Nasm CPT Final Exam Study Guide

The body’s ability to to sense the relative position of adjacent parts of the body

Ex: when walking our feet give us proprioception about the type of surface we are on.

specialized structures that recognize pressure in tissue and transmit signals to sensory nerves.

Muscle Spindles
sensory receptors in the muscles that are parallel to the muscle fibers and are sensitive to change in muscle length. Spindles stretch with muscle and sends information to CNS.

helps to prevent muscles from stretching too far or too fast

Golgi Tendon Organs
sensory receptors that are located at the point where the skeletal muscle fibers insert into the tendon. Sensitive to change in tension at the rate of change

causes the muscle to relax

connective tissue UNDER fascia that acts as an outer layer of the whole muscle

connective tissue acts as an outer layer of fascicles

between the individual muscle fibers

Type 1 Muscle Fiber
“slow-twitch”, smaller in size, lessforce produced, long-term contractions (stabilization)

Type 2 Muscle Fiber
fast twitch, larger, quick to fatigue, force and power exercises

PRIME MOVER, main muscles
ex: chest press-> pectoralis major

ex: chest press -> ant deltoid, triceps

stabilizes while prime mover and assist work.
chest press -> rotator cuff

Oppose Prime mover,
chest press -> posterior delt

Right Atrium
gather DEOXGENATED blood returning to the heart from ENTIRE BODY

Left Atrium
gathers OXYGENATED blood coming from the LUNGS

Right Ventricle
thin walls pumps under low pressure. Pumps to lungs

Left Ventricle
thick walls, pumps under high pressure to rest of body

all of the chemical reactions that happen in our body to maintain itself. Nutrients are acquired, transported and used by the body.

Exercise Metabolism
bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands on body during exercise

where enzymes act

Sugars, starches, and fiber. Provide the body with a source of fuel and energy required for all daily activities

a simple sugar that comes from the digestion of carbs that is transported through the blood and is used or stored as energy

the stored form of carbs, when needed it converts to glucose and used

a secondary source of energy

come from fats, when calories are consumed but not used they are converted and stored in fat cells

Amino acids that build and repair body tissues and structures. A third energy source, usually not until starvation.
Recommended 0.8 g per day Adults, 1.2-1.7 per day strength athletes, 1.2-1.4 endurance athletes
1 g = 4 calories

glucose form from non carb sources like amino acids

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Energy storage and transfer unit in the cells. When chemical bonds that hold it together are broken, energy is released

Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
molecule produced by ATP

ATP-PC system
simpliest and fastest, occurs without oxygen (anaerobic), provides energy for high intensity, short-duration
ex: power and strentgh

Glycosis System
produces lots of energy for 30-50 sec. Typical bc it falls in the time frame of 8-12 reps

Oxidative System
most complex

B- oxidation
breakdowns triclgycerides into free fatyy acids to produce more ATP

Myth of Fat Burning Zone
higher intensity workouts require greater contribution from fat despite the increase in need of fuel source from carbs

internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effect produced

above a reference point

below a reference point

reference closest to the center of the body or reference

refernence furthest away

Reference in front of the body

Reference in the back of the body

Refernence to the midline of the body

Reference to the outside of the body

refers to a position on the opposite side of the body

positioned on the same side of the body

Sagittal Plane
movements of flexion or extension
ex: front lunge, bicep curls, squat

Frontal Plane
movements lateral
ex: side lunge, side lat raises

Transverse Plane
divides body in upper and lower halves

movement TOWARD the midline of the body

movement AWAY from the midline of the body

Constant muscle tension
ex: eccentric, concentric

constant muscle length

The speed of movement is fixed. Usually seen in Rehab facilities

characterized by how much and direction, influenced applied by one object to another.

a force that produces rotation

Training Zone 1
walking or jogging; Builds aerobic base and aids in recovery
Maximal HR x .65 (.75)

Training Zone 2
Group Exercise classes, spinning; Increases Aerobic and Anerobic Endurance
Maximal HR x .76 (.85)

Training Zone 3
Sprinting; Builds high end work capacity
Maximal HR x .86 (.96)

Estimated Maximal Heart Rate
220- age

Body Mass Index
weight proportional to height
BMI= [weight (lbs)/height (inchxinch)] x 703

YMCA 3 minute Step Test
96 steps per minute for 3 minutes. Record HR for 60 sec and locate recovery pulse on chart and determine which training zone

Rockport Walk Test
clients walks a mile on treadmill and HR and time are recorded after. Use formula

Pronation Distortion Syndrome (ASHA)
Short muscles: gastrocnemius, soleus, adductors, hip flexor complex, biceps femoris

Long muscles: anterior and posterior tibilias, vastus medium, gluteus medius-maximus, hip external rotators

increased knee adduction, knee internal rot, foot pronation

Injuries: plantar faciitis, shin splits, patellar tendonitis, low back pain

Lower Crossed Syndrome (high butt)
Short muscles: gastr, soleus, hip flexor, adductors, lattismus dorsi, erector spinae

Long muscles: ant/pos tibilias, glutes max/med, tranversus ab, internal oblique

anterior knee pain, low back injuries

Upper Crossed Syndrome (hunch back)
short muscles: upper traps, sternocleidomastoid, lattismus dorsi, teres major, pec major/minor

long muscles: rhomboids, mid traps, lower traps, teres minor,

scapular elevation and dec shoulder extension and rotation

Overhead Squat Assessment
sit the height of a chair, arms and elbows fully extended above head. The tibia and torso should be in line
Comps: low back arch, inward knees, flat feet, forward lean, arms fall forward ( 5 reps)

Single Leg Squat Assessment
does knee adduct and internally rotate (5 each leg)

Pushing Assessment
does low back arch, shoulders elevate, head move forward? (20 reps)

Pulling assessment
same as pushing assessment (20 reps)

Push up Test
muscular endurance of the upper body (60 sec)

Davies Test
measure upper extremity agility and stabilization. Alteranate touching the opposite hand (15 seconds)

Shark Skill Test
measures lower extremity agility and coordination. clients hops in each box single legged, and will have time added if hands come off hips, other leg touches ground, wrong square, does not go back to center.

Upper Extremity test: Bench
warm up light 8-10 reps
add weight perform 3-5 reps, rest, and increase weight

Lower Extremity test: Squat

the ability to move a joint through its complete range of motion

Soft tissues ability to be elongated or stretched

Dynamic ROM
combination of flexibility and the nervous system’s ability to control the rom effficiently

Neuromuscular Efficiency
the ability of the nervous system to recruit the correct muscles (agonist, antagonist, synergist, and stabilizers) to produce force (concentric), reduce force (eccentric), and dynamically stabilize (isometric) the body in all 3 planes of motion.

Postural Distortion Patterns
Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances

Relative Flexibility
the body’s tendency to seek the path of least resistance

Muscle Imbalance
Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint

Cause: postural stress, repetitive movement, lack of core strentgh

Reciprocal Inhibition
simultaneous contraction of one muscle and the relaxation of its ANTAGONIST
EX: Bicep curls- biceps brachii contract while triceps brachii relaxes

Altered Reciprocal Inhibition
a tight AGONIST causes a decrease in the function of it ANTAGONIST
EX: tight hip flexor (psoas) would decrease neural drive of the hip extensor (gluteus maximus)

Synergistic Dominance
when the synergist take over for a weak prime mover. May cause faulty movement patterns
EX: tight hip flexor -> decrease glute -> increase force from synergist (hamstring complex, adductor magnus).

motion of the joints

Arthrokinetic Dysfunction
biomechanical and neuromuscular dysfuction leading to altered joint motion

Autogentic Inhibition
occurs when the neural impulses sensing tension are greater than the impulses causing muscle contraction

Pattern Overload
constantly repeating the same pattern of motion, which could place abnormal stress on the body

Davis’s Law
states that soft tissue models along the lines of stress

Static Stretching
traditional; the process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 30 seconds.

Active- Isolated Stretch
suggested for pre-activity warm up; process of using agonist and synergist to dynamically move the joint into range of motion. 5- 10 reps/ 1-2 seconds

Dynamic Stretching
uses the force production and the momentum of the body to take a joint through the full ROM
ex: prisoner squates, multiplanar lunges

Myofascial Release (FOAM ROLL)
by applying gentle force to a knot the muscle fibers are altered from a bundled bunch to a straighter line.

Cardiorespiratory Fitness
The ability of the respiratory system to supply oxygen-rich blood to skeletal muscles during physical activity

Integrated cardiorespiratory training
planned training programs that improve physiological, physical, and performance adaptations

The level of demand that a given activity places on the body

Maximal Oxygen Consumption
the highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion

Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type, Enjoyment

excessive volume and a lack of proper rest and recovery

used to recruit the local core stabilizers by drawing the navel in toward the spine

when the abdomin, lower back, and butt muscles are all contracted at the same time

Local Stabilization System
provides support from vertebrae to vetebrae

EX: Transversus abdominis, internal oblique, pelvic floor muscles, diaphragm

Global Stabilization System
muscles that attach from the pelvic to the spine, transfer loads between upper and lower extremities.

Ex: Psoas MAjor, external oblique, portions of internal oblique, gluteus medius, adductor complex

Core- Stabilizing Exercises
marching, floor bridge, prone cobra,
prone iso abs (plank): Regressions- push up position, push up position w/ knees down, hands on bench feet on ground

Core- Strength Exercises
Ball Crunch (progress: raise arms overhead), back extensions, reverse crunch, cable rotation

Core- Power Exercises
Rotation Chest pass, medball pulloverthrow, Front MB oblique throw, soccer throw

Rate of force production
ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time.

Plyometric Training
quick,powerful exercises
phases: eccentric (loading), amortization (dynamic stabilization), concentric (unloading)

the ability to move the body in one direction as fast as possible

Stride Rate
number of strides in a given time

Stride Length
the distance covered with each stride

Frontside Mechanics
proper alignment of leading leg and pelvis, dorsiflexed ankle, knee flexion, hip flexion,and neutral pelvis

Backside Mechanics
Proper alignment, ankle plantarflexion, hip extension, knee extension, neutral pelvis

ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize, and change direction quickly while maintaining posture

the ability to react and change body position with maximal rate of force in all planes of motion

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
how the body responds and adapts to stress
Stages: Alarm Reaction, Resistance DEvelopment, Exhaustion

Specific adaptation to imposed demands (SAID) Principle
states that the body will adapt to the specific demands being placed on it

Acute Variables
important components that specify how each exercise is to be performed

Training Volume
AMOUNT of physical training performed in a specified period.

Training Frequency
number of training sessions performed during a specific period (usually 1 week)

Training Duration
timeframe from the start of the workout to the end OR length of time (weeks) spent in one phase of training

process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and repair of tissues

expression of energy, equal to 1,000 calories

Essential Amino Acids
1. Isoleucine
2. Leucine
3. Lysine
5. Phenylalanine
6. Threonine
7. Tryptophan
8. Valine

Types of Carbohydrates
Monosaccharide: single sugar units connected to make glucose
Disaccharides 2 sugar units (sucrose [sugar], lactose[milk]
Polysaccharides: longs chains of mono. Complex carbs(starch/fiber)

Daily recommendation for Fiber
38 g/day -> young men, 25 g/day -> young women

Fatty Acids
Saturated: risk for heart disease, raise bad cholesterol
Unsaturated: increase good cholesterol
Monounsaturated: ONE double bond, olive & canola oil
Polyunsaturated: >One double bond, cold water fish

Lipids (Fats)
most concentrated energy source.
1 g = 9 calories
preserve body heat, regulate nutrients in cells, protects organs, prolonges digestion

Water consumption Recommendations
men= 3.0 L (13 cups) daily
women = 2.2 L (9 cups) daily
(add 8 ounces of water for every 25 lbs over ideal weight)

Altering Body Composition: FAT LOSS
< 10% of calories from sat fats, increase physical activity, dec food and bev calories, limit alcohol, 4-6 meals a day, avoid processed food

Altering Body Composition: LEAN MASS
postworkout window- ingest protein and carbs within 90 minutes, spread protein throughout the day, 4-6 meals a day

Ergogenic Aids
enhances athletic performance. Creatine- Typical dosage 20 grams per day for 5-7 days then 2-5 grams per day for maintenance. Increase in 4-5 lbs, maintenance safe for 2-5 years
Ex: Creatine, builds muscle mass, strentgh, and anerobic performance. Stimulants

Stages of change
Maintenance, Action, Preparation, Contemplation, Precontemplation

SMART goals
Specific: detailed description of goal
Measurable: quantifiable goals
Attainable: right mix that are challenging but in reach
Realistic: the individual truly believes it can be done
Timely: A specific date of completion

Cognitive Strategies
aim to change a client’s thoughts and attitudes toward exercise and physical activity

Positive Self-Talk
help clients come up with a positive list pertaining to exercise

Exercise Imagery
the process created to produce internalized experience to support