Medical Terminology Module 10

Flashcard maker : Candace Young
Involuntary nerves that stimulate the body in times of stress and crisis are __________ nerves.
sympathetic
The _____ nervous system consists of the cranial and spinal nerves.
peripheral
Which of the following nervous system cells do not transmit impulses throughout the body?
Glial
Afferent Nerves
Efferent Nerves
Neurons
Glial
The chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell that stimulates or inhibits another cell is called:
A neurotransmitter
The main sensory relay center of the brain is the:
Thalamus
The fluid-filled spaces within the brain are called:
Ventricles
A nerve cell is a(n):
Neuron
_____ nerves carry impulses to the brain and spinal cord.
Afferent
The microscopic space through which an impulse is transmitted is a(n):
Synapse
________ nerves carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord.
Efferent
This threadlike extension carries impulses along a nerve cell.
Axon
The \”bridge\” between the medulla and the midbrain is the:
Pons
This posterior portion of the brain coordinates voluntary muscle movements and maintains balance.
Cerebellum
The lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum and spinal cord is the:
Brain stem
The __________ is the outer region of the cerebrum
Cerebral cortex
The __________ activates and integrates the autonomic nervous system and controls pituitary secretions.
Hypothalamus
White fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell is called:
Myelin Sheath
The pia mater is the:
Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
The peripheral nervous system includes _____ pairs of cranial nerves and _____ pairs of spinal nerves.
12, 31
Unlike other cranial nerves, the _____ nerve carries messages to and from the neck, chest, and abdomen.
vagus
The purpose of the blood-brain barrier is to:
Regulate the passage of potentially harmful substances form the blood into the nerve cells of the brain
The brain and spinal cord make up the ________ nervous system.
central
\”Star cells\” called __________ are a type of glial cell that transports water and salts from capillaries.
astrocytes
Where are the thalamus and hypothalamus housed?
diencephalon
_____is a severe, recurring, unilateral, vascular headache.
A migraine
CVA is the abbreviation for
Cerebrovascular accident
MS is the abbreviation for:
Multiple sclerosis
TIA is the abbreviation for:
Transient ischemic attack
ALS is the abbreviation for:
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
________itis is an inflammatory disease of the nervous system involving the roots of the spinal nerves.
Radicul
A ________cele is the hernial protrusion of the meninges through a defect in the spinal column.
meningo
An________ means being insensitive to pain.
algesic
Mrs. Jarod’s seizures, visual disturbances, and memory deficit were caused by increased intracranial pressure from a malignant, rapidly growing tumor called ________blastoma multiforme.
glio
Baby James’s parents were told that he had spina ________, a congenital defect in the spinal column due to imperfect union of vertebral parts.
bifida
________ disease is the degeneration of nerves in the brain leading to tremors, muscle rigidity, and a shuffling gait.
Parkinson
A progressive neurologic disorder marked by gradual decline in mental capacity that can begin in middle age but is more frequently seen in the older person is ________ disease.
Alzheimer
________ palsy is a disorder of the facial nerve that results in unilateral facial paralysis.
Bell
Another name for absence seizures is:
Petit mal seizures
Accelerating to get through a traffic light before it turned red, Jason was hit broadside by a car coming from the right and flipped. Three backseat passengers were treated and hospitalized for injuries. One backseat passenger lost consciousness at the scene of the accident. However, by the time he arrived at the hospital one hour later, he had regained consciousness and was coherent. No neurologic deficits were noted after a 24-hour observation period. This type of head injury is called a:
Cerebral concussion
Mr. Morrison suffers from Lou Gehrig disease. Another term for Lou Gehrig disease is:
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
The progressive muscular atrophy of Lou Gehrig disease that eventually progresses to involve most of the body, including the respiratory muscles, is the result of:
Degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem
Which condition is associated with an excess of or hypersensitivity to dopamine?
Tourette syndrome
Which condition develops in response to reactivation of the virus that causes chickenpox?
Herpes zoster
With __________, antibodies block the ability of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to transmit the nervous impulse from nerve to muscle cells.
myasthenia gravis
A medical term for abnormal, involuntary, spasmodic movements is:
Dyskinesia
The medical term for inflammation of the meninges is __________.
meningitis
Tonic-clonic seizures are also known as _______ events.
ictal
A peculiar sensory sensation often preceding the onset of a seizure is called:
aura
A general term that means a disease state of the brain is ________:
encephalopathy
A lumbar puncture is also known as a:
spinal tap
The ER physician suspected Baby Chang had meningitis and performed a lumbar puncture to obtain ________spinal fluid for analysis.
cerebro
_____________ is the radiographic imaging of the blood vessels in the brain after injection of contrast medium.
Cerebral angiography
Electro________ is the recording of the electrical activity of the brain.
encephalography
A _____________ scan, which is abbreviated ___ scan, is a computerized imaging technique that shows chemical activity of the brain and gives information about brain function.
positron emission tomography, PET
The procedure in which CSF is withdrawn for analysis from between two lumbar vertebrae is:
Lumbar puncture
The imaging modality that generates computerized multiple images of the brain and spinal cord using a contrast material is:
Computed tomography
_____ is a computerized imaging technique that shows the chemical activity of the brain.
PET
This imaging study uses sound waves to detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranial arteries.
Doppler ultrasound
During __________ radiosurgery, a focused beam of radiation, called a(n) _________, can target a tumor to destroy it.
stereotactic, gamma knife
Treatment of hydrocephalus involves the use of a __________ to drain the excess cerebrospinal fluid.
Shunt
Which of the following diagnostic procedures uses a magnetic field and pulses of radiowave energy to image the brain and spinal cord?
MRI
Which of the following is a procedure to diagnose abnormal electrical activity of the brain?
EEG
Which of the following is a procedure that uses radioactive material that is taken up by the brain to gather information about the brain?
PET
Preferred imaging technique for viewing brain damage related to infection, inflammation or tumors:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
The combining form encephal/o means:
Brain
The combining form cerebr/o means:
Cerebrum
The suffix -lepsy in the term epilepsy means:
Seizure
The combining form vag/o means:
Vagus nerve
_____neuritis is the inflammation of several nerves.
Poly
________cele is the protrusion of the meninges and spinal cord through a defect in the spinal column.
Myelomeningo
The medical term for headache is ceph________.
algia
Baby Casey was born with spina bifida, which resulted in the protrusion of the meninges called a ________cele.
meningo
Ms. Kabobi received a(n) ________ic medication to relieve her postoperative pain.
analges
The outer layer of the meninges is called the ________ mater.
dura
The largest and uppermost section of the brain is the:
Cerebrum
A neurologic disorder marked by tics, uncontrollable vocal sounds, and inappropriate words is called:
Tourette syndrome
Which procedure records electrical activity of the brain?
Electroencephalography
The sensory warning some people experience before a seizure is called:
an aura
Mrs. Granger, age 77, has a history of hypertension and atherosclerosis. During the past 3 months, she has experienced temporary episodes of paresthesia and paresis of the right arm consistent with TIAs. She now enters the hospital with a CVA. She has aphasia and right-sided hemiplegia. Mrs. Granger’s diagnosis on hospitalization was:
Cerebrovascular accident
The medical term for a condition of involuntary, spasmodic movements is:
Dyskinesia
What is the term for brief episodes of neurologic deficit caused by temporary interference with blood supply to the brain?
Transient ischemic attacks
Diagnostic studies for Mrs. Granger included an MRI and PET scan. Findings indicated blockage of a cerebral artery by a blood clot with necrosis and edema of the area involved. The type of cerebral infarction Mrs. Granger experienced is called a(n):
Thrombotic stroke
Mrs. Talifori was diagnosed with Parkinson disease. Characteristic symptoms likely to be seen in Mrs. Talifori as the disease progresses include all of the following except:
Quadriplegia
Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography confirmed that Mr. Hullinger has a malignant glioma that is surgically inaccessible. He is scheduled for stereotactic radiosurgery. A glioma is an intracranial tumor that arises from the:
Supportive or connective tissue of the brain
Which procedure uses an intracranial guiding device to deliver high-dose radiation to the precisely targeted tumor tissue?
Stereotactic radiosurgery
After losing consciousness, falling, and seizing, Clio, age 5, was brought to the ER by his parents. Two more episodes of tonic-clonic seizures occurred in the ER. Anticonvulsants were started and an EEG ordered. Another term for tonic-clonic seizures is:
Ictal events
Tonic-clonic seizures are marked by:
Sudden loss of consciousness and generalized involuntary muscle contractions that alternate with rigidity
Interview of the parents of 5-year-old Clio revealed that for about the last 24 hours, Clio has been irritable, febrile, vomiting, and experiencing cephalgia. On further examination, nuchal rigidity (stiff neck) was noted. The physician performed a lumbar puncture to measure intracranial pressure and to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for analysis. Results confirmed a diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Clio was started on antibiotics. Which term means inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord?
Meningitis
The white wrapping that surrounds and protects the axon is the:
Myelin sheath
Through which part of the neuron does an impulse leave the cell?
Terminal end fiber
The first part of the nerve cell to receive the impulse is the:
Dendrite
A fold in the surface of the cerebral cortex is called a:
Gyrus
A network of intersecting nerves in the peripheral nervous system is called a:
Plexus
A depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex is a:
Sulcus
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain is called:
Hydrocephalus
Lou Gehrig disease is another name for:
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Destruction of the myelin sheath surrounding neurons in the brain and spinal cord describes which condition?
Multiple sclerosis
Which of the following is a hereditary disorder caused by degenerative changes in the cerebrum?
Huntington disease
Which of the following is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the motor neurons fail to transmit impulses to the muscles to cause muscle contraction?
Myasthenia gravis
A burning pain experienced as a result of a peripheral nerve injury is called:
Causalgia
The suffix -phasia means:
Speech
A cerebral hemorrhage may be caused by a localized weakness in a blood vessel wall that dilates and bursts. This weak section of blood vessel is called a(n) _________:
aneurysm
A general term for progressive neurologic conditions characterized by a gradual decline in mental ability is __________:
dementia

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