Network Design Essay Example
Network Design Essay Example

Network Design Essay Example

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  • Pages: 12 (3161 words)
  • Published: January 17, 2018
  • Type: Essay
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The course effectively covered previous assignments and expanded on them, imparting valuable knowledge about network building. It provided me with the necessary skills to design and develop a network from scratch, while also introducing various networking technologies. However, practical training was lacking in the course, leaving me feeling like I didn't accomplish much.

The concepts and design ideas were useful for gaining a general understanding but did not teach me how to effectively utilize real systems. One specific technology discussed was Cabling Spectrophotometer's LAN technology, which operates at a transmission rate of 10 Mbps and follows a typical star topology. This technology has limitations as it only allows one device to transmit at a time, causing other devices to wait-and-listen for their turn.

Ethernet employs CAMAS/CD (Carrie Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) in this network strategy. Each de


vice must check if the network is clear before transmitting data; collisions occur when multiple devices transmit simultaneously. Once collisions are detected, all devices cease transmission until one device detects that the line is clear and gains control to send its data.

Receiving devices listen for transmissions directed towards them based on their IP address.Ethernet is a cost-effective option as its equipment, including hubs, switches, network interface cards, and cables, are reasonably priced compared to Token Ring networks. However, Ethernet has limitations such as collisions on the network due to each device needing its own cable connection to the central hub and a maximum connection length of 100 meters without a repeater. Modern Ethernet standards use switched technology to reduce collisions. The IEEE specification for Ethernet is 802.3 and it has different types designated by three-part names.

In contrast, Token Ring

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uses a Molestation Access Unit (AMA) instead of a hub or switch and follows a physical star topology but functions as a logical ring. Access to the network is granted through possession of a circulating token among computers in one direction at a time for data transmission purposes. Token Ring operates at either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps according to the IEEE 802.5 specification and offers collision-free networking suitable for high-traffic networks. However, Token Ring hardware like network cards and AMAs tend to be more expensive compared to Ethernet equipment.

On the other hand, Fiber-Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) is designed specifically for high-speed backbones operating at 100 Mbps and serves as a means to connect and expand local area networks (LANs). FDDI uses a ring topology with two fiber optic cable rings that carry tokens in opposite directions.The FDDI specification, designated by ANSI EXIT.5, offers protection through redundant rings in case of failure. If one ring fails, data is redirected using the alternative ring in the opposite direction, ensuring reliability through token-passing strategy. However, drawbacks include expensive network cards and the need for duplicate fiber optic cables due to redundant rings.

On another note, Wireless Area Network (WLAN) with mesh topology allows each device to have a direct connection with every other device. Each device has its own dedicated link responsible for transmitting traffic between connected devices. This topology provides multiple paths for traffic between source and destination and ensures network resilience even if one path becomes unavailable or unstable since each device is connected to every other device. The Internet also uses this efficient operation topology; however, implementing it requires a large number of cables which

can be costly.

On the flip side, bus topology involves connecting each device to a network. Devices typically connect to the backbone using a T-connector and coax cable. The main advantage here is easy installation and cost-effectiveness due to minimal cable requirements.
If the backbone cable has any issues, it will affect communication capability across the entire network. Troubleshooting network problems can be challenging due to various issues like cable breaks or loose connectors. In these cases, it becomes necessary to inspect the entire length of the cable and each connector. However, in a ring topology, devices are connected in a ring or daisy-chain arrangement where data flows in one direction. There is a dedicated connection between each device and adjacent devices while repeaters regenerate signals within each device before passing them on. The advantage of a ring topology is its easy installation but troubleshooting can be difficult as data only flows in one direction, making it time-consuming to identify faulty devices. If there is a faulty device or cable break within the ring, the entire network may go offline.
In contrast, the star topology involves connecting each device to a central hub (which can be either a hub or switch). All communication within the network must go through this hub and there is no direct communication between devices like in a mesh topology. One advantage of the star topology is that if there is a failure in one cable or device connected to the hub, it will not impact the entire network. Repairs can be made to individual nodes without disrupting traffic flow.Furthermore, the network can be easily expanded by connecting an additional cable from the new

device to the hub without causing any disruption for current users. However, star topologies have some disadvantages. The cost of cables can be high because each device requires its own cable connected back to the hub. In addition, if the hub fails, the entire network fails because all traffic runs through it.

WAN Designs are crucial for large corporate networks and are commonly utilized by government networks and companies with multiple sites. WANs connect multiple LANs together. While WANs can cover small distances, most of them encompass larger geographical areas such as countries or even the world. The internet or World Wide Web is presently the largest WAN, composed of smaller LANs and servers. Despite extensive coverage in many WANs, the World Wide Web has a global reach. The United States Government possesses a significant WAN due to its LANs being situated in various countries. These networks necessitate immediate data transfer between locations, making WANs like the internet an ideal solution.

Subscribers access the internet through an ISP who provides access for a monthly fee. The availability of different methods to access the internet depends on one's geographical location. Dial-up is slower but widely used, while DSL and cable offer faster speeds at a higher cost. Satellite access remains as the most expensive option as it entails purchasing equipmentTelephone lines have the ability to distinguish between analog and digital signals, but they also experience degradation over longer distances. In a telephone system, a computer sends a digital signal to a modem which then converts it into an analog signal that produces beeping sounds during internet dial-up. Another computer jack, with the assistance of a modem, converts this

analog signal back into digital form. DSL, TTL, and TO lines are inherently digital.

When using DSL or TTL/TO lines, it is important to have a filter in place in order to separate digital and analog signals for phone and computer reception. Companies often choose faster internet access or access to their own sites. Smaller companies may opt for DSL or Cable internet services while larger corporations or governments rely on public systems like telephone lines or satellites. Public systems offer higher speeds and can accommodate more users by utilizing TTL and TO lines along with satellites.

Fiber-optic technology is also becoming increasingly popular. As the number of Wide Area Network (WAN) users increases, network latency becomes a significant concern. Network latency refers to the speed at which a network operates according to Jawing.Com.Latency represents the time taken for a message to be sent to a router and returned.Issues with latency can indicate slowdowns across the network and should be treated seriously as they can result in slow service and data loss. Latency issues can occur at both the user-level and network level due to various factors such as software malfunctions, overextension, bottlenecks, or cyber attacks like Denial of Service (DOS) or Distributed Denial of Service (Dodos). Hackers often execute DOS and Dodos attacks to restrict access to specific services. An example is when hackers targeted CNN with a DOS threat to prevent them from discussing a particular issue. These attacks seize the network's bandwidth or latency, preventing others from accessing their site or services. However, not all slowdowns are caused by hacker attacks; malicious software like Spare, Mallard, Viruses can also slow down a user's PC.

Installing anti-virus software or using spare removal tools usually resolves these issues.

The current issue differs as it involves slowdowns caused by background software protecting a specific computer. One simple solution is defragmenting the hard drive, which arranges files closer together for easier and faster access, significantly improving PC speed.

To test network latency, use the trace route program by going to a command prompt and typing "tracer" followed by an IP address for internal testing or a website for external testing. This program sends out packets of information and measures the time it takes to receive a packet back – known as latency time.Although milliseconds may seem insignificant, it is important to note that this measurement refers to the time it takes for a small packet of information. Higher milliseconds indicate longer network performance. If there is a high latency time, network lag is likely to occur.

The Wide Area Network (WAN) includes PCs connected to routers using a ring topology as an example, and these routers should be connected to switches. There may be other equipment, but this serves as a basic example.

Each Local Area Network (LAN) connects to a central hub that interconnects all of them. All information travels to the central hub and then gets distributed to the appropriate switch, router, and PC. Central servers can store and backup data on the network.

To prevent a single point of failure that could cripple the entire company, most companies prioritize redundancy by using multiple switches to connect the entire system. If a large corporation's WAN fails, it could result in significant financial losses.

Many companies utilize VPN software which allows users to remotely access their work computers.

This system benefits employees working from home and enables IT technicians to solve problems remotely. Other software packages like Pachyderm and Bombard offer similar remote login capabilities.

A WAN is essential for corporations, government agencies or companies with multiple locations as it facilitates rapid and effortless data transfer over long distancesThe demand for networking professionals is increasing due to the need for faster and more convenient data transfer. New technology, like fiber optic, will enhance our existing technology. Network Protectorate offers various remote access solutions, with VPN being the most common and cost-efficient method. VPN technology is widely integrated into operating systems and easy to implement. In larger environments, it is recommended to use dedicated VPN hardware for multiple users and server workload management. There are different types of VPNs available, including Pipes, PPTP, and SSL. To ensure accessible files for remote users, the open-source file access system Samba can be used. Other methods are also available to enable access.

By using a remote desktop connection, users can directly log in to their PCs as if they were physically present at their desks within the company. This allows companies to diagnose issues remotely, make necessary configuration changes, and resolve network remote accessions from different locations such as home or while traveling.

There are two ways to achieve network access: through a VPN that enables convenient remote logins or through a dial-up remote connection that may be easier to set up but potentially more expensive in the long term. However, implementing and configuring this process in existing hardware can be costly and time-consuming for the IT department.According to whats.Mom, a VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a network that securely

provides remote offices or individual users access to their organization's network using the public telecommunication infrastructure like the Internet. Unlike costly systems of owned or leased lines exclusive to one organization, a VPN aims to offer similar functionalities at a lower cost. It achieves this by utilizing the shared public infrastructure while ensuring privacy through security measures and tunneling protocols such as LOTT (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol). These protocols encrypt and decrypt data to establish a secure "tunnel" that only allows properly encrypted data to pass through. Additionally, the network addresses of both the sender and receiver are also encrypted for enhanced security.

AAA VPN, also known as a Virtual Private Network, is a useful tool that enables users to log in to their PC from anywhere using another PC. By utilizing special software and entering their username and password, users can access all functions of their desired PC. This flexibility proves beneficial for situations where employees are sick and need to work from home or when users require access to documents on their home PC by logging in through their work PC.

Using a dial-up service is another method for remote access that allows users to access all available resources within the server.This text emphasizes the advantages of utilizing a VPN over a dial-up system. It states that a VPN provides secure and convenient access to important files, which is especially beneficial for users on business trips who require secure access to necessary documents. The main distinction between dial-up remote access and VPN is that dial-up utilizes the telecommunications infrastructure to establish a temporary physical or virtual circuit to a remote access server's port. Once this

circuit is established, a virtual point-to-point connection with the remote access server acting as the VPN server is formed, followed by negotiations for remaining connection parameters. Although dial-up offers simplicity in setup and maintenance compared to VPN, both VPN and user accounts must be set up and maintained separately with VPN. A notable advantage of using dial-up for remote access is that users can log in from any location by connecting their device to a phone jack. However, potential disadvantages include long-distance charges depending on the user's location leading to significant expenses. In the long term, despite initial cost savings, using dial-up may ultimately be more expensive than employing VPN. Additionally, there are alternative methods available for setting up and supporting VPN involving ISPs and third-party support companies in the process. Overall, this text underscores how using a VPN instead of a dial-up system reduces time and effort for departments while helping avoid errors.Using a VPN has the advantage of being cheaper than dial-up in the long run and providing faster connection speed. It also allows users to connect through a local ISP without incurring long-distance fees. However, security measures must be implemented to prevent unauthorized access while ensuring uninterrupted access for authorized users. Firewalls can effectively work with VPNs if the IT department grants access to required ports. The company offers two cost-effective solutions: saving money upfront by not setting up multiple accounts per user or choosing a more comprehensive solution that provides long-term cost savings. The decision should also consider the number of simultaneous user logins.

Backup and disaster recovery are crucial but face challenges due to widespread hacking, destruction, and malicious software programming.

With around 1.4 billion people having internet access globally, it has become easier for individuals to hack into networks and cause damage or destroy personal data. Unfortunately, there is no foolproof way to prevent these individuals from harming our software and data. Users must take measures to ensure security on their own systems.

It's important to note that data loss can occur due to incidents other than malicious attacks, such as fires, earthquakes, power surges, and electromagnetic pulses (AMP). To address this issue, having data backups and disaster recovery services in place is crucial.
Many companies specialize in assisting users or organizations with data backups and off-site storage. Singular is particularly popular among larger companies. Users also have the option to create physical copies of their data on CDs, DVDs, flash drives, or other storage devices and store them at a trusted friend's house. This ensures that there is an off-site hard copy of the data in case any unforeseen incidents occur.

Additionally, various online backup companies offer services for automatically backing up files to multiple locations using associated software. This provides enhanced security and easier access to files.

Establishing a backup and disaster recovery plan is crucial for businesses aiming to ensure comprehensive security measures are in place. The method chosen may vary depending on the size of the company. Larger companies may prefer to hire someone internally to create physical backups and send them to an external storage company.

It is recommended to keep a backup copy of the data nearby but separate from the main location for data safety purposes. Ideally, this backup should be located on the opposite side of the building from where the file

server is situated so that it can be quickly restored onto servers in case of any server issues.

Most companies have multiple onsite backup units for redundancy, ensuring that data can still be restored even if one unit fails. Although it may result in additional expenses compared to a regular backup system, it is often worth it.
The first step in creating a disaster recovery plan involves conducting a comprehensive risk analysis of the computer systems. This includes identifying all potential risks that could lead to system downtime and evaluating their likelihood within your specific IT environment. It is important to consider any threat that has the potential to cause a system outage, such as virus attacks and accidental data deletions, as well as rare natural threats like floods and fires.

After identifying threats, it is crucial to prioritize them based on their probability of occurrence using a low-medium-high ranking system. For example, a small Internet company in California may rank earthquakes as having medium probability and high impact, while power outages due to utility failure may have high probability and high impact. Therefore, this company gives higher priority to power outages in their disaster recovery plan because they view them as more significant than earthquakes.

Additionally, the company or department needs to assess its budgetary constraints and determine the amount they are willing to invest in their security system. While some companies find that a firewall is sufficient for their needs and relatively inexpensive, larger companies will need to allocate more funds for network security. Network security plays a critical role for larger companies with valuable data and high-value clients.Some companies employ dedicated Information System Security personnel to

monitor the network and ensure security software is functioning properly. It should be noted that protection requires more than just hardware and software; continuous operations and updates are necessary to defend against evolving threats. Regular testing and checks are vital for identifying vulnerabilities and implementing necessary measures. Hiring professionals to attempt network breaches can provide valuable information about potential weaknesses. The stability of a company's network is crucial for its survival, as various factors can significantly impact its operations if the network is not secure.

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