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Module Two: ANTH 240A

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The life histories of primates, and especially anthropoids (monkeys and apes), are characterized by:
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Longer periods of gestation and development
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What are two major groups of Strepsirhini?
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Lemurs and Lorises
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Many primate groups include \”rhini\”, referring to the rhinarium, which is:
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The pad at the end of the nose
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The primate emphasis on the visual sense is reflected in which of the following? 1. The reduction in the size of structures related to the sense of smell. 2. The presence of color vision in diurnal species. 3. A more forward facing position of the eyes relative to most other mammals. 4. All of these.
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All of these
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Traditionally, primate characteristics have been explained as the result of the adaption to:
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Arboreal environments/terminal brances
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Vertical clinging and leaping is a locomotor pattern frequently practiced by what?
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Lemurs and tarsiers
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Which of the following are Haplorphini?
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New World monkeys AND humans
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Arms that are longer than the legs and a short stable lumbar spine are traits associated with:
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Brachiation
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Currently, there are approximately ____ species of non-human primates.
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230
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of primates? 1. Large litter sizes. 2. A tendency to possess nails rather than claws. 3. Stereoscopic (binocular) vision. 4. Grasping hands and feet.
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Large litter sizes.
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Which of the following are characteristics of tarsiers? 1. Restricted to the islands of Southern Africa. 2. Mainly Diurnal. 3. Insectivore leaping from branch to branch to catch pray. 4. All of these
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Insectivore leaping from branch to branch to catch pray.
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Adaptive niche refers to:
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An organisms’s entire way of life
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Regarding aspects of primate maturation, learning, and behavior, primates have
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A more efficient means of fetal nourishment, longer periods of gestation, reduced numbers of offspring (All of these)
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The order of Primates is traditionally divided into two suborders:
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Strepsirhini and Haplorhini
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A dental formula is:
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A numerical device that indicated the number of each type of tooth in the jar
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Which one of the traits listed below is not used to define the order Primates?
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An inflexible, specialized limb structure.
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With only a few exceptions, primates are found only in:
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The topics and semi-tropics.
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As an order, Primates:
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Have generalized traits
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Today, where are lorises and galagos NOT found?
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North America
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Some taxonimists have developed an alternative system of classification in which tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans are placed together in which suborder?
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Prosimii.
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Traditionally, Old World monkeys are separated from apes and humans at the level of the:
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Superfamily.
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Which are the largest of the living primates?
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Gorillas
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Compared to Strepsirhini, anthropoid generally
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Depend less on olfaction and more on vision.
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What is seen in some New World monkeys, but not in any Old Work monkeys?
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A prehensile tail.
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Which of the following are not hominoids (apes)?
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Baboons
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DNA hybridization of humans and chimpanzees indicate they share about _____ of their DNA base sequences.
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99 percent
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Where are chimpanzees found?
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Across forested equatorial Africa
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Which ape has very large, highly sexually dimorphic body sizes and live largely solitary lives?
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Orangutans.
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Cercopithecines…
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are more generalized than colobines, include baboons/guenons/and macaques, and have cheek pouches for storing food.
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What are the smallest New World anthropoids?
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Marmosets and tamarins
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Among the apes, the smallest average body sizes are seen in
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gibbons and siamangs
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Bonobos
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in the same genus as the chimpanzee
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Compared to monkeys, hominoids
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generally have larger body sizes and lack a tail
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Purely of the basis of genetic similarities, it would be consistent to classify humans and the great apes within the same…
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Family
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Mountain gorilla social groups are usually composed of
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one or two adult silverback males, a few adult females and their immature offspring.
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Monkeys are divided into which two major groups?
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New and Old World species
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Chimpanzees live in groups composed of
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numerous adult males and females, plus young of all ages
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What is the major factor for the declining numbers of nonhuman primates?
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Unprecedented human population growth.
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All Old World monkeys belong to which family
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Cercopithecidae
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Where are Old World monkeys found?
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Africa, southern Asia, and Japan
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Gibbons and Siamangs are adapted for:
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Brachiation
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Sexual Dimorphism
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Refers to differences between the sexes with regard to features such as body size.
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Orangutans belong to which genus?
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Pongo
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Small primates have highly nutritious, often protein rich diets because:
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Endothermy is particularly difficult for small bodied mammals.
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Primate behavior is best viewed as being
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influenced by environmental factors
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What is chest slapping by gorillas an example of?
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Display
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As a general rule, larger animals require
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Fewer calories per unit of weight than smaller animals
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Amicable behaviors that promote group cohesion are called _____ behaviors.
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Affiliative
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Altruism is a behavior that:
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Benefits another while involving some risk to the performer.
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Dispersal by ___ is the most common pattern in mammals, including primates.
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Males.
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Primate social structure refers to this aspect(s) of a group: 1) The Composition 2) The Size 3) The sex ratio 4) All of these answers
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All of these answers
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The following are true of grooming EXCEPT: 1) Shows empathy 2) Is an affiliative behavior 3) Occurs in a variety of contexts 4) Reinforces social relationships
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Shows empathy
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Chimpanzee caregiving behaviors are evidenced in:
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Helping younger siblings
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The Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is: 1) The rate the body uses energy at rest. 2) Closely related to body size 3) Related to the diets of primates 4) All of these
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All of these
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Dominance hierarchies within social groups
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impose a certain amount of order within the group
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Deliberate nonhuman primate behavior that serves as communication is: 1) All of these 2) Facial expressions 3) Vocalizations 4) Displays
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All of these
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Which of the following statements is NOT true 1) Adult primate males tend to be dominant to females. 2) Dominant individuals appear to have priority access to desired food items. 3) High-ranking females probably have higher reproductive success than subordinate females. 4) Dominance hierarchies create aggression and discord within social groups.
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Dominance hierarchies create aggression and discord within social groups.
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Ecological factors influencing primate social behavior include which of the following? 1) The distribution of food and water. 2) The distribution of predators. 3) The nutritional value of foods. 4) All of these.
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All of these.
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_____ is the study of the evolution of behavior, emphasizing the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection.
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Behavioral Ecology
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Primate groups composed of several adult males and females are advantageous in areas where:
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Predation pressure is high.
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Mounting as an expression of dominance in baboons is believed to also serve to:
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Defuse tense situations.
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Matrilines:
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Are groups of a female, her adult daughters, and their offspring.
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In many primate species, ____ have/has a central role in reinforcing social relationships.
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Grooming.
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Longevity, age at first reproduction, and inter-birth intervals are examples of:
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Life history traits.
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According to proponents of behavioral ecology:
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Individuals act in ways that increase their reproductive success
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The term for a mating system in which males, and in some cases females, have several mating partners is
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ploygamous
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In bonobos, males and females
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commonly form friendships and consortships
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Potato washing behavior has been observed in which of the following?
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Japanese Macaques
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The basic primate social unit is
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The mother and infants
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Vervet monkey vocalizations
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Are voluntary responses to external stimuli
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Of the following, the most r-selected mammal is: 1) chimps 2) mice 3) wolves 4) humans
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mice
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Cultural behaviors observed in wild chimpanzees include the following except: 1) the use of leaf sponges 3) sign language 3) stone-tool production 4) termite fishing with twigs
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Sign language
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What do the language experiments with chimps, bonobos, and gorillas indicate?
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They have some ability to use signs to communicate
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Infanticide by adult males
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Has been reported for a number of primate species
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According to current evidence discussed in the text, which of the following statement is TRUE: 1) Humans are the only species capable of conveying information pertaining to specific components of the external environment. 2) Nonhuman primates can communicate any information except that which pertains to their emotional state. 3) Free-ranging monkeys and apes use symbolic language in the same manner as humans. 4) Some nonhuman primates appear to give specific alarm calls that refer to particular categories of predators.
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4) Some nonhuman primates appear to give specific alarm calls that refer to particular categories of predators.
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Cultural behavior
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is learned
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Which have been taught to use sign language?
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Chimps
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Primates, such as chimpanzees, have been observed to
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eat plants that antibiotic properties
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Monkeys raised without mother in captivity
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Did not know how to care for infants
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Work with the young chimpanzee Loulis and the young bonobo Kanzi showed
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young apes can learn symbols/language directly from older apes
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K-Selection refers to
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Species that produce relatively few offspring but incest a large amount of parenting.
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Permanent (long-term) male-female bonds are
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not common among nonhuman primates
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Linguistic symbols are said to be
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Arbitrary
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In Old World Monkeys, the swelling and changes in the color of the skin surround the females genital area:
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are an indication of estrus
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The traditional view of nonhuman communication is that nonhumans, including primates
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communicate information relating to their emotional state only
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Female primates
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assume most of the responsibility for infant care except in a few primates
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Species producing relatively large numbers of offspring with little parental care are:
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r-selected