Midterm FNH123: Control Notes

question

Having a moderate amount of excess body weight.
answer

overweight
question

25-29.9kg/m2 BMI is for what standard of body weight?
answer

overweight
question

To determine a _________________…. – Is it appropriate for your age? – Can you maintain it without constant dieting? – Is it acceptable to you? – Is it based on family history of body shape or weight? – Promotes good eating habits and allows for regular physical activity.
answer

healthy body weight
question

Having an excess of body fat that adversely affects health
answer

obese
question

Body weight exceeding 100% of normal, creating a very high risk for serious health complications… or sometimes referred to by 100lbs above IBW
answer

morbid obesity
question

Being ______ increases your risks for high blood pressure, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep disorders, osteoarthritis, gallstones
answer

overweight
question

Obesity is defined with a BMI of…
answer

30-39.9 kg/m2
question

To find the IBW (ideal body weight) of a female…
answer

5′ = 100lbs [add 5;bs/inch] +-10%
question

To find the IBW (ideal body weight) of a male…
answer

5′ = 106lbs [add 6;bs/inch] +-10%
question

Morbid obesity exceeds ___% of normal
answer

100
question

Extreme obesity is defined with a BMI of…
answer

40
question

5 out of 9 leading causes of death in the US are associated with…?
answer

obesity
question

Most unhealthy state in the US.. Closely followed by West Virginia.
answer

Mississippi
question

Chronic diseases linked to… – Hypertension – Cardiovascular disease (#1 killer in the US) – Type 2 diabetes – Heart Disease – Stroke – Osteoarthritis (OA) – Sleep apnea – Certain cancers
answer

obesity
question

Determining is a person’s body weight is ______ should include… – Determining BMI – Measuring body composition – Assessing the pattern of fat distribution
answer

healthful
question

BMI values below ____ have increased risks of health problems.
answer

18.5
question

BMI values above ___ have increased risks of health problems.
answer

30
question

1 meter = ?
answer

39.37 inches
question

2.2kg = ?
answer

1lb
question

BMI = ? / ?
answer

weight/height
question

BMI should be in the units of weight (___) and height (___)
answer

kg and m
question

BMI results are distorted in people with high muscle mass such as: …
answer

athletes and lactating women
question

When measuring body composition (body fat and lean muscle mass), what is the best method?
answer

underwater weighing
question

Body composition measures what?
answer

body fat and lean muscle mass
question

Measuring by ___________ is recently considered the most beneficial in assessing weight.
answer

waist circumference
question

Holding weight in the upper body. – Increased risk for chronic diseases (type 2 diabetes, heart disease, hypertension).
answer

apple-shaped fat patterning
question

Holding weight in the lower body. – No significant increased risk for chronic diseases.
answer

pear-shaped fat patterning
question

Occurs when energy intake equals energy expenditure
answer

energy balance
question

Kcal from food
answer

energy intake
question

– Energy expended at rest (basal metabolic rate) – Physical activity – Thermic effect of food
answer

energy expenditure
question

BMR stands for…
answer

basal metabolic rate
question

__-__% of total energy expenditure is put towards resting functions of the body (aka basal).
answer

60-75
question

____ decreases with age, 3-5% per decade after age 30.
answer

BMR
question

To calculate the BMR of a man you take their…
answer

weight (in kg) x 24
question

To calculate the BMR of a woman you take their…
answer

weight (in kg) x 23
question

– Leaner you are, the higher this is. – Aging decreases this. – Muscle mass increases it. – Females when pregnant increases it. – Being female decreases it. – Sleep increases it. – Illness increases it. – Dieting decreases it.
answer

factors that influence BMR
question

____ ____ is the most variable of the components in energy balance.
answer

physical activity
question

Physical activity acounts for __-__% of daily energy expenditure
answer

15-35
question

The more muscle groups used, the greater the energy expenditure, consider the following: – ? – ? – ?
answer

intensity, duration, body size
question

Energy expanded to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize and store food. (In plain English: how much time a day it takes to eat something til you poop it out)
answer

thermic effect of food
question

TEF stands for…
answer

thermic effect of food
question

Thermic effect of food accounts for _-_% of total energy expenditure.
answer

5-10
question

– BMR 60-75% – Physical activity energy cost 15-25% – Thermic Effect of Food 5-10%
answer

total caloric allowance
question

How many calories do you need in a day?
answer

question

It takes more energy to digest, absorb, transport, and metabolize…
answer

protein and carb
question

Genetic factors account for about __% of a persons body fat.
answer

25
question

Proposes a gene (or genes) cause a person to be energetically thrifty. – Proposes that people with this gene expend less energy than other people and therefore gain weight. – Has not been identified.
answer

thrifty gene theory
question

The body compensates for changes in energy balance and keeps a person’s weight at their … – Proposes that each person’s weight stays within a small range. – Can change with time as diet and activity levels vary over a long period of time. – Can be readjusted
answer

set-point theory
question

Proposes that fat cells increase earlier in life as a result of overfeeding. – Starts with introduction of food too soon. – This theory proposes that you develop a greater number of fat cells early in life from overfeeding.
answer

fat cell theory
question

Based on the principle that the enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL) promotes fat storage in both fat and muscle cells. – Thus, if you have more of this enzyme, you’ll be more likely to gain/retain weight for the rest of your life.
answer

lpl enzyme theory
question

Other risk factors for ____ _____ include: – Family history – Large birth weight – In-utero exposure to diabetes. – Rapid weight gain during the first 6 months of life.
answer

later obesity
question

Factors that ______ ____ for childhood obsity… – Eat dinner with the family >3x per week – Family income > $60,000 per year – Living in an urban area – Physical education classes in schools – Have kids eat a breakfast (data shows kids who don’t eat breakfast with obesity rates at 27% as compared to breakfast eaters at 9%)
answer

reduce risk
question

Is a hormone produced by fat cells that causes reduced food intake, reduced weight, decreased body fat in mice. – Causes lethargy and greater food consumption. – Controlled by the OB (obesity) gene.
answer

leptin
question

– Protein synthesized in the stomach – Stimulates appetite by acting on the hypothalamus – Levels rise in dieters who lose weight… so the dieter wants to eat more.
answer

ghrelin
question

Bariatric surgery patients do have lower…
answer

ghrelin levels
question

– Hormone made in the gut in response to food – Circulates to hypothalamus where it “switches” off the urge to eat. – Obese people have lower levels when fasting.
answer

peptide yy
question

In studies, when given _______ and offered food two hours later the study participants ate… 33% fewer calories.
answer

peptide yy
question

You should be getting how many hours of sleep a night minimum?
answer

6-8
question

During out _th stage of sleep (deepest sleep) this hormone is produced.
answer

4, 4th, REM
question

Growth hormone drops naturally with aging but will be accelerated with…
answer

lack of sleep
question

If the ______ _____ drops… lean tissue or muscle mass will drop, thus influencing our metabolism.
answer

growth hormone
question

The hormone produced by the pineal gland regulated our sleep cycle.
answer

melatonin
question

– Melatonin is released at ______ – to make us feel sleepy
answer

sunset
question

If melatonin secretion falls so does the ability to make the ….
answer

growth hormone
question

Known as “the stress hormone” because it’s secreted in response to stressful situations.
answer

cortisol
question

Regulates hypertension, heart function, carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
answer

cortisol
question

If chronically elevated (which occurs with sleep deprivation) the result = loss of…
answer

muscle mass and increase in body fat
question

AMDR is….?
answer

acceptable macronutrient distribution range
question

Physiologic drive or need to eat
answer

hunger
question

A psychological desire to eat often in the absence of hunger… Perhaps this is more of a societal concern.
answer

appetite
question

45-65% for AMDR for…
answer

carbohydrate, CHO
question

10-35% for AMDR for…
answer

protein
question

20-25% for AMDR for…
answer

fat
question

A 14.5% increase in ghrelin and a 15.5% decrease in leptin will occur when you get below _ hours a sleep/day, and leads to increased appetite and cravings for high fat/sugar foods.
answer

5
question

Evidence is overwhelming that _____ (or lack of) does affect our tendency to gain weight.
answer

sleep
question

The risk of obesity vs. hours of sleep… 73% risk for ______ hours/day
answer

less than 4
question

The risk of obesity vs. hours of sleep… 50% risk for _ hours/day
answer

5
question

The risk of obesity vs. hours of sleep… 23% risk for _ hours/day
answer

6
question

1.) Avoid beverages, foods that may impair sleep before going to bed. 2.) Don’t exercise too close to bedtime 3.) Get regular exercise 4.) Develop a “bed time” ritual 5.) Try to get to bed roughly the same time daily 6.) Improve your sleep environment which includes… – comfort – temperature (cooler the better) – darkness level 7. Try to avoid working shift work (or at least get interrupted sleep) to get into “deep sleep”
answer

improving the sleep cycle
question

Always sleep in ____ and DO NOT BREAK IT UP.
answer

one block
question

People with ________ are 4x likely to suffer depression than those who sleep well. – Contributes to other illnesses such as: heart disease, high blood pressure. – People with insomnia often miss more work, and receive fewer promotions (They do not perform as well).
answer

insomnia
question

– Cultural or family traditions – Holidays and celebrations – Easy access to high-fat foods – Less physically active lifestyles – Societal expectations of the “perfect” body
answer

social factors influencing our diet
question

– Application of behavior modification techniques so as to make these lifelong lifestyle changes. – Diet = FAIL
answer

healthful weight change requirements
question

– Step 1: Get into a regular, adequate sleep pattern… – Step 2: Gradual change into appropriate physical exercise. – Step 3: Gradual change to improve nutritional choices.
answer

steps to healthful weight gain changes
question

Be sure ______ know the benefit to them.. you must remember that physical activity is critical for long term weight management. – Make small changes to ______ diets one step at a time.
answer

patients
question

Physical activity is the best way to fight off the…
answer

aging process
question

– Eat only at set times in one location – Keep a log of food consumed – Avoid buying problem foods – Serve food on smaller plates – Eat small, regular meals throughout the day. – Chew slowly and stop eating when you feel full. – Share food with others. – Do not purchase foods from vending machines… prepare healthy snacks at home to go. – Don’t shop when you are starved.
answer

behavior modifications for weight loss
question

BMI below 18.5 is considered to be…. – Increases teh risk of infections and illness and can even be fatal.
answer

underweight
question

– Eating 500-1000 extra kcals/day – Eating frequently throughout the day – Maintaining a balanced diet, limiting fat intake to 15-30% of total energy intake – Avoiding tobacco products which depress appetite and increase BMR. – Regular exercise which includes resistance training.
answer

effective weight gain tips
question

– Gastroplasty – Gastric bypass – Gastric banding
answer

surgical treatments for obesity
question

BMI means…
answer

body mass index
question

For every pound there are how many kcals?
answer

3500
question

Less than or equal to 1200 kcals/day for dieting is considered…
answer

safe
question

1-2lbs a week is considered…
answer

safe weight loss
question

Colorado is the _____ state
answer

skinniest
question

What of the following things will help you be healthy as you age?
answer

education
question

Target heartrate formula is…
answer

220-age. Then multiply by .64 and .95 to find target heart rate.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member