First Aid, CPR, and ADE: Chapter 16-Splinting

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The four primary reasons for splinting to stabilize an injured area are to:
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1. Reduce Pain 2. Prevent damage to muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. 3. Prevent a closed fracture from becoming an open fracture 4. Reduce bleeding and swelling.
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T/F. A splint is any device used to stabilize a fracture or a dislocation.
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TRUE. Such a device can be improvised and should be if a commercial splint is not available.
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T/F. All fractures and dislocations should be stabilized before the victim is moved.
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True.
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There are 7 primary guidelines to apply a splint, what are they?
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1. Cover any open wounds 2. Check the CSM of the extremity. If help is unavailable, gently line up the bones/joints to restore circulation. 3. Determine what to splint using rule of thirds. 4. If two first aiders are present, one should support the injury site to minimize movement until splinting is completed. 5. Splint two sides of the injury if possible. 6. Apply splint firmly but not too tight. Check CSM before and after splint is applied periodically. 7. RICE that puppy (don’t ice if no pulse is present though)
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Describe the steps to splint the *humerus*.
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1. Gently place injured arm across the chest. If available, tie a rigid splint to the outside of the arm, if none is available, proceed to step 2 2. Loop a cravat or strap around the neck and wrist to allow the arm to hang in the sling position 3. Secure the arm to the chest with a swathe
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Describe the steps to splint the *elbow* in the *bent* position
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1. If the injured elbow is bent, place a rigid splint from the upper arm to the wrist 2. Tie a rigid splint onto the arm with cravat bandages 3. Place the arm in a sling.
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Describe the steps to splint the *elbow* in the *straight* position.
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1. If the injured elbow is straight, place a rigid splint along the inside of the arm from the hand to the armpit. 2. Secure with a roller bandage or several cravat bandages 3. Check CSM
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Describe the steps to splint the radius/ulna.
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1. Place splints on both sides of the forearm to prevent rotation of the forearm 2. Secure the cravat or roller bandage 3. Place the arm in a sling. A binder or swathe around the body is recommended. Keep the thumb in the upright position.
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Describe the steps to splint the wrist.
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1. Place a rigid splint on the anterior side of forearm/wrist 2. Use gauze roller bandage and apply it working up from the hand towards the elbow as far as it will go.
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T/F. If you suspect a pelvis or hip fracture, you should elevate the legs until you are ready to personally transport them for medical care.
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FALSE. If you suspect a pelvis or hip fracture, stabilize the victim as you found him or her. Treat the victim for shock, do not lift the legs, and wait for the EMS ambulance to arrive. Pelvis and hip fractures require a long backboard.
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Describe the steps to splint a knee in the straight position.
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1. Lift the injured leg and place a rigid splint (long board) under the leg. The splint should extend from the butt to beyond the foot. 2. Place cravat bandages under the rigid splint and place soft padding under the knee and ankle. 3. Ite the cravat bandages. Do not tie the knots *over* the injured area.
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Describe the steps to splint a knee in the bent position.
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1. Place a rigid splint (long board) against the injured leg. Do not place the splint against the knee. 2. Tie a cravat bandage around the splint and lower leg (tie knots over the splint, not the leg) 3. Tie a cravat bandage around the splint and thigh (tie knots over the splint, not the leg)
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Describe the steps to splint the lower leg.
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1. Place one rigid splint lateral and one medial. Place cravat bandages under the leg. 2. Tie both splints and the leg together with cravats. 3. Tie knots on top of the splint.

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