Mr. Maitz AP Government chapter 11-12

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public opinion
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what the public thinks about a particular issue or set of issues at any point in time.
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public opinion polls
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interviews or surveys with samples of citizens that are used to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population.
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George Gallup
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an Iowan who is considered the founder of modern-day polling.
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literary digest
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a popular magazine that first began national presidential polling in 1916
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straw poll
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unscientific survey used to gauge public opinion on a variety of issues and policies
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sample
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a subset of the whole population to be questioned for the purposes of prediction or gauging opinion.
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Telephone polls
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polling that used landline telephones in American homes.
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exit polls
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polls conducted as voters leave selected polling places on election day.
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tracking polls
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continuous surveys that enable a campaign or news organization to chart a candidate’s daily rise or fall in support.
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John Zogby
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was the first to use a scientific survey
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push polls
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polls taken for the purpose of providing information on an opponent that would lead respondents to vote against that candidate.
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random sampling
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a method of poll selection that gives each person in a group the same chance of being selected. the flaw in this method is that they may under-sample or over-sample key populations
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stratified sampling
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a variation of random sampling; the population is divided into subgroups and weighted based on demographic characteristics of the national population
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margin of error
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a measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll
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sampling error
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the accuracy of a poll depending on the quality of the sample that was drawn
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feeling thermometer
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herein respondents provide a response from 0 to 100 about how they feel about a particular issue.
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political socialization
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the process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values.
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political party
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an organized effort by office holders, candidates, activists, and voters to pursue their common interests by gaining and exercising power through the electoral process
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federalists
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first party formed in America
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political machines
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a party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity.
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candidate-centered politics
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politics that focuses on the candidates, their particular issues, and character rather than party affiliation.
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party realignment
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dramatic shifts in partisan preferences that drastically alter the political landscape
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critical election
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an election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues and personalities.
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secular realignment
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the gradual rearrangement of party coalitions, based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system
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National Chair
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is usually elected by the sitting president or newly nominated presidential candidate, who is accorded the right to name the individual for at least the duration of his or her campaign. he or she is the prime spokesperson and arbitrator for the party during the four years between elections.
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National Convention
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a party meeting held in the presidential election year for the purposes of nominating a presidential and vice presidential ticket and adopting a platform.
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superdelegate
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Delegate to the Democratic Party’s national convention that is reserved for a party official and whose vote at the convention is unpledged to a candidate.
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Think tank
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institutional collection of policy-oriented researchers and academics who are sources of policy ideas.
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national party platform
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A statement of the general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party, usually promulgated at the national convention.
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party identification
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a citizens personal affinity for a political party, usually expressed by a tendency to vote for the candidates of that party.
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proportional representation
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A voting system that apportions legislative seats according to the percentage of the vote won by a particular political party
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winner take all system
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an electoral system in which the party that recieves at least one more vote than any other party wins the election
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dealignment
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a general decline in party identification and loyalty in the elctorate.
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George Gallup
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considered the founder of modern day polling
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John C Fremont
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the republican party’s first presidential candidate
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Era of Good feeling
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party politics were nearly suspended at the national level during this era.
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National Party Chair
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the pinnacle of the party system in the US is
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serve only symboling purposes
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Party conventions generally
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party policy positions
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think tanks influence
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they have more wealthy donors
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the main reason the Republican party historically raises more money than the democratic party
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party platforms
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the difference between the democratic and republican parties is most evident in
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Ronald Regan
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one particularly party-oriented president was
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parents
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the single greatest influence on an individual’s first party identification is…
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democrats have trouble attracting white men
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most researchers now study the gender gap by considering why
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Democratic party
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African Americans in general strongly identify with the
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desegregation
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The American Independent party took root as a result of this issue
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trust in major parties is low
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third parties do best when…
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have stronger partisan leanings
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independent voters sometimes
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formation of political factions
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James Madison’s chief concern at the inception of the United States was the
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straw polls
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Unscientific surveys used to gauger public opinion on a variety of issues are calld
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National election studies
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every two years since 1952, there have been regular surveys of the american electorate known as the
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1992
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tracking polls were first used in
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margin of error
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to determine how reliable a poll is, one must first determine
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voter news service
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in 2000 the _______ estimated the number of voters incorrectly in florida
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public opinion polls
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these types of polls have a major weakness of measuring the intensity of feelings about issues
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policies that don’t affect them
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Americans have the most difficulty forming opinions about
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social issues
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polls show that women and men have different views on
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protestant heritage
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Many American ideals, including hard work and personal responsibility are rooted in our nation’s
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middle and highschool
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A child’s peer group is most politically influential in
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public opinion
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the authors of the Federalist Papers were convinced that all government rests on
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rise
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among the reasons that public opinion polls have become critical players in politics is the ________ in the number of public opinion polls

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