Medical Terminology Study Guide

midsagittal (median)
right and left halves

coronal (frontal)
Anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects

Transverse (horizontal)
Superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects

What is in the cranial cavity which is located in the dorsal?
brain

What is located in the spinal cavity which is located in the dorsal?
spinal cord

What is located in the thoracic cavity which is located in the ventral part?
heart, lungs, and associated structures

What is located in the abdominopelvic cavity which is located in the ventral part?
Digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs and structures

What is located in the Right Upper Quadrant?
Right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines, liver

What is located in the Left Upper Quadrant?
Left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines

What is located in the Right Lower Quadrant?
Part of small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter

What is located in the Left Lower Quadrant?
Part of small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter

Abduction
movement away from the midsagittal (median) plane of the body or one of its parts

adduction
movement toward the midsagittal plane of the body

medial
pertaining to the midline of the body or structure

lateral
pertaining to one side

superior
toward the head or upper portion of a structure

inferior
away from the head, or twoard the tail or lower part of a structure

proximal
nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachent to the body

distal
further from the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body

anterior (ventral)
front of the body

posterior (dorsal)
back of the body

parietal
pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity

visceral
pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs

prone
lying on the abdomen, face down

supine
lying horizontally on the back, face up

inversion
turning inward or inside out

eversion
turning outward

palmar
pertaining to the palm of the hand

plantar
pertaining to the sole of the foot

superficial
toward the surface of the body (external)

deep
away from the surface of the body (internal)

sign
objective indicators that are observable

a palpable mass and tissue redness are examples of ________
signs

symptom
subjective and is experienced only by the patient

dizziness, pain, and malaise are examples of _______
symptoms

Layers of the skin:
epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous layer

onych/o, Ungu/o
nail

onych/o/malacia
softening of the nail

ungu/al
pertaining to the nails

ecchymosis
bruise

erythema
redness of the skin

eschar
damaged tissue following a severe burn

pallor
unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin

xeroderma
chronic skin condition characterized by dryness and roughness and is a mild form of ichthyosis

adip/o, lip/o, steat/o
fat

adip/osis
abnormal condition of fat

lip/o/cele
hernia containing fat

steat/itis
inflammation of fatty tissue

first degree burn
least serious type, injure only the epidermis. May or may not have blisters.

second degree burn
deep burns that damage both the epidermis and part of the dermis. Blisters.

third degree burn
epidermis and dermis are destroyed and some of the underying connective tissue is damaged, leaving the skin waxy and charred with insensitivity to touch

Cheil/o/plasty
Surgical repair of the lips

Labi/o/plasty
Surgical repair of the lips

gingiv/o/plasty
surgical repair of the gums

cheil/ectomy
excision of lip tissue

labi/ectomy
excision of lip tissue

gingivectomy
excision of gum tissue

gastr/o/dynia
pain in the stomach

gastr/algia
pain in the stomach

stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth

oritis
inflammation of the mouth

cholecyst/o
gallbladder

cholecyst/ectomy
excision of the gallbladder

cholecyst/o/tomy
incision of the gallbladder

cholecyst/o/pathy
any disease of the gallbladder

inguinal hernia
develops in the groin where the abdominal folds of flesh meet the thighs

strangulated hernia
occurs when the blood supply to the hernia is cut off because of pressure. This will lead to necrosis when gangrene

umbilical hernia
protrusion of part of the intestine at the navel. It occurs more commonly in obese women and among those who have had several pregnancies

hiatal hernia
lower part of the esophagus and the top of the stomach slides through an opening in the diaphragm into the thorax

sept/o/plasty
surgical repair of the septum

rhin/o/plasty
surgical repair of the nose

peri/tonsill/ar
pertaining to the area surrounding the tonsils

atelectasis
partial or complete collapse of the lung

hemoptysis
spits up blood

dyspnea
difficulty breathing

eupnea
normal breathing

bradypnea
slow breathing

tachypnea
fast breathing

orthopnea
difficulty breathing unless standing or sitting

aort/o
aorta

aort/o/stenosis
narrowing of the aorta

arteri/o
artery

arteri/o/rrhexis
rupture of an artery

angi/o
vessel

angi/o/plasty
surgical repair of a vessel

vascul/o
vessel

vascul/itis
inflammation of (blood) vessels

hemangi/o
blood vessel

hemangi/oma
tumor of blood vessels

arteries carry blood
from the heart

veins carry blood
to the heart

arteries have ________ blood
oxygenated

veins have ________ blood
deoxygenated

hypertension
high blood pressure, above 140/90

hypotension
low blood pressure, below 120/80

normal blood pressure
120/80

systolic pressure
the 120 in 120/80

diastolic pressure
the 80 in 120/80

electr/o/cardi/o/gram
the record of the electrical activity of the heart

electr/o/cardi/o/graph
the machine that records the electrical activity of the heart

electr/o/cardi/o/graphy
the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart

wrist bones
carpals

palm bones
metacarpals

fingers, toe bones
phalanges

ankle bones
tarsals

between the ankles and toe bones
metatarsals

dactyl/o
fingers and toes

myel/o
spinal cord; bone marrow

ankylosis
stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion

crepitation
dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction

subluxation
partial or incomplete dislocation

claudication
lameness, limping

adduction
moves closer to the midline

abduction
moves away from the midline

flexion
decreases the angle of a joint

extension
increases the angle of a joint

rotation
moves a bone around its own axis

pronation
turns the palm down

supination
turns the palm up

inversion
moves the sole of the foot inward

eversion
moves the sole of the foot outward

dorsiflexion
elevates the foot

plantar flexion
lowers the foot (points the toes)

oste/o
bone

arthr/o
joint

anuria
absence of urine

bacteriuria
presence of bacteria in the urine

dysuria
painful or difficulty urinating

enuresis
involuntary discharge of urine- incontinence

frequency
need to urinate frequently

hematuria
blood in the urine

hesitancy
difficulty starting to urinate

nocturia
urinating excessively at night

oliguria
diminished amount of urine

polyuria
excessive urine

cystolithiasis
bladder stones

nephrolithiasis
kidney stones

renolithiasis
kidney stones

cholecystolithiasis
stones in the gallbladder

lithiasis
abnormal condition of stones or caliculi

anorchidism
absence of one or both testes

nephropexy
procedure to correct a floating or dropped kidney

aspermia
failure to form or ejaculate sperm

KUB
kidneys, ureter, and bladder radiography, radiographic examination to determine the location, size, and shape of the kidneys in relationship to other organs in the abdominopelvic caity and identify abnormalities of the urinary system

hydrocele
term associated with the collection of fluid in the testes

primigravida
woman pregnant for the first time

multigravida
woman who has been pregnant more than once

primipara
woman who has given birth to one viable infant

multipara
woman who has delivered more than one viable infant

G3 P2
has been pregnant 3 times and delivered 2 babies

hyster/ectomy
surgical removal of the uterus

salping/ectomy
surgical removal of the fallopian tube

oophor/ectomy
surgical removal of an ovary

ovari/ectomy
surgical removal of an ovary

episi/o/tomy
incision made to enlarge the birth canal

metrorrhagia
bleeding between menstrual periods

menorrhagia
profuse or prolonged bleeding during menstrual periods

menarche
initial menstrual period

oligomenorrhea
scanty menstrual flow

amenorrhea
no menstrual flow

dysmenorrhea
painful menstrual flow

cerebr/o/tomy
incision of the cerebrum

crani/o/malacia
softening of the cranium

encephal/o/cele
herniation of the brain

brady/kines/ia
condition of slow movement

tachy/kines/ia
excessive movement; also called hyperactivity

meningi/o, mening/o
meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)

hemiplegia
paralysis of one side of the body, typically as the result of a stroke; also called unilateral paralysis

paraplegia
paralysis of both lower limgs, typicall as a result of trauma or disease of the lower spinal cord

quadriplegia
paralysis of both arms and legs, typically as a result of trauma or disease of the upper spinal cord

unilateral
one side

bilateral
both sides

contralateral
opposite sides

for “ae” and “oe”
only the second vowel is pronounced

the soft sounds of “s” and “j”, respectively are given to “c” and “g”
before e,i, and y in words of Greek or Latin origin… Before any other letters “c” and “g” have a hard sound

the letters “ch”
are sometimes pronounced like “k”

when “pn” appears int he middle of a word
“p” and “n” are both prounounced

when “ps” appears at the beginning of a word
“p” is silent and only “s” is pronounced

when forming the final letters of a word “e” and “es” are
commonly pronounced as separate syllables

when “i” appears at the end of a word
it is pronounced eye

plural of pleura
pleurae

plural of thorax
thoraces

plural of lumen
lumina

plural of diagnosis
diagnoses

plural of appendix
appendices

plural of apex
apices

plural of carcinoma
carcinomata

plural of ganglion
ganglia

plural of bacterium
bacteria

plural of bronchus
bronchi

plural of deformity
deformities