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Test Answers on Microbiology Lecture Exam #1

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Type of bacteria that lives in harsh conditions.
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Archaea
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Cells of animals, plants, fungi, and protist
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Eukaryotic Cells
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Contain membrane-bound organelles that compartmentalize the cytoplasm and perform specific functions.
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Eukaryotic cells
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No nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
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Prokaryotic Cells
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Contain double-membrane bound nucleus with DNA chromosomes.
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Eukaryotic cells
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Basic shape of cells
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spherical, cubical, and cylindrical
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Internal content
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cytoplasm, surrounded by a membrane…DNA chromosome(s), ribosomes(synthesized protiens), metaboic capabilities.
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1st Characteristic of Life
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Reproduction and heredity-genome composed of DNA packed in chromosomes; produce offspring sexually or asexually.
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2nd characteristic of life
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Growth and development
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3rd characteristic of life
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Metabolism-chemical and physical life processes
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4th chacteristic of life
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Movement and/or irritability-respond to internal/external stimuli; self-propulsion of many organisms.
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5th characteristic of life
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cell support, protection, and storage mechanisms – cell walls, vacuoles, granules and inclusions
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6th characteristic of life
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Transport of nutrients and waste
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Cellular structure and function is amazingly versatile and adaptable
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Prokaryotic cell
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Appendages, flagella, Pili, Fimbriae, Glycocalyx-capsule, slime layer
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Prokaryotic cell (external)
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Cell wall, cell membrane
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Prokaryotic cell (cell envelope)
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cytoplasmic matrix, ribosomes, inclusions(stored material), nucleoid/chromosome(DNA), actin cytoskeleton, endospore (has crust coating and is entirely different metabolic state)
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Prokaryotic cell (Internal)
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Because of their small size prokaryotic cells…
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appear featureless and two dimensional when viewed with an ordinary microscope.
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category of prokaryotes with pepidoglycan in their cell walls
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Bacteria
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organizing, classifing, and naming living things is called
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Taxonomy
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orderly arrangement of organisms into groups is called
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classification
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assigning names is called
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nomenclature
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determining and recording traits of organisms for placement into taxonomic schemes…
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identification
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Levels of Classification…1,2,3
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1. Domain (Archaea, Bacteria, & Eukarya)

2. Kingdom

3. Phylum or Division

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Levels of Classification 4,5,6
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4. class

5. order

6. family

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Levels of classification 7,8
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7. Genus

8. Species

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Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protists
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Domian Eukarya
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Cyanobactera, Chlamydias Spirochetes, Gram-positive bacteria, Endospore producers, Gram-negative bacteria
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Domain Bacteria
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Binomial (scientific) nomenclature
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Geives each microbe 2 names:

Genus – which is captialized

species – which is lower case

Both of which are italicized or underlined

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natural relatedness between groups of organisms is called
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Phylogeny
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-All new species originate from preexisting species.

-Closely related organism have similar features because they evolved from common ancestral forms.

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Evolution
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Methane producers, Prokaryotes that live in extreme salt, Prokaryotes that live in extreme heat
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Domain Archaea
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true bacteria
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Bacteria
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odd baceria that live extreme environments, high salt, heat, etc.
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Archaea
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Have a nucleus and organelles.
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Eukarya
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Process by which chemical substances (nutrients) are acquired from the environment and used in cellular activites.
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Nutrition
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Must be provided to an organism
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Essential Nurtients
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These nutrients are required in large quantities; play principal roles in cell structure and metabolism.

* Proteins, carbbohydrates

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Macronutrients
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The nutrients are required in small amounts; involved in enzyme function and maintenance of pretein structure.

*Manganese, zinc, nickel

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Micronutrients or trace elements
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Contain carbon and hydrogen atoms and are usually the products of living things.

 *Methane (CH4), carbohydrates, lipid, proteins, and nucleic acids

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Organic nutrients
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Atom or molecule that contains a combination of atoms other than cargon and hydrogen (no carbon)

*Metals and their salts, gases, and water

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Inorganic nutrients
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70% water

Proteins

96% of cell is composed of these 6 elements:

 

 

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Carbon

Hydrogen

Oxygen

Phosphorous

Sulfur

Nitrogen

 

 

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Must obtain carbon in an organic form made by other living organisms such as proteins, carbohydrates, dipids, and nucleic acids.
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Heterotroph
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Producers of an Eco-system
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Autotroph
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an organism that uses CO2 an inorganic gas as its carbon source.

*Not nutritionally dependent on other living things.

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Autotroph
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Organic compounds that cannot be synthesized by an organism because they lack the genetic and metabolic mechanisms to synthesize them
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Essential Organic Nutrients
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Growth factors must be provided as a nutrient such as…
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Essential amino acids and vitamins
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Sources of Essential Nutrients
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Carbon sources

(Heterotroph and Autotroph)

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Main determinants of nutritional type are:
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Carbon source-heteroph and autotroph

Energy source-chemotroph and phototrophs

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gain energy from chemical compounds
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Chemotroph
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gain energy through photosynthesis
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Phototrophs
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Photoautotroph is an autotroph that gets its CO2 from what energy source
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Sunlight

ex: organisms, such as algae, plants, cyanobacteria

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Chemoautotroph is an autotroph that gets it CO2 from what energy source
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Simple inorganic chemicals

ex: Only certain bacteria, such as methanogens, deep-sea vent bacteria

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Chemoheterotroph is an Hetetotroph/Organic that get its energy source from
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Metabolic conversion of the nutrients from other organisms

ex: Protozoa, fungi, many bacteria, animals

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What is a Saprobe (Chemoheterotroph) energy source
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Metabolizing the organic matter of dead organisms

ex: Fungi, bacteria (decomposers)

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What is a Parasite (Chemoheterotroph) energy source
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Utilizing he tissues, uids of a live host

ex: Various parasites and pathogens; can be bacteria, fungi, protozoa, animal.

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A Photoheterotroph (Hetertroph/organic) that gets its energy from
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Sunlight or organic matter

ex:  Purple and green photosynthetic bacteria

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Photoautotrophs survive by
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Oxygenic photosynthesis and

Anoxygenic photosynthesis

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Chemoautotrophs (lithoautotrophs) survive
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totally on inorganic substances
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Methanogen is a kind of chemoautotroph that…
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produce methane gas under anaerobic conditions
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Majority of Heterotrophs are chemohetertrophs which survive on…
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Aerobic respiration
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Free-living microoorganisms that feed on organic detritus from dead organisms

*Opportunistic pathogen

*Facultative parasite

are called:

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Saprobes
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They derive nutrients from host

*Pathogens

*Some are obligate parasites

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Parasites
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Type of transport that does not require energy; substances exist in a gradient and move from areas of higher concentration toward areas of lower concentration:
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Passive transport
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List types of passive transports:
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Diffusion, Osmosis, and Facilitated diffusion
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moves down concentration gradient
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Diffusion
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diffusion of water
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Osmosis
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requires a carrier
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Facilitated diffusion
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Type of transport that requires energy and carrier proteins: gradient independent:
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Active transport
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transported molecule chemically altered
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Group translocation
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endocytosis (moves into the cell), exocyosis (goes outside fo the cell), pinocytosis
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Bulk transport
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6 I’s; of culturing microbes
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Inoculation, Isolation, Incubation, Inspection, Information gathering, and Identification
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Introduction of a sample into a containter of media to produce a culture of observable growth is called
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Inoculation
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Seperating one species from another is called
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Isolation
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Under conditions that allow growth…
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Incubation
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Isolation techniques include:
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Streak plate technique

Pour plate technique

Spread plate technique

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Media can be classified by what three state:
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Physical state

Chemical composition

Functional type

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liquid (TSB), simisolid, and solid
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Physical state
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synthetic (chemically defined) and nonsynthetic (complex)
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Chemical composition
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general purpose, enriched, selective, differential, anaerobic growth, specimen transport, assay, enumeration
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Functional type

(Purpose of Medium)

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Type of media that can be chemically defined is called
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Synthetic
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Type of media that is complex and is not chemically defined
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Nonsynthetic
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liquid medium containing beef extract and peptone
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Nutrient broth
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solid media containing beef extract, peptone (which is a partial digested protien), and agar
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Nutrient agar
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The most commonly used solidifying agent is called
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Agar
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A complex polysaccharide (sugars) isolated from red algae
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Agar
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Agar is solid at room temperature, liquiefies at boiling (100 C), and does not re-solidify until it cools at____
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42 C
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What does Agar do?
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Provides framework to hold moisture and nutrients and is not digestivle for most microbes.
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Media that contains pure organic and inorganic compounds in an exact chemical formula
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Synthetic
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Media that contains at least on ingredient that is not chemically definable.
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Complex or nonsynthectic
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Media that grows a broad range of microbes, usually nonsynthetic.
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General purpose media
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Media that contains complex organic substances such as blood, serum, hemoglobin, or special growht factors required by fastidious (hard to grow) microbes.
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Enriched Media
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Contains one or more agents that inhibit growth of some microbes and encourage growth of the desired microbes.
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Selective Media
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Allows growth of several types of microbes and displays visible differences amound thos microbes.
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Differential Media
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Contains a substance that absorbs oxygen or slows penetration of osygen into mediam; used for growing anaerobic bacteria.
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Reducing medium
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Contains sugars that can be fermented converted to acids, and a pH indicator to show this reaction.
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Carbohydrate fermentation medium
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Temperature-controlled chamber
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Incubation
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observation; macroscopic and microscopic
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Inspection
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grows only single known species of microorganisms
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Pure culture
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hold two or more identified species or microoorganisms
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Mixed cultures
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once pure or mixed uclture that has unwanted microbes growing
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Contaminated culture
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macroscopic and microscopic appearance, biochemical test, genetic characteristics, immunological testing
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Identification
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What two way are potentially hazardous cultures and specimens disposed?
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-Steam Sterilization (Autoclave)

-Inceneration (Burning)

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Division of bacterial cells occurs mainly through
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Binary fission
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Parent cell enlarges, duplicates its chromosome, and forms a central transverse septum dividing the cell into two daugher cells.; This is called
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Binary Fission
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Time requied for a complete fission cycle is called the
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generation or doubling time
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Each new fission cycle increases the population by a factor of
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2-exponential growth
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Formula for calculating population size over time:
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Nf = (N1)2n

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Nf total # of cells in the population

N1 is starting number of cells

Exponentn denotes generation time

2n number of cells in that generation

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In laboratory studies, population typically display a predictable patter over time called
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growth curve
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Stages in the normal growth curve include:
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Lag Phase, Exponential growth phase, Stationary phase, and Death phase
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“flat” period of adjustment, enlargement; little growth is called
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Lag Phase
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A period of maximum growth withll continue as long as cells have adequate nutrients and favorable environment.
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Exponential growth phase
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Rate of cell growth equals rate of cell death caused by depleted nutrients and O2, excretion of organic acids and pollutants.
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Stationary phase
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As limiting factor intensify, cells die exponentially.
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Death phase
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Degree of cloudiness, turbidity, reflects the relative population size.; This is called
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Turbidometry
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Getting a viable colony count or direct cell count of all cells present; automated or manual is called
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Enumeration of bacteria
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What can pick up fine degrees of difference in turbidity?
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Spectrophotometer
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Evenly cloudy thoughout
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uniform fine turbidity
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produces a type of surface membrane
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pellicle
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appears to clump (suspended chunks or pieces)
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Flocculent