in the interest suspense

account. This book balance of the net of the interest suspense account is known as Gross NPA. But in cases where guarantee claim is received from credit guarantee corporations like ECGC, before making the provision for loan losses, such claim received is also netted from the gross NPA.

The terminology net NPA indicates the balance in interest suspense account. For evaluation RBI and other rating agencies rely on purpose usually the net NPA balance. Thus Gross NPA means, balance outstanding minus balance in interest suspense account. Net NPA means: Gross NPA minus balance claim received amount and provision outstanding in that account. IMPACT OF NPA: At the Macro level, NPAs have chocked off the supply line of Credit of the potential lenders thereby having a deleterious effect on capital formation and arresting the economic activity in the country.

At the Micro level, unsustainable level of NPAs has eroded current profits of banks and FIs. They have led to reduction of interest income and increase in provisions and have restricted and recycling of funds leading to various Asset Liability mismatches. Besides this, it has led to erosion in their capital base and reduction in competitiveness. The problem of NPA is not a matter of concern to banks and FIs alone. It is the matter of grave concern to the country and any bottleneck in the smooth flow of credit is bound to create adverse repercussions in the economy.

Non-Performing Asset (NPA) has emerged since over a decade as an alarming threat to the banking industry in our country sending distressing signals on the sustainability and endurability of the affected banks. The positive results

of the chain of measures affected under banking reforms by the Government of India and RBI in terms of the two Narasimhan Committee Reports in this surging threat. Despite various correctional steps administered to solve and end this problem, concrete results are eluding. It is a sweeping and all pervasive virus confronted universally on banking and financial institutions.

The severity of the problem is however acutely suffered by Nationalized Banks, followed by the SBI group, and the all India Financial Institutions. As at 31. 03. 2004 the aggregate gross NPA of all scheduled commercial banks amounted to Rs. 63883 crore. Table No. 1 gives the figures of net NPA for the last three years. The ratio of net non-performing assets to net advances also declined during 2005-06. Majority of the banks, this ratio is less than 4 percent. Punjab and Sind Bank has the highest ratio with 9. 62 percent followed by Dena Bank of India with 9. 4 percent. 4 banks reported “nil” ratio during 2005-2006.

Further it is revealed that commercial banks in general suffer a tendency to understate their NPA figures. There is the practice of ‘ever-greening of advances, through subtle techniques. As per report appearing in a national daily the banking industry has under – estimated its non-performing assets (NPAs) by a whopping Rs. 3862. 10 Crore as on March 1997. The industry is also estimated to have under-provided to the extent of Rs. 1,412. 29 Crore. The worst offender is the public sector banking industry. Nineteen nationalized banks have underestimated their NPAs by Rs. 3,029. 29 Crore.

Such deception of NPA statistics is executed through the following

ways. ? Failure to identity an NPA as per stipulated guidelines: There were instances of ‘sub-standard’ assets being classified as ‘standard’. ? Wrong classification of an NPA: Classifying a ‘loss’ asset as a ‘doubtful’ or ‘sub-standard’ asset, classifying a ‘doubtful’ asset as a ‘sub-standard’ asset. ? Classifying an account of a credit customer as ‘substandard’ and other accounts of the same credit customer as ‘standard’, throwing prudential norms to the winds.

In other words, amounts set aside for aside for making provision for NPAs as above are not eligible for tax deductions. Therefore the banks should either make full provision as per the guidelines or write-off such advances and claim such tax benefits as are applicable, by evolving appropriate methodology in consultation with their auditors / tax consultants. Recoveries made in such accounts should be offered for tax purposes as per the rules. WRITE-OFF AT HEAD OFFICE LEVEL: Banks may write-off advances at Head Office Level, even though the relative advances are still outstanding in the branch books.

However, it is necessary that provision is made as per the classification accorded to the respective accounts. In other words, if an advance is a loss asset, 100 percent provision will have to be made there for. DEBT RECOVERY TRIBUNAL: Any person aggrieved by any measure taken by the secured creditor or his authorized officer may file an appeal to Debts Recovery Tribunal, within 45days from date on which such measure was taken. That is action of taking possession of asset, takeover of management of business of borrower, appointing person to manage secured asset etc. is taken by the creditor.

When a borrower files

an appeal, the appeal cannot be entertained unless, the borrower deposits 75% of the amount claimed in the notice by secured creditor. The DRT can waive or reduce the amount required to be deposited. The amount is not required to be deposited at the time of filing appeal, but appeal will not heard till the amount is deposited. The borrower while filing the appeal should also file an application requesting the Debt Recovery Tribunal to admit the appeal without deposit of any amount. If the DRT orders partial deposit of the amount and the same is not deposited, appeal can be dismissed.

The 75% deposit is only required if the appeal is filed by the borrower. If some other aggrieved person (e. g. guarantor, shareholder) files it the deposit is not required. If a person is aggrieved by the order of the DRT, it can file an appeal to the Appellate Tribunal within 30days from the date of receipt of the DRT order. If the DRT or Appellate Tribunal holds that possessions of assets by the secured creditor was wrongful and directs the secured creditor to return asset to concerned borrower, the borrower shall be entitled to compensation and costs as may be determined by DRT or Appellate Tribunal.

With the enactment of the Securitization and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act 2002, banks can issue notices to the defaulters to pay up the dues and the borrowers will have to clear their dues within 60days. Once the borrower receives a notice from the concerned bank and the financial institution, the secured assets mentioned in the notice cannot be

sold or transferred without the consent of the lenders.

The main purpose of this notice is to inform the borrower that either the sum due to the bank or financial institution be paid by the borrower or else the former will take action by way of taking over the possession of assets. Besides assets, bank can also takeover the management of the company. Thus the bankers under the aforementioned Act will have the much needed authority to either sell the defaulting companies or charge their management. The Nationalization of the major commercial banks in the year 1969 and 1980 had brought radical changes in the banking system in India.

It had brought about major shifts in the priorities in the banking operations. Branch expansion policies of banks were tuned upto meet the banking needs of the people in rural and semi urban centers. For accelerating the socio-economic and rural development process several Governments sponsored programs were launched and lending in the priority sector, irrational lending under socio political pressures, mounting levels of bad debts, branch expansion at non viable centers etc. gradually started affecting the financial health of the banking sector in the country.

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