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Microbiology Chapter 10

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The use of an organism’s biochemical processes to create a product is: a. genetic engineering b. biotechnology c. recombinant DNA d. gel electrophoresis e. gene probes
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biotechnology
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The various techniques by which scientists manipulate DNA in the lab is called: a. genetic engineering b. biotechnology c. recombinant DNA d. gel electrophoresis e. gene probes
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genetic engineering.
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The deliberate removal of genetic material from one organism and combining it with the genetic material of another organism is a specific technique called: a. genetic engineering b. biotechnology c. recombinant DNA technology d. gel electrophoresis e. gene probes
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recombinant DNA technology.
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Labeled, known, short stretches of DNA used to detect a specific sequence of nucleotides in a mixture are: a. genetic engineering b. biotechnology c. recombinant DNA d. gel electrophoresis e. gene probes
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gene probes.
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A technique that separates a readable pattern of DNA fragments is: a. genetic engineering b. biotechnology c. recombinant DNA d. gel electrophoresis e. gene probes
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gel electrophoresis.
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DNA strands can be clipped crosswise at selected positions by using enzymes called: a. palindromes b. reverse tanscriptase c. restriction endonucleases d. ligases e. DNA polymerases
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restriction endonucleases.
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Geneticists can make complimentary DNA copies of messenger, transfer, and ribosomal RNA by using: a. palindromes b. reverse tanscriptase c. restriction endonucleases d. ligases e. DNA polymerases
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reverse transcriptase.
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EcoRI and HindIII are: a. palindromes b. reverse tanscriptase c. restriction endonucleases d. ligases e. DNA polymerases
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restriction endonucleases.
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Sequences of DNA that are identical when read from the 5′ to 3′ direction on one strand and the 3′ to 5′ direction on the other strand are: a. palindromes b. reverse tanscriptase c. restriction endonucleases d. ligases e. DNA polymerases
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palindromes.
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Analysis of DNA fragments in gel electrophoresis involves: a. larger fragments move slowly and remain closer to the wells. b. DNA has an overall negative charge and moves to the positive pole. c. DNA fragments are stained to see them. d. an electric current through the gel causes DNA fragments to migrate. e. All of the choices are correct
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All of the choices are correct
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Gene probes can be labeled for detection with: a. enzymes b. fluorescent dyes c. radiosotopes d. All of the choices are correct e. none of the choices are correct
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All of the choices are correct
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Amplification of DNA is accomplished by: a. polymerase chain reaction b. DNA sequencing c. gene probes d. Southern blot e. All of the choices are correct
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polymerase chain reaction
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DNA polymerases used in PCR: a. use an RNA template to make complementary DNA b. must remain active at very cold temperatures c. include Tag polymerases and Vent polymerase. d. are labeled with fluorescent dyes e. All of the choices are correct.
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include Taq polymerases and Vent polymerase
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Which PCR step causes the denaturation of double-stranded DNA? a. add DNA polymerase and nucleotides at 72 C. b. cool DNA to between 50 C and 65 C c. add primers d. heat target DNA to 94 C e. repeat the cycle of heating and cooling
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heat target DNA to 94 C
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Which PCR step synthesizes complimentary DNA strands? a. add DNA polymerase and nucleotides at 72 C. b. cool DNA to between 50 C and 65 C c. add primers d. heat target DNA to 94 C e. repeat the cycle of heating and cooling
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add DNA polymerase and nucleotides at 72 C
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The function of the dideoxy (dd) nucleotides that are used in the Sanger method of DNA sequencing is to: a. denature DNA into single strands b. serve as primers c. be a fluorescent tag d. incorporate into newly replicated DNA strands and stop elongation e. None of the choices are correct
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incorporate into newly replicated DNA strands and stop elongation
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The Western Blot technique detects: a. DNA b. RNA c. proteins d. recombiant DNA e. specific genetic marker sequence on genes
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proteins.
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The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes are applied to intact cells and observed microscopically for the presence and location of: a. DNA b. RNA c. proteins d. recombiant DNA e. specific genetic marker sequence on genes
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specific genetic marker sequence on genes.
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Thermococcus litoralis and Thermus aquaticus are thermophilic bacteria that are: a. used as cloning vectors b. sources of heat stable DNA polymerases c. genetically engineered bacteria d. principal sources of restriction endonucleases e. None of the choices are correct
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sources of heat stable DNA polymerases.
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The primers in PCR are: a. synthetic DNA oligonucleotides b. bacterial enzymes c. short RNA strands d. DNA polymerases e. reverse transcriptases
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synthetic DNA oligonucleotides
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In order to ensure compatibility between the target DNA and the plasmid DNA: a. target DNA is removed from cells and isolated b. cloning host is treated with calcium chloride and receives plasmid c. target DNA and plasmid are treated with the same restriction endonuclease d. desired protein is produced by cloning host e. gene is amplified by multiplication of cloning host
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target DNA and plasmid are treated with the same restriction endonucleases
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Which step involves transformation? a. target DNA is removed from cells and isolated b. cloning host takes up a plasmid c. target DNA and plasmid are treated with the same restriction endonuclease d. desired protein is produced by cloning host e. gene is amplified by multiplication of cloning host
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cloning host takes up a plasmid
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Which of the following is a serious concern when performing PCR? a. high temperature needed may denature the DNA b. restriction enzymes are difficult to obtain in adequate quantities c. introduction and amplification of contaminating DNA d. exposure to radiation by the lab personnel e. it is a very time consuming process
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introduction and amplification of contaminating DNA
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The commercial product Frostban contains a genetically engineered strain of: a. Escherichia coli. b. Saccharomyces cerevisiae c. Thermus aquaticus d. Psuedomonas syringae e. Psuedomonas fluorescens
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Pseudomonas syringae
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Recombinant strains of this organism are released to colonize plant roots to produce an insecticide to: a. Escherichia coli. b. Saccharomyces cerevisiae c. Thermus aquaticus d. Psuedomonas syringae e. Psuedomonas fluorescens
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Pseudomonas fluorescens
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Transgenic animals: a. can be engineered to become factories for manufacturing proteins b. are often obtained from germ line engineering c. will pass the genes on to their offspring d. commonly include mice e. All of the choices are correct
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All of the choices are correct.;
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When patient tissues are transfected with viruses carrying a needed, normal human gene, the technique is called: a. cloning b. gene therapy c. antisense therapeutic d. DNA fingerprinting e. None of the choices are correct
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gene therapy
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Both DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reactions require special __________ to initiate synthesis of a new DNA molecule. a. RNA promoters b. fluorescent nucleotides c. primers d. thermophilic polymerases e. endonucleases
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primers
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This is often used in forensic science to distinguish one sequence of DNA from another by comparing the sequence of the strands at specific loci: a. cloning b. gene therapy c. antisense therapeutic d. DNA fingerprinting e. None of the choices are correct
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DNA fingerprinting
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All of the following are desirable features in a microbial cloning host except it: a. can be grown in large quantities b. has a slow growth rate c. is capable of accepting plasmid vectors d. will secrete a high yield of proteins from expressed foreign genes e. has a genome that is well delineated
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has a slow growth rate.
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Which of the following drugs is produced by genetic engineering and approved for human use? a. human growth hormone b. Factor VIII c. insulin d. tissue plasminogen activator e. All of the choices are correct
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All of the choices are correct
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Which of the following is less subject to degradation than is chromosomal DNA and is used as an evolutionary time clock? a. mitochondrial DNA b. chloroplast DNA c. rRNA d. mRNA
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mitochondrial DNA
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Which technique will hopefully be used to identify and devise treatments for diseases based on the genetic profile of the disease? a. PCR b. genetic engineering c. antisense technology d. microarray analysis e. DNA sequencing
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microarray analysis
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Which of the following methods determines which genes are actively transcribed in a cell under a variety of conditions? a. DNA fingerprinting b. microarray analysis c. gene mapping d. Western blot e. antisense therapy
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microarray analysis
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The Southern Blot technique detects: a. DNA b. RNA c. proteins d. recombiant DNA e. specific genetic marker sequence on genes
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DNA
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All of the following are characteristics that make plasmids good cloning vectors except: a. they are small b. they are well characterized c. they can be transferred into appropriate host cells d. they can carry genetic markers, such as antibiotic resistance genes e. they can accept a relatively large amount of foreign DNA
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they can accept a relatively large amount of foreign DNA.
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The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used in all of the following fields except: a. forensics b. evolutionary studies c. gene mapping d. medicine e. None of the choices; it is useful for all these fields
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None of the choices; it is useful for all these fields
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When DNA is heated to just below boiling (90oC – 95oC), a. the sugar phosphate backbone of the DNA strands break b. the sugar, phosphate and base come apart in each nucleotide c. the helix unwinds but hydrogen bonds between the bases remain intact d. the two DNA strands separate completely e. Nothing happens until the boiling point is reached (100 C)
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the two DNA strands separate completely.
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All of the following are correct about DNA fingerprinting except: a. it displays the unique pattern of an individual’s DNA fragments b. it can be used to analyze evidence when only minute amounts of DNA are found c. it cannot be used on specimens older than five years d. it is routine to use it as trial evidence in the U.S. e. it can be used on hair and saliva
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it cannot be used on specimens older than five years.
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When determining the sequence of nucleotides in an unknown sample of DNA, which method is used to sequence the DNA? a. PCR b. Cloning c. Sanger d. Southern blot hybridization
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Sanger
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Restriction endonucleases are obtained from various species of bacteria. True False
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True
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The enzyme _____ adds three nucleotides of DNA in the ______ direction when DNA is being semi-conservatively replicated: a. DNA polymerase III, 3′ – > 5′ b. DNA polymerase I, 3′ – > 5′ c. DNA polymerase III, 5′ – > 3′ d. DNA polymerase I, 5′ – > 3′
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DNA polymerase III, 5′ – > 3′
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Viruses are often used as cloning hosts in recombinant DNA methods. True False
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FALSE
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When DNA is heated, the two strands will separate. True False
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True
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After 3 replication cycles in PCR, there will be a total of 4 double-stranded DNA molecules. True False
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False
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An example of gene therapy is the insertion of the gene for human growth hormone into E. coli cells. True False
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False
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Reverse transcriptase is used to make cDNA from an RNA template. True False
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True
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Transformation and transfection are methods used to introduce DNA into host cells. True False
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true
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The process of introducing a needed, normal gene, into human cells is called DNA mapping. True False
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False
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Vectors often contain a gene conferring drug resistance to their cloning host, in order to detect cells harboring the plasmid. True False
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True
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VNTR’s and microsatellite polymorphisms are genetic markers seen in DNA fingerprinting. True False
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True