MKT 3411 Ch. 11

question

C
answer

A(n) ________ is an actual or imaginary individual or group conceived of having significant relevance upon an individual’s evaluations, aspirations, or behavior. A) opinion group B) demographic group C) reference group D) focus group
question

D
answer

Reference groups influence us in three ways. These influences include informational, utilitarian, and ________ dimensions. A) reputational B) descriptive C) knowledge D) value-expressive
question

B
answer

Which of the following is an example of utilitarian influence? A) An individual seeks information about various brands from a professional. B) An individual’s decision to purchase a particular brand is influenced by the preferences of family members. C) An individual feels that the purchase of a particular brand will enhance the image others have of her. D) An individual seeks brand-related knowledge and experience from friends, neighbors, colleagues, and relatives who have reliable information about the brand.
question

B
answer

The capacity to alter the actions of others is referred to as ________ power. A) publicity B) social C) second-order D) behavioral
question

A
answer

If a consumer admires the qualities of another person and copies his or her behaviors, the person that is copied is said to have ________ power. A) referent B) informational C) legitimate D) coercive
question

B
answer

The ________ influence is the reference group influence that helps the consumer make decisions about specific brands or activities. A) normative B) comparative C) selective D) coercive
question

C
answer

A group composed of people that the consumer actually knows is called a(n) ________ reference group. A) aspirational B) tribal C) membership D) networked
question

B
answer

Political candidates who get the most media exposure are more likely to win an election because of the effect of ________ in determining one’s set of referents. A) propinquity B) mere exposure C) group cohesiveness D) reference bias
question

D
answer

Which of the following is an example of a new kind of avoidance group that has grown in popularity through the Web? A) virtual communities of consumption B) virtual worlds C) consumer tribes D) antibrand communities
question

D
answer

One of the chief causes of the phenomenon of the risky shift effect is ________. A) decision polarization B) degeneration hypothesis C) regeneration hypothesis D) diffusion of responsibility
question

C
answer

The ________ a group is, the more likely members are to engage in social loafing. A) more homogeneous B) smaller C) bigger D) less homogeneous
question

B
answer

When members of a group come together with a certain attitude, that attitude becomes more extreme after the group discusses it. This effect is called ________. A) social loafing B) decision polarization C) responsibility diffusion D) the principle of least interest
question

A
answer

Home shopping parties may activate the risky shift or ________, in which the individual at the party may get so caught up in the party spirit that he orders products that he would normally not purchase. A) deindividuation B) homophily C) surrogate shift D) principle of least interest
question

B
answer

The pressure to conform that escalates as more and more group members “cave in” is called the ________ effect. A) polarization B) bandwagon C) loafing D) homophily
question

C
answer

Within groups, informal rules of behavior are called ________. A) beliefs B) values C) norms D) interpersonal dynamics
question

B
answer

Consumers who are confident in themselves and do not seek peer approval for their behaviors are said to be ________. A) normative B) role-relaxed C) deindividuated D) insulated
question

D
answer

Young teenagers who conform to group pressure because they believe they will be punished by the group for nonconforming behaviors are motivated by ________. A) social loafing B) the principle of least interest C) group unanimity D) fear of deviance
question

A
answer

According to the principle of least interest, the person who is least ________ has the most power in a relationship. A) committed to staying in the relationship B) susceptible to interpersonal influence C) susceptible to cultural pressures D) concerned about sanctions against nonconforming behavior
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B
answer

A marketing manager who wants to identify opinion leaders for her product category should do which of the following? A) She should find government officials who use the product. B) She should find socially active persons who are intensely interested in the product category and who are similar to other customers. C) She should find intellectuals who can write and speak well so that communication will be facilitated. D) She should look for people who stand out in a crowd.
question

A
answer

Which of the following statements most accurately defines homophily? A) Homophily is the degree to which a pair of individuals is similar in terms of education, social status, and beliefs. B) Homophily is the degree to which a pair of individuals is similar in terms of monetary wealth and lifestyle. C) Homophily is the degree to which a pair of individuals is similar in terms of ethnicity. D) Homophily is the degree to which a pair of individuals is similar in terms of sexual orientation.
question

B
answer

Recent research on opinion leadership has called into question the traditional view that there is such a thing as a ________ opinion leader. A) heterophilous B) generalized C) polymorphic D) monomorphic
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D
answer

The opinion leader referred to as a(n) ________ is actively involved in transmitting marketplace information of all types. A) surrogate consumer B) innovator C) monomorphic leader D) market maven
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D
answer

A(n) ________ is a marketing intermediary retained by a consumer to guide what that consumer buys. A) market maven B) opinion leader C) power user D) surrogate consumer
question

C
answer

Several research methods are used to study reference groups and opinion leadership. ________ methods trace communication patterns among members of a group. These techniques allow researchers to systematically map out the interactions that take place among group members. A) Momentum B) Behavioral C) Sociometric D) Geodemographic
question

B
answer

A sociometric network analysis is likely to study all of the following EXCEPT which one? A) referral behavior B) the use of surrogate consumers C) the tie strength between members of a network D) communication in social systems
question

A
answer

The importance of weak ties in a social system is demonstrated by their ________. A) bridging function B) social contagion C) momentum effect D) diffusion of responsibility
question

B
answer

In advertising terms, a(n) ________ refers to a view or exposure to an advertising message. A) node B) impression C) connection D) reference
question

D
answer

Product information that is transmitted by individuals to individuals is called ________. A) independent analysis B) product shuffle C) reactance formation D) word-of-mouth
question

B
answer

In general, advertising is more effective when it ________ than when it ________. A) tries to create new product preferences; reinforces our existing product preferences B) reinforces our existing product preferences; tries to create new product preferences C) relies upon word-of-mouth tactics; relies upon viral marketing tactics D) relies upon viral marketing tactics; relies upon word-of-mouth tactics
question

C
answer

Which of the following is NOT one of three basic themes of complaint Web sites recently identified in a study of such Web sites? A) injustice B) identity C) legitimacy D) agency
question

C
answer

What is guerrilla marketing? A) the use of large, attention-getting displays such as balloons and searchlights at the retail site B) the use of hidden attacks on the competition by creating false news releases, negative WOM, and industrial sabotage C) the use of promotions that rely on unconventional locations and strategies to build buzz D) the use of a monster attack on all sources of media so that a promotion is seen and heard simultaneously, no matter where a customer turns
question

C
answer

________ refers to the strategy of getting visitors to a Web site to forward information on the site to their friends in order to make still more consumers aware of a product. A) Foot-in-door marketing B) Guerrilla marketing C) Viral marketing D) Demand-based marketing
question

D
answer

Social networking is an integral part of what many call ________, which is characterized by interactive platforms that foster the creation of communities. A) the virtual world B) the mega Web C) the inner Web D) Web 2.0
question

B
answer

According to the ________ perspective, under the right circumstances a group of people is smarter than the smartest people within the group. A) mere exposure phenomenon B) wisdom of crowds C) deindividuation D) normative influence
question

A
answer

Jeff had collected a nice wardrobe before graduating from college. All of his friends considered him “well dressed.” After the first day at his new job, however, Jeff immediately went out and replaced most of his clothes with what was considered to be professional dress clothing. Jeff had just experienced the power of a new ________. A) reference group B) information cascade C) avoidance group D) brand community
question

B
answer

Which form of reference group influence is most associated with the following situation? Carl knows that Bert has had experience with various types of motor oils because Bert is a mechanic for a large Cadillac dealership. Carl asks Bert to compare his brand against Quaker State. Bert tells Carl that Quaker State can’t be beat for performance and durability. A) coercive influence B) information influence C) utilitarian influence D) value-expressive influence
question

D
answer

Kimberly has been contacted eight times in the last week by a pushy telemarketer. She made the mistake of showing some interest in the product being sold and has not had much luck in getting rid of the caller. Which of the following forms of power is being exercised by the telemarketer? A) expert power B) referent power C) reward power D) coercive power
question

B
answer

If a fireman told you to leave your apartment, you would comply because the fireman has ________ power. A) referent B) legitimate C) coercive D) reward
question

A
answer

Phillipe is a member of a small Harley-Davidson motorcycle club. They meet once a week to ride and talk about their bikes. This club might exert a ________ influence on Phillipe as he decides which model of bike to buy for his girlfriend. A) comparative B) normative C) coercive power D) legitimate power
question

B
answer

Every summer, thousands of bikers converge on Sturgis, South Dakota, filling up every campground, motel, and hotel within miles of the city. This annual meeting is an example of a gathering of a(n) ________. A) normative clan B) consumer tribe C) maven network D) aspirational group
question

C
answer

Chet meets each Wednesday night at his local bookstore with a small group of computer enthusiasts. The group calls itself X-Hackers because at one time all of these select members were hackers. Today, members of the group have similar values and have pledged to stop computer hacking. Which of the following membership group factors best describes what brings this group together? A) propinquity B) mere exposure C) group cohesiveness D) avoidance
question

A
answer

Jeremy liked to gamble. He and his friends would travel several times a month to a local casino. If Jeremy could not find someone to travel with, he would go by himself. He noticed after a few months that he wagered more when he was with his friends than when he was alone. Jeremy’s behavior is an example of ________. A) risky shift B) decision polarization C) social loafing D) capitalization
question

A
answer

Angela belongs to a film club that selects and views classic movies once a month. Angela wouldn’t watch a vampire movie on her own, but is happy to watch the classic vampire film with the group that almost all of the other group members voted to see. This example demonstrates which factor of conformity? A) group unanimity B) cultural pressure C) fear of deviance D) principle of least of interest
question

B
answer

Meagan is planning her wedding and wants everything to be just right, from the invitations and table settings to the ceremony and music selections. Because she feels overwhelmed by all of the information to sort through and the choices to make, she hires a wedding planner to make many of the decisions and purchases for her. Meagan’s wedding planner is best described as a(n) ________. A) innovative communicator B) consumer surrogate C) opinion seeker D) key informant
question

C
answer

Sam and Jackson have just returned from a Houston Astros game at the new Astros ballpark. The ballpark really impressed them. What really caught their attention, however, was the unique way that Coca-Cola sold its products. There were roving teams of “Cola Buddies” moving throughout the crowd during the game. These teams were passing out “free coupons” for Cokes, souvenir cups, dugout passes, and free tickets to next week’s game. Sam and Jackson will always remember how great their day at the ballpark was and will certainly choose Coca-Cola when given the opportunity. This is an example of which of the following communication strategies? A) foot-in-the-door marketing B) viral marketing C) guerrilla marketing D) demand-based marketing
question

B
answer

Amanda thought she had been cheated by a local car dealership. She was so upset that she created a Web site to share her story with the world. What is the most likely result of Amanda’s action? A) Most readers will think that Amanda is a little nutty and ignore her Web site. B) Amanda’s Web site will decrease the credibility of the dealership’s ads and will influence potential buyers to stay away from the dealership. C) Even if it is read extensively, Amanda’s Web site will have little effect on how people see the dealership or Amanda. D) The Web site will actually increase sales at the dealership by giving the company free publicity.
question

D
answer

Mindi heard that rubbing olive oil on her feet would help her to avoid the painful cracks that sometimes appear on her heels. Mindi is no foot expert, but she is willing to try this remedy on the off-chance that it might work. Which of the following would best explain Mindi’s response to word-of-mouth information? A) She is coerced into action. B) She is totally dependent on word-of-mouth information. C) She is being influenced by social persuasion theory. D) She is unfamiliar with the product and is therefore likely to be persuaded by word-of-mouth information.
question

B
answer

Consumers who participate in social networking are more likely to consider themselves as ________ than are those who do not use online social networks. A) media recipients B) media broadcasters C) members of an aspirational group D) members of a reference group
question

A
answer

Propinquity is a factor that is related to the power of a reference group. How will it influence the relative power between a membership group and an avoidance group? A) Propinquity should make membership groups much stronger than avoidance groups. B) Propinquity should make membership groups and avoidance groups equal in potential power. C) Propinquity should make membership groups weaker than avoidance groups because the motivation to distance oneself is increased with closeness. D) Propinquity will have no influence on either membership groups or avoidance groups.
question

D
answer

What do social loafing and decision polarization have in common? A) Group decisions become more extreme, so that individuals who are naturally lazy become even more so. B) Some people do not pay their “fair share,” which causes groups to polarize into smaller groups. C) Both effects show how individualism is maintained even within groups that exert considerable peer pressure. D) Both are examples of how individuals and groups of people behave differently within larger groups than they would behave as individuals.

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