Micro Chapter 1 – A Brief History of Microbiology

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The difference between a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell is the presence or absence of __________.
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a nucleus
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What is the next step in the scientific method if it is determined that a hypothesis is not supported by the evidence from experimentation?
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Modify or reject the hypothesis
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Immunology is the study of __________.
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how the body defends itself from invading microbes
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Scientific method in order
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1. Observation of a phenomenon 2. Generations of a hypothesis 3. Testing and experimentation 4. Revision of a hypothesis
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Which of the following is not a cellular structure associated with movement?
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Chromosomes
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Which of the following is not an example of a microorganism?
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A tapeworm
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The study of microbiology involves all of the following except __________.
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characterization of the tissues and organs of the human body
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The cottony growth often seen on cheese, bread, and jams is an example of which of the following?
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fungi
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The conversion of fruit juices into wine involves a microbial process called __________.
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fermentation
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Seaweeds and kelps are among the largest members of which one of the following groups of organisms?
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Algae
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Florence Nightingale is remembered for __________.
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being the founder of modern nursing, founding the first school of nursing, and setting a high standard for hygiene during the Crimean War
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A scientific explanation that has been repeatedly verified over many years is usually called a(n) __________.
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theory
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Which of the following is a common example of a fungus?
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A mushroom
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Which of the following microbes is generally the smallest?
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Viruses
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Hippocrates would have been most interested in which of the following areas of microbiology?
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Mechanisms of disease
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Which of the following types of microbes is a common sight on the surfaces of freshwater ponds and lakes?
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Algae
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Which of the following statements is a scientific hypothesis?
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\”The undercooked chicken my roommate ate may have caused the illness.\”
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Which of the following is a true statement concerning eukaryotic organisms?
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Some eukaryotic organisms have cells with no cell wall.
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The Greek philosopher responsible for the earliest theories concerning the origins of living things was __________.
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Aristotle
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What was Leeuwenhoek’s contribution to the science of microbiology?
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He developed the first microscope.
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All of the following individuals showed that cleanliness played a role in human disease EXCEPT __________.
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Jenner
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Who studied fermentation?
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Pasteur
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Koch’s work involving anthrax was significant because it was the first time __________.
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a bacterium had been proven to cause a disease
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Which of the following is NOT a growing area of microbial study?
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methods of disease transmission
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Which of the following is NOT an example of a fungus?
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algae
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Whose experiments supported the existence of a \”life force\”?
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Needham
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Put the following steps of Koch’s postulates in order:
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1. The suspected infectious agent must be found in every case of the disease. 2. The suspected infectious agent must be isolated and grown outside the host. 3. The suspected infectious agent causes the disease when it is introduced to a healthy, experimental host. 4. The suspected infectious agent must be found in the diseased experimental host.
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Which of the following refers to the use of bacteria or other microbes to detoxify pollutants?
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bioremediation
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How are the bacteria and the archaea different from all the other cellular microbes?
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They have no nucleus.
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Spallanzani’s experiments concerning spontaneous generation were NOT universally accepted because __________.
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he eliminated air from his flasks by sealing them
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Which field of microbiology involves the study of microorganisms in their natural habitats?
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environmental microbiology
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Microbiologists study parasitic worms because __________.
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they cause diseases that are diagnosed by finding microscopic eggs in clinical specimens
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Which of the following are paired INCORRECTLY?
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Gram: cholera
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Which of the following fields of modern microbiology is NOT directly concerned with the genetic characteristics of a cell?
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bioremediation
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A microorganism has the following characteristics: eukaryotic, multicellular, has cell walls, and grows in long filaments. What is its general classification?
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fungus
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You have isolated a microorganism that is green, photosynthetic, has a cell wall, and does NOT possess a nucleus. This organism is a(n) __________.
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bacterium
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Which of the following techniques could be used to produce a yeast capable of making viral proteins?
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recombinant DNA technology
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What did the work of Lister and Ehrlich have in common?
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They both explored the use of chemicals in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.
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Which of the following is a true statement concerning bacteria and archaea?
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While some bacteria are pathogenic to humans, no archaea are known to cause human diseases.
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Which of the following is a trait shared by both archaea and protozoa?
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They are unicellular.
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What characteristic is shared by both molds and parasitic worms?
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They are eukaryotic. They are studied by microbiologists. They are multicellular.
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Viruses are unlike other infectious agents studied by microbiologists in that they are _______________.
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acellular
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Microorganism/Microbe
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An organism too small to be seen without a microscope.
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Taxonomic System
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A system for naming and grouping similar organisms together.
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Bacteria
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Prokaryotic microorganisms typically having cell walls composed of peptidoglycan. In Woese’s taxonomy, domain which includes all prokaryotic cells having bacterial rRNA sequences.

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