new deal/depression

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Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
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(1) 1933 1st New Deal law that sought to reduce farm production & increase crop prices by offering subsidies to farmers who planted less than a set quota;
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Black Thursday
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October 24, 1929, the day the stock market crashed an astounding 9 percent
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Civil Works Administration (CWA)
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1st New Deal agency created by FDR to reduce unemployment ; it spent $1 billion on short-term projects for unemployed manual laborers but was abolished in the spring of ’34
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Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
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3million men were eventually hired by this agency
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Court Packing scheme
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(1) FDR’s proposed 1937 judiciary reform bill which would have allowed him to appoint up to 6 additional justices; (2) FDR claimed that he wanted to ease the workload of judges aged >70, but he was really trying to stop the older, conservative justices who opposed the New Deal
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dust bowl
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the southern Great Plains region (Arkansas, Texas, Missouri, and Oklahoma) during the 1930s, which was hit by severe drought, fierce winds/sandstorms that destroyed farmland, machinery, and houses, and countless injuries; Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath chronicled the plight of roughly 800,000 residents of this region who migrated west to California in the ’30s & ’40s
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Emergency Banking Relief Act
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Gave a 3 month bank holiday, stopped bank runs, and insured deposits
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Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)
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$500 million to state and local treasuries that had run out of money
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Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
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requires all banks to pay into a government fund that is used to guarantee that individuals will not lose their bank savings, even if individual banks fail
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Fair Labor Standards Act
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1938 2nd New Deal act that estab’d a minimum wage and restricted shipment of goods produced with child labor
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First hundred days
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(1) March 4 to June 16, 1933, a period of dramatic, unprecedented legislative productivity when Congress passed many laws & created many agencies that established FDR’s New Deal; (2) presidents ever since have been measured by their actions in the same period of time
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Fireside chats
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FDR’s radio broadcasts in which FDR encouraged confidence and national unity & convinced struggling Americans that the government was compassionate about their needs
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Hooverville
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nickname for the shantytowns and shack communities
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John Steinbeck
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major author of the 1930s who depicted simple, rural lives & depression-era struggles in works like The Grapes of Wrath (1939)
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New Deal
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(1) FDR’s programs that sought relief & recovery (first one) and later reform (second one) during the Depression; (2) avoided radicalism/riots, and apply Keynesian principles
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National Labor Relations Act
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(1) gave workers the right to join unions and engage in collective bargaining; (2) it forbade employers from discriminating against unions,
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Herbert Hoover
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(1) president (R, 1929-1933) who held office during the stock market collapse and the height of the Depression
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Franklin Delano Roosevelt
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(1) president (1933-1945) who broke the tradition of serving no more than two terms–he oversaw both the New Deal & WWII until his death a month before V-E Day
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National Recovery Administration (NRA)
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(1) this agency established a forum in which business & government officials met to set regulations for fair competition
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Public Works Administration (PWA)
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unemployment relief agency created by the National Industrial Recovery Act that spent over $3 billion on projects (schools, bridges, libraries)
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\”Good Neighbor\” policy
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FDR’s foreign policy toward Latin America initiated in 1933 which declared that included that no nation (not even the US) had the right to interfere in the affairs of any other nation
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The Securities and Exchange Commission
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(1) government agency created in 1934 to regulate the stock market
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Social Security
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tax-supported government agency estab’d in Aug. 1935 to provide benefits to the elderly & disabled; it still exists
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Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
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(1) FDR’s New Deal agency that established power plants, oversaw conservation, and pumped money into a poor, undeveloped region of the Appalachians
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Works Progress Administration (WPA)
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(1) unemployment relief agency that received much of the $5 billion allocated to FDR by the Emergency Relief Allocation Act of 1935; (2) for 8 yrs, this agency provided job for all kinds of workers (from industrial engineers to authors & artists
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Hindenburg
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zeppelin that exploded and burned killing 36 people
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Lindbergh
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1st to cross the Atlantic in an airplane, solo
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Amelia Earhart
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1st woman to cross the Atlantic in an airplane, solo
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gold standard
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paper money is backed up by gold
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brain trust
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social planners that helped FDR organize his New Deal programs

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