MKTG 632: Marketing Research (CH1-6)

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Marketing Research
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The application of the scientific method in searching for the truth about marketing phenomena.
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Applied marketing research
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Research conducted to address a specific marketing decision for a specific firm or organization.
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Basic marketing research
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Research conducted without a specific decision in mind that usually does not address the needs of a specific organization. (expanding general marketing knowledge)
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The scientific method
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The way researchers go about using knowledge and evidence to reach objective conclusions about the real world.
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Product-orientated
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Describes a firm that prioritizes decision making in a way that emphasizes technical superiority in the product. (input from technicians and experts in the field are pivotal in the decision making)
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Production-orientated
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Describes a firm that prioritizes efficiency and effectiveness of the production processes in making decisions. (input from engineers and accounting to drive costs down)
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Marketing concept
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Central idea in modern marketing thinking that focuses on how the firm provides value to the customers more than on the physical product or production process.
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Marketing orientation
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The corporate culture existing for firms adopting the marketing concept and exhibits: -an emphasizes customer orientation -focus on long-term profitability over short-term profits -a cross-functional perspective.
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Customer-orientated
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Describes a firm in which all decisions are made with a conscious awareness of their effect on the consumer.
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Long-term profitability
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The idea that providing benefits by meeting customer’s needs and desires will create value long-term value in the firm itself.
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Relationship marketing
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Communicates the idea that a major goal of marketing is to build long-term relationships with the customers contributing to the firm’s success. (Pareto’s, 80/20 rule)
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Total quality management
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A business philosophy that closely ties to the marketing concept, that embodies the belief that the management process must focus on integrating customer-driven quality throughout the organization.
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Define the 4 stages of implementing a marketing strategy
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-Identifying and evaluating market opportunities -Analyzing market segments and selecting target markets -Planning and implementing a marketing mix that will provide value to customers and meet company objectives -Analyzing a firm’s performance
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Geo-demographics
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Refers to information describing the demographic profile of consumers in a particular geographic region.
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Pricing research
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Involves finding the amount of monetary sacrifice that best represents the value customers perceive in a product after considering various market constraints.
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Marketing channel
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A network of interdependent institutions that perform the logistics necessary for consumption to occur.
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Supply chain
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Another term for a channel of distribution; link between suppliers and customers.
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Promotion
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The communication function of the firm responsible for informing and persuading buyers.
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Promotion research
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Investigates the effectiveness of advertising, premiums, coupons, sampling, discounts, public relations, and other sales promotions.
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Integrated marketing communication
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All promotion efforts: advertising, pubic relations, personal selling, event marketing, etc. All promotional efforts should be coordinated to communicate a consistent image.
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Integrated marketing mix
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The effects of various combinations of marketing-mix elements on important outcomes.
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Total value management
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The management and monitoring the entire pro cress by which consumers receive benefits from a company.
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Performance-monitoring research
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Refers to research that regularly and sometimes routinely, provides feedback for evaluation and control of marketing activity. (Market-share analysis and sales analysis are the most common forms.)
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Marketing metrics
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Quantitative ways of monitoring and measuring marketing performance. (Used to determine whether resources invested in marketing activities have met their quantitative business goals.)
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The determination of the need for marketing research centers on?
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When there are: -Time constraints -Availability of data -Nature of the decision being made -Value of the research info in relation to costs
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Culturally cross-validate
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To verify that the empirical findings from one culture also exist and behave similarly in another culture.
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Data
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Facts or recorded measures of certain phenomena
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Information
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Data formatted to support decision making or define the relationship between two facts
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Market intelligence
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The subset of data and information that actually has some explanatory power enabling effective decisions to be made.
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Global information system
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An organized collection of computer hardware, software, data and personnel designed to capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and immediately display information about business activity.
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Relevance
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The characteristics of data reflecting how pertinent these particular facts are to the situation at hand.
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Information completeness
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Having the right amount of information.
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Decision support system (DSS)
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A computer-base system that helps decision makers confront problems through direct interaction with databases and analytical software programs. (stores data and transforms them into organized information decisions.)
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Customer relationship management (CRM)
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Parts of the DSS that addresses exchanges between the firm and its customers. (sales data, market trends, marketing promotions and consumer responses and preferences)
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Database
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A collection of raw data arranged logically and organized in a form that can be stored and processed by a computer. (customer mailing list)
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Data warehousing
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Is the process allowing important day-to-day operational data to be stored and organized for simplified access.
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Data warehouse
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The multitiered computer storehouse of current and historical data.
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Proprietary marketing research
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The gathering of new data to investigate specific problems.
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Salesperson input
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Salespeople work in the firm’s external environments and so they commonly provide essential marketing data. Reporting competitor’s prices, new product offerings and complaints from customers are all input.
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Scanner data
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The accumulated records resulting from point of sale data recordings. (each time an item is scanned at a checkout counter, the information can be stored.)
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Data wholesalers
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Companies that put together consortia of data sources into packages that are offered to municipal, corporate, and university libraries for a fee.
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Statistical databases
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Contain numerical data for market analysis and forecasting.
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Electronic data interchange (EDI)
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Type of exchange that occurs when one company’s computer system is integrated with another company’s system.
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Predictive analytics
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A system linking computerized data sources to statistical tools allowing more accurate forecasts of consumers’ opinions and actions. (also eliminates the manual scanning of data.)
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Content providers
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Parties that furnish information on the World Wide Web.
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Uniform resource locator (URL)
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A web site address that web browsers recognize.
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Search engine
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A computerized directory that allows anyone to search the World Wide Web for information using a keyword search.
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Keyword search
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Takes place as the search engine searches through millions of web pages for documents containing the keywords.
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Environmental scanning
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Entails all information gathering designed to detect changes in the external operating environment of the firm.
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Pull technology
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Consumers request information a web page and the browser then determines a response. (consumer asking for data)
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Push technology
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Sends data to a user’s computer without a request being made. (software is used to guess what information might be interesting to a consumer based on the pattern of previous responses)
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Smart agent software
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Software capable of learning an internet user’s preferences and automatically searching out information in selected web sites and then distributing it.
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Cookies
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Small data files that a content provider can save onto the computer of someone who visits it’s web site. (record a user’s web usage history)
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Intranet
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Is a company’s private data network that uses internet standards and technology.
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Exploratory research
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Conducted to clarify ambiguous situations or discover ideas that may be potential business opportunities. (not intended to provide conclusive evidence to determine particular courses of action/decisions)
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Give an example of exploratory research
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-New product development -Helping define a marketing problem -Identifying a market opportunity
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Symptoms
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Observable cues that serve as a signal of a problem because they are caused by that problem. Example: A drop in market share is generally only a symptom of a market problem and not the problem itself.
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Descriptive research
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Describes characteristics of objects, people, groups, organizations, or environments; tries to “paint a picture” of a given situation.
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Descriptive research often helps describe what?
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Market segments
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Diagnostic analysis
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Seeks to diagnose reasons for market outcomes and focuses specifically on the beliefs and feelings consumers have about and toward competing products.
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Causual research
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Allows causal inferences to be made; seeks to identify cause-and-effect relationships.
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Causal inference
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A conclusion that when one thing happens, another specific thing will follow.
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The three critical pieces of causal evidence are?
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-Temporal sequence -Concomitant variance -Nonspurious association
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Temporal sequence
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Deals with the time order of events. The cause must occur before the effect.
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Concomitant variation
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Occurs when two events “covary” or vary systematically. Example: When a change in the cause occurs, a change in the outcome is also observed.
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Nonspurious association
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Any covariation between a cause and an effect is true and not simply due to some other variable.
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Experiments
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A carefully controlled study in which the researcher manipulates a proposed cause and observes any corresponding change in the proposed effect.
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Experimental variable
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Represents the proposed cause which the researcher controls by manipulating its value.
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Manipulation
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Means that the researcher alters the level of the variable in specific increments.
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Exploratory research
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This type of marketing research is: -Highly ambiguous -Researches a question -Takes place in the early stages of decision making -Unstructured -Discovery orientated, productive, but still speculative
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Descriptive research
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This type of marketing research is: -Partially defined -Researches a question -Takes place in the later stages of decision making -Can be confirmatory although more research is sometimes needed. Results can be managerially actionable
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Causal research
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This type of marketing research is: -Clearly defined -Researches a hypothesis -Takes place in the later stages of decision making -Highly structured -Confirmatory oriented. Fairly conclusive with managerially actionable results often obtained.
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The research process
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-Defining the research objectives -Planning a research design -Planning a sample, collecting the data -Analyzing the data -Formulating the conclusions and preparing the report Are all apart of?
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Research objectives
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The goals to be achieved by conducting research
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Deliverables
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The research objectives to a research client
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Literature review
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A directed search of published works, including periodicals and books, that discusses theory and presents empirical results that are relevant to the topic at hand.
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Pilot study
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A small-scale research project that collects data from respondents similar to those to be used in the full study.
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Pretest
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A small-scale study in which the results are only preliminary and intended only to assist in design of a subsequent study.
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Focus group
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A small group discussion about some research topic led by a moderator who guides discussion among the participants. (often 6-12 people)
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Theory
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A formal, logical explanation of some events that includes predictions of how things can relate to one another.
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Hypothesis
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A formal statement explaining some outcome.
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Research design
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A master plan that specifies the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information.
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Empirical testing
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Means something that has been examined against reality using data.
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Survey
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A research technique in which a sample is interviewed in some form or the behavior of respondents is observed and described in some way.
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Sampling
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Involves any procedure that draws conclusions based on measurements of a portion of the population. (subset from a larger population)
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Unobtrusive methods
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Methods in which research respondents do not have to be disturbed for data to be gathered. (they may even be unaware that the research is going on at all.
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Data analysis
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The application of reasoning to understand the data that have been gathered. (determining consistent patterns and summarizing the relevant details revealed in the investigation)
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Research project
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A single study that addresses one or a small number of research objectives.
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Research program
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Numerous related studies that come together to address multiple, related research objectives.
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Outside agency
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An independent research firm contracted by the company that actually will benefit from the research.
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In-house research
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Research performed by employees of the company that will benefit from the research. (Not always the best for the job)
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When a firm is facing a pivotal decision, why should they consider having the research performed by an outside agency?
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-fresh perspective -more objective thinking -special expertise -local knowledge/expertise
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What are the pros to in-house research?
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-get started quicker -closer collaboration from employees from diverse areas of the organization -cheaper -secrecy
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Research suppliers
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Commercial providers of marketing searching services.
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Syndicate service
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A marketing research supplier that provides standardized information for many clients in return for a fee. (Supermarket for standardized research results)
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Standardized research service
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Companies that develop a unique methodology for investigating a business specialty area.
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Custom research
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Research projects that are tailored specifically to a client’s unique needs.
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How many employees does the government statistically consider a small firm?
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100 or fewer employees
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How many employees does the government statistically consider a medium-sized firm?
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100-150 employees
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How many employees does the government statistically consider a large firm?
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500+ employees
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Director of marketing research
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This person provides leadership in research efforts and integrates all staff-level research activities into one effort. The director plans, executes, and controls the firm’s marketing research function.
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Research analyst
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Is responsible for client contact, project design, preparation of proposals, selection of research suppliers, and supervision of data collection, analysis, and reporting activities.
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Research assistants
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Provide technical assistance with questionnaire design, data analyses, and similar activities.
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Manager of decision support systems
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Employee who supervises the collection and analysis of sales, inventory, and other periodic customer relationship management (CRM) data.
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Forecast analyst
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Employee who proves technical assistance such as running computer programs and manipulating data to generate a sales forecast.
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What are common problems research directors face?
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-Most skilled research professionals like conducting research better than they like managing people. -The research management role is often not romally recognized -Delegating responsibility -Many firms see the role as a full-time director as unnecessary.
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Cross-functional teams
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Employee teams composed of individuals from various functional areas who share a common purpose.
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What are the benefits of working in cross-functional teams
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-help organizations focus on a core business -reduces the tendency for employees to focus single-mindedly on an isolated functional activity. -increase customer service value since communication about their specific desires and opinions are better communicated across the firm.
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Marketing ethics
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The application of morals to business behavior related to the exchange environment.
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Moral standards
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Principles that reflect beliefs about what is ethical and what is unethical. (right and wrong)
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Relativism
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A term that reflects the degree to which one rejects morel standards in favor of the acceptability of some action. This way of thinking rejects absolute principles in factor of situation-based evaluations. (an action that is judged ethical in one situation can be deemed unethical in another)
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Idealism
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Is a term that reflects the degree to which one bases one’s morality on moral standards.
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Ethical dilemma
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Refers to a situation in which one choose from alternative courses of actions, each with different ethical implications.
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Informed consent
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When an individual understands what the researcher wants him to or her to do and consents to the research study.
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Confidentiality
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The information involved in a research will not be shared with others.
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Do-not-call legislation
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Restricts any telemarketing effort from calling consumes who either register with a no-call or who request not to be called.
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Spyware
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Software placed on a computer without consent or knowledge of the user, while using the internet.
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Placebo
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A false experimental effect used to create the perception that some effect has been administered.
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Debriefing
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Research subjects are fully informed and provided with a chance to ask any questions they may have about the experiment.
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Mystery shoppers
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Employees of a research firm that are paid to pretend to be actual shoppers.
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Human subjects review committee
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Carefully reviews proposed research design to try to make sure that non harm can come to any research participant. Otherwise known as an institutional review board or bill or IRB.
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Institutional review board
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Another name for a human subjects review committee
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Advocacy research
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Research undertaken to support a specific claim in a legal action or represent some advocacy. (Researchers often conduct advocacy research in their role as an expert witness)
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Pseudo-research
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Conducted not to gather information for marketing decisions but to bolster a point of view and satisfying other needs.
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Push poll
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Telemarketing under guise of research.
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Conflict of interest
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Occurs when one researcher works for two competing companies.
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Qualitative marketing research
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research that addresses marketing objectives through techniques that allow the researcher to provide elaborate interpretations of market phenomena without depending on numerical measurements, its focus is on discovering true inner meanings and new insights.
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Researcher-dependent
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Research in which the researcher must extract meaning from unstructured responses such as text from a recorded interview or a collage representing the meaning of some experience. (Skateboarding)
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What are common situations that often call for qualitative research?
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-When it is difficult to develop specific and actionable decision statements or research objectives. -When the research objectives is to develop an understanding of some phenomena in great detail and in much depth. -When the research objective is to learn how consumers use a product in its natural setting
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Quantitative marketing research
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Marketing research that addresses research objectives through empirical assessments that involve numerical measurements and analysis
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Subjective
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Results are researcher-dependent, meaning different researchers may reach different conclusions based on the same interview.
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Qualitative data
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Data that are not characterized by numbers and instead are textual, visual, or oral; focus is on stories, visual portrayals, meaningful characterizations, interpretations and other expressive descriptions.
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Quantitative data
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Represent phenomena by assigning numbers in an ordered and meaningful way.
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Concept testing
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A frequently performed type of exploratory research representing many similar research procedures all having the same purpose: to screen new, revised or repositioned ideas.
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What are the 4 major categories of qualitative research?
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-Phenomenology, originating in philosophy/psychology -Ethnography, originating in anthropology -Ground theory, originating in sociology -Case studies, originating in psychology/business research
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Hermeneutics
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An approach to understanding phenomenology that relies on analysis of texts through which a person tells a story about him-or herself
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Phenomenology
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A philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently subjective and determined by the context in which people live.
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Hermeneutic unit
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Refers to a text passage from a respondent’s story that is linked with a key theme from within this story or provided by the researcher.
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Ethnography
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Represents ways of studying cultures through methods that involve becoming highly active within that culture.
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Participant-observation
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Ethnographic research approach where the researcher becomes immersed within the culture that he/she is studying and draws data from his/her observations.
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Grounded theory
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Represents an inductive investigation in which the researcher poses questions about information provided by respondents or taken from historical records; the researcher asks the questions to him/herself and repeatedly questions the responses to derive deeper explanations.
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Case studies
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The documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event.
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Themes
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Identified by the frequency with which the same term (or a synonym) arises in the narrative description.

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