MGT 101 Practice 1

Groups of people who work together to achieve a set of goals are called a(n):
organization.
ABC Company sets a target of doubling its sales every year. This sales target is known as:
a goal.
The measure of how well (or how productively) an organization uses its resources to achieve a goal is known as:
efficiency.
The measure of the “appropriateness” of the goals selected by management for the organization and the degree to which the organization accomplishes these goals is known as:
effectiveness.
The Registrar’s Office at Whassamatta University scheduled the work hours of its staff so that some work 7-4 and others work 9-6, in order to better serve the students. This was an attempt to improve the organization’s:
effectiveness.
Managers who choose the “right” organizational goals and have the skills to use the organization’s resources are:
effective.
The people within an organization who are responsible for supervising the organization’s use of its resources are known as:
managers.
In what order do managers typically perform the managerial functions?
planning, organizing, leading, controlling.
The process that managers use to select “appropriate” goals for the organization is called:
planning.
The process that managers use to design a structure of working relationships that allows managers to work together to achieve organizational goals is called:
organizing.
A formal system of reporting relationships that coordinates workers so that they work together to attempt to achieve organizational goals is called:
an organizational structure.
Effective leadership depends on the use of:
power and influence.
When managers motivate and assist workers to achieve organizational goals, this is an important aspect of:
leading.
When managers attempt to determine how well the organization is accomplishing its goals, this is an important aspect of:
controlling.
A manager who trains and mentors subordinates to assist them to achieve their full potential within the organization is acting primarily within which function?
leading.
Dell found that by putting effective control systems in place, it was able to:
reduce costs.
The set of job responsibilities that a manager is expected to perform because of his position within the organization is called:
a role.
A manager is deciding which program or programs to initiate. He is acting as a(n):
entrepreneur.
A manager who cuts the ribbon at the opening ceremony of the company’s new plant is performing the _______ role for the organization.
figurehead.
The CEO of Chrysler Corp. goes on TV to explain what the company is doing to avoid future problems like the ones created by a recent recall of its minivans. This CEO is acting in which type of role?
spokesperson.
Another name for supervisors is:
first-line managers.
The top management of an organization must devote more time to ________________ than lower level managers do.
planning and organizing.
The ability to analyze and diagnose a problem situation and distinguish between cause and effect is a:
conceptual skill.
The ability of a worker in the accounting department to prepare the organization’s balance sheet is an example of a ________ skill.
technical.
The top management team of ABC, Inc., facing financial problems, decides to reduce the number of middle managers by 10 percent in order to cut costs. This is an example of:
restructuring.
TWA allows the agent-in-charge at the gate to decide whether to give out a “free ticket” to some passengers when a flight is overbooked. This is an example of:
empowerment.
Wal-Mart built distribution warehouses so that it can supply products to its stores within a 200-mile radius almost daily. We say that Wal-Mart has achieved:
a competitive advantage.
The process of creating new products that customers want to purchase is called:
innovation.
Who founded the early study of management thought which became known as scientific management?
F.W. Taylor.
The power to hold workers accountable for their actions and to make decisions about the use of organizational resources is known as:
Authority.
Formal, written instructions which specify what workers should do on the job under different conditions are known as:
Rules.
Specific written instructions as to how a worker should perform an aspect of his or her work task are known as:
Standard operating procedures.
Unwritten, informal codes of conduct which prescribe how workers should act in specific work situations are known as:
Norms.
When a factory has a standard practice that each machine operator should leave his or her work station in a clean condition and ready for the next shift of workers, this is an example of:
A rule.
Mamma Mia’s Ristorante has an informal practice in which all the servers try to help each other out if they are not busy with customers. This practice is called:
A norm.
“Informal authority” can result from:
A) Technical knowledge B) Moral character C) Job expertise
D) The ability to lead . Correct Answer: E) All of the above
The idea that every worker should receive orders from only one superior is called:
Unity of command.
The “chain of command” which describes the reporting relationships of managers from the top to the bottom of the organization is known as:
The line of authority.
When authority is concentrated at the top of the organizational chart instead of being distributed throughout the management hierarchy, we say that __________ has occurred.
Centralization.
If the CEO has a long-range strategic plan for the organization and the Marketing department has its own five-year strategic plan, but these plans are not coordinated, this is a violation of Fayol’s principle of:
Unity of direction.
“Organizational charts” are a representation of which of Fayol’s principles of management?
Order.
The ability of workers to act on their own, without supervision by a manager, is known as:
Initiative.
Obedience to a manager’s request, along with other signs of respect for the manager’s authority, is most consistent with Fayol’s principle of:
Discipline.
The idea that “managers should encourage employees to be innovative and creative in their work” is an example of Fayol’s principle of:
Initiative.
If an organization has a profit-sharing plan in which top executives are able to purchase the company’s stock at a discount whenever the organization has a highly profitable year, this organization is acting consistently with Fayol’s principle of:
Remuneration of personnel
The idea that workers should be aware of how their behavior affects the performance of the organization as a whole is most consistent with Fayol’s principle of:
Subordination of individual interests to the common interest
When a manager and his or her subordinates share feelings of comradeship and devotion to a common cause, they are expressing Fayol’s principle of:
Esprit de corps
The research studies which experimented with different levels of lighting and its impact on worker performance and fatigue are known as:
The Hawthorne studies.
One of the main implications of the Hawthorne Studies was that:
Workers’ feelings and thoughts can affect performance.
The system of rules of behavior that emerge as a group of workers get to know one another by working together is known as:
An informal organization.
The study of the factors that have an impact on how workers respond to one another within organizations is known as:
Organizational behavior.
If a manager feels that his major job responsibility is “to counteract the natural tendencies of subordinates to avoid working hard,” this manager is acting consistently with the principles of:
Theory X.
If a manager feels that her responsibility is to create a work setting in which her subordinates consider their work to be satisfying, she is acting consistently with the principles of:
Theory Y.
The management theory that focuses on the use of rigorous, quantitative techniques that are intended to assist managers to make the best use of organizational resources is called:
Management science theory.
The aspect of management theory that analyzes production systems to increase efficiency is:
Operations management.
The stage of a system during which the organization obtains resources such as raw materials and labor in order to produce goods is known as:
The input stage.
The stage of a system during which the organization transforms raw materials into finished goods outputs such as automobiles or French fries is known as:
The conversion stage.
The idea that the effectiveness of organizational structure and control systems depends on what outside forces it is facing is called:
Contingency management.
The concept that: “There is no one best way to manage” is a fundamental premise in:
Contingency theory.
ABC Company’s external environment is changing rapidly and it responds by decentralizing decisions to lower-level managers so that the organization can react faster. ABC is said to be organized under:
An organic structure.
The tendency of a person to feel good about himself and the rest of the world is known as:
Extroversion.
People who score low on extroversion are frequently referred to as:
Introverts.
The tendency of a person to feel bad emotions and to be critical of herself and others is called:
Negative affectivity.
The tendency of a person to get along well with other workers is known as:
Agreeableness.
The tendency of a person to be careful and persevering in work-related tasks is known as:
Conscientiousness.
Managers who believe that they are largely responsible for their own fate are said to be high in:
Internal locus of control.
People who believe that forces outside of their control are largely responsible for what happens to them are said to be high in:
External locus of control
The degree to which a people feel good about themselves and their capabilities is known as:
Self-esteem.
According to McClelland, the extent to which a person is concerned with being liked and having others get along well with one another is called:
The need for affiliation.
According to McClelland, the extent to which a person has a strong desire to control and to influence others is known as:
The need for power.
A person who values freedom from inner conflict is expressing which type of terminal value?
Inner harmony.
The collection of feelings and beliefs that a person has about her current job is referred to as:
Job satisfaction.
The collection of feelings and beliefs that a person has about his organization is known as:
Organizational commitment.
People who are high on extraversion are especially likely to experience _________.
Positive moods.
A feeling or state of mind is called a(n):
Mood.
Giorgio is very angry with his co-worker Petra, who has made errors in her work that cause Giorgio to have to work late. Giorgio is experiencing a(n):
Emotion.
The ability of a person to understand and to manage his or her own emotions and the emotions of others is known as that person’s:
Emotional intelligence.
Emotional intelligence may help managers perform interpersonal roles such as:
Liaison.
Recent theorizing and research suggest that managers’ emotional intelligence may be especially important in:
Increasing employee creativity.
An organization’s culture is most like its:
Personality.
The “ASA” framework stands for:
Attraction – selection – attribution.
__________ are unwritten, informal rules or guidelines that prescribe appropriate behaviors.
Norms.
Ray Kroc, McDonald’s founder, insisted on ______, which became a competitive advantage for this firm.
Cleanliness.
Bill Gates, Microsoft’s founder, insisted on ______, which became a competitive advantage for this firm.
Being an individual.
The process by which newcomers to an organization learn the values and norms is:
Socialization.
Walt Disney, Disney’s founder, insisted on ______, which became a competitive advantage for this firm.
Courtesy.
Rites of _________ determine how individuals enter, advance within, or leave the organization.
Passage.
XYZ Company holds a party at the end of the fiscal year to celebrate its excellent performance. This is a rite of:
Integration.
An organization’s culture influences how managers ______.
A) Control. B) Plan. C) Lead. D) Organize.
Correct Answer: E) All of the above
How workers in a particular organization dress is part of:
Language.
The moral principles and beliefs about what is “right” and “wrong” are known as:
Ethics.
___________ are thoughts and feelings that tell people what is right or wrong.
Moral scruples
People or groups that supply a company with its productive resources are called:
Stakeholders
Stockholders are interested in the way a company operates because they:
Want to maximize ROI
Which of the following is a stakeholder for an organization?
A) Customers. B) Employees. C) Suppliers. D) The local community. Correct Answer E) All of the above
The stakeholder group with the most responsibility for deciding the goals of the organization is:
Managers.
___________ are often regarded as the most critical stakeholder group.
Customers.
The ____________ rule is that an ethical decision is one that produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Utilitarian
Under the ____________ rule, an ethical decision is the one that best maintains people’s fundamental privileges.
Moral Rights
The _____________ rule is that an ethical decision is one that distributes rewards and harm in a fair way.
Justice
Under the practical rule, a manager would not be reluctant to communicate a decision to people outside the company when:
A typical person would consider the decision acceptable
The practical rule states that an ethical decision:
Is one that can be communicated with no reluctance.
The Moral Rights model of ethics:
Seeks to protect the privileges of people affected.
One managerial implication of the justice model is that managers should base their decisions on:
Whatever promotes a fair distribution of outcomes
According to the practical rule, a managerial decision that the manager has no hesitation or reluctance about communicating to people outside the company is called a(n):
Ethical decision
The idea that the pursuit of self-interest with no consideration for societal interests leads to disaster is called the:
Tragedy of the commons
A person’s confidence and faith in another person’s goodwill is called:
Trust.
The esteem or high repute that individuals or organizations gain when they behave ethically is called:
Reputation
Unethical behavior:
Reduces a company’s performance
Standards that govern how members of a society should deal with one another in matters involving issues such as fairness, justice, poverty, and individual rights are called:
Societal ethics
The text names several countries that are considered to be among the most ethical in the world. Which of the following is NOT named on this list?
United States
The standards that govern how members of a profession, trade, or craft should conduct themselves when performing work-related activities are called:
Occupational ethics
Standards that determine how people view their responsibilities to others and how they should act in situations when their own self-interest is at stake are called:
Individual ethics
The guiding practices and beliefs through which a particular firm and its managers view their responsibilities to stakeholders are called:
Organizational ethics
An important source of organizational ethics is:
Both top managers and founders
The way a company’s managers view their duty to make decisions that promote the welfare of stakeholders and society as a whole is called:
Social responsibility
The approach to social responsibility in which companies chose not to behave in a socially responsible way is called:
Obstructionist
Which of the approaches to social responsibility is the most socially responsible?
Proactive
A company that expects its managers to behave ethically to the degree that they stay within the law is acting with a _______________ approach.
Defensive
With a(n) _____________ approach, companies and their managers behave legally and ethically and try to balance the interests of different stakeholders as the need arises.
Accommodative