Modules of Sociology, Chapt. 11

Jennifer is attending a business luncheon with several corporate executives. At one point during the meal, she reaches in front of another executive for a saltshaker and hits the executive’s arm as he is about to put a spoonful of soup in his mouth. The soup spills on his shirt, and he glares at Jennifer. The glare is an example of a (an)
informal sanction
What was the motivation behind Stanley Milgram’s experimental study of obedience?
to better understand German involvement in the annihilation of Jews in World War II
Which theory attributes increases in crime and deviance to the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions?
social disorganization theory
The work of a group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in the smuggling and sale of drugs, prostitution, gambling, and other illegal activities is called
organized crime
A college student is caught cheating on an exam and is brought before a college-wide disciplinary committee, which decides to expel the student from the school. The committee’s action is an example of
Formal social control
Which of the following statements about crime rates in the U.S. is correct?
Reported crime in the U.S. is high, and the public continues to regard crime as a major social problem.
There has been a significant decline in violent crime in the U.S. in recent years.
Crimes committed by women have increased
Which of the following is true of white-collar crime?
Conviction generally does not harm the person’s reputation or career aspirations as much as conviction for a street crime would.
Obedience refers to
compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure.
According to Robert Merton, a retreatist is an individual who has
withdrawn from the goals and means of society
Which of the following is a criticism of social disorganization theory?
seems to “blame the victim”
Which of the following terms refers to going along with one’s peers, with peers defined as individuals of a person’s own status who have no special right to direct that person’s behavior?
conformity
Which of the following has a role in maintaining social control?
the family
the government
the peer group
Social control carried out casually by people through such means as laughter, smiles, and ridicule is known as
Informal social culture
Dave, the president of a small corporation, has a wild weekend. He spends a night with a prostitute, gambles illegally, drinks excessively, and uses drugs. Some would suggest he has committed various
victimless crimes.
Feminist sociologists contend that the so-called victimless crime of prostitution, as well as the more disturbing aspects of pornography
reinforce the misconception that women can be treated as “toys.”
Underreporting of crime in the U.S
has been a problem because members of racial and ethnic minority groups have not always trusted law enforcement agencies and have often refrained from contacting the police.
Bob works as a cashier in a supermarket. His boss instructs him to include the price of a new broom—which Bob’s boss has deceptively placed near the register—on everyone’s bill. Bob’s boss also encourages him to change the dates on expired food items so the items can continue to be sold. Eventually, Bob begins to develop his own deceptive sales practices. This is an example of
differential association.
which theory was used by Edwin Sutherland to emphasize that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions with others?
cultural transmission
In a city on the East Coast, organized crime was dominated by an Italian “family,” but they were eventually displaced by African Americans. This would be an example of
ethnic succession
Which sociological perspective’s approach to deviance focuses on why rule violation continues to exist in societies despite pressures to conform and obey?
functionalist perspective
An important tenet of labeling theory is the recognition that some individuals or groups have the power to define labels and apply them to others. This view shares the emphasis on the social significance of power as purported by the
conflict perspective.
A professional criminal is
a person who pursues crime as a day-to-day occupation, developing skilled techniques and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals.
The social constructionist perspective is most closely affiliated with which other sociological explanation of deviance?
labeling theory
The term “social control” refers to
Techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society
A sociologist studies how a teacher’s attitudes toward particular students affects students’ performance. Students of similar abilities who are “teacher’s pets” perform at a high level, and students who are viewed as “troublemakers” perform poorly. This would illustrate which explanation of deviance?
labeling theory
Clyde is arrested for “tagging,” or “visual terrorism.” The arrest is an example of a (an)
formal sanction
What type of informal social control is supported by 59 percent of pediatricians in spite of the risk of harmful effects to recipients?
spanking
“Sanctions” are defined as
penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm.
According to a study by Stanley Milgram, individuals will
obey the commands of people viewed as legitimate authority figures, even if the behavior may harm another individual.
Which sociological perspective emphasizes that societies literally could not operate if massive numbers of people defied standards of appropriate conduct?
Functionalist perspective
A person convicted of a crime—even when prior arrest record and severity of the crime are taken into account—is more likely to receive a shorter prison sentence if he or she is
White and non-Hispanic.
Historically, legal measures aimed at blocking discrimination based on race, religion, gender, age, and sexual orientation have been difficult to implement because
many people tacitly encourage such violations.
In his study of the Saints and the Roughnecks, William Chambliss concluded that a key factor in the varying fortunes of the two groups was their differing
social class standing.
Social control carried out by authorized agents—such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employers—is called
formal social control
What term is used to refer to crimes committed by individuals in the course of their daily business activities?
white-collar crimes
A single woman who engages in illegal acts of prostitution in order to support herself and her children is
committing a victimless crime.
Which of the following is an example of deviance?
A student sits in the middle of the front row in your sociology class and picks his nose throughout the class period.
A student walks into your sociology class naked because it is hot outside.
A student cheats on her first sociology exam.
Which of the following individuals would most likely be the focus of labeling theorists who are researching the power of some individuals or groups to define labels?
regulators of social control
Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with the association between the use of surveillance techniques as a means of social control and the power of an authoritarian government?
Conflict Theory
Over the past five years, what percentage of all murders committed involved firearms?
Which perspective would look to the disproportionate economic and lobbying power wielded by groups such as the National Rifle Association in the debate over gun violence in U.S. society?
Conflict Perspective
A corporate vice president is convicted of attempting to bribe a presidential aide. This type of crime is called
white-collar crime.
In 2005, following the passage of the PATRIOT Act, the FBI demanded to see all users’ records from the Connecticut public libraries’ online catalogue and
A and C only
did not legally need to explain why they needed the records
placed library administrators under a gag order about the demand.
The managing editor of a newspaper, acting on an order from the publisher, fires three editors, one of whom is an old friend. This is an example of
obedience
Which of the following theories offers a view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to conform systematically to society’s norms?
control theory
Which of the following statements is true relative to stigma and deviance in the U.S.?
In Émile Durkheim’s view
which sociological perspective would be particularly concerned about studies that show that White criminal offenders receive shorter sentences than comparable Latino and African-American offenders?
conflict theory
A college student interrupts the instructor during a seminar; the instructor responds with an angry glare. This is an example of
informal social control
Being arrested for murder would be an example of a (an)
formal sanction