Medical Terminology – Digestive System Reading Words

gastroenterology
study of the digestive system (stomach and intestinal disorders)
gastroenterologist
specialist in the study of the digestive system (stomach and intestinal disorders)
endoscopy
visual examination of an organ
digestive (gastrointestinal) system
breaks down food, prepares it for absorbtion, and eliminates waste substances
dento; odonto
teeth
-ist
specialist
orthodontist
specialist in straight teeth
ortho
straight
gingivo
gum(s)
gingivitis
inflammation of the gums
-itis
inflammation
glosso; linguo
tongue
hypoglossal; sublingual
pertaining to under the tongue
hypo-; sub-
under, below, deficient
-al; -ous; -ic; -ar; -ary; -eal; -ior
pertaining to
oro; stomato
mouth
oral
pertaining to the mouth
oropathy; stomatopathy
disease of the mouth
-pathy
disease
ptyalo
saliva
ptyalism
condition of excessive salivation
-ism
condition
sialorrhea
excessive flow of saliva; hypersalivation; ptyalism
-rrhea
discharge; flow
esophago
esophagus (food travels)
esophagoscope
instrument for examining the esophagus
-scope
instrument for examining
pharyngo
pharynx (throat)
pharyngotonsillitis
inflammation of the pharynx and tonsils
tonsillo
tonsils
gastro
stomach
gastroscopy
visual examination of the stomach
-scopy
visual examination
pyloro
pylorus (lower part of stomach opening to the duodenum)
pylorotomy
incision of the pylorus (sphincter in lower portion of the stomy)
-tomy
incision
-algia; -dynia
pain
gastralgia; gastrodynia
pain in the stomach
-emesis
vomiting
hyperemesis
excessive vomiting
hyper-
excessive, above normal
-megaly
enlargement
gastromegaly; megalogastria
enlargement of the stomach
-orexia
appetite
anorexia
loss of appetite
an-; a-
without, not
-pepsia
digestion
dyspepsia
difficult or painful digestion; indigestion
dys-
bad; painful; difficult
-phagia
swallowing; eating
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing or eating
diarrhea
discharge or flow of watery stools from the bowel
dia-
through; across
oritis; stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth
oral; stomatal
pertaining to the mouth
oralgia; orodynia; stomatodynia; stomatalgia
pain in the mouth
sialic
pertaining to saliva
sialitis
inflammation of a salivary gland
sialorrhea; ptyalism; hypersalivation
excessive secretion of saliva
maxillo
jaw
submaxillary
pertaining to below the jaw
linguodental
pertaining to the tongue and teeth
-osis
abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
orosis; stomatosis
abnormal condition of the mouth
oromycosis; stomatomycosis
abnormal condition of a mouth fungus
mycosis
abnormal condition of a fungus
logo; -logy
study of
-logist
specialist in the study of
gastrologist
specialist in the study of stomach disorders
enterologist
specialist in the study of intestinal disorders
gastrology
study of the stomach
dentistry
the branch of medicine dealing with the care of the teeth and gums
odontalgia; odontodynia; dentalgia; dentodynia
pain in a tooth; toothache
periodontist
specialist in the areas surrounding the teeth
periodontitis
inflammation around the teeth
gingivosis
abnormal condition of gums
esophagitis
inflammation of the esophagus
mucous
pertaining to mucus
necrosis
an abnormal condition of tissue death
gastritis
inflammation of the stomach
gastrodynia; gastralgia
pain in the stomach
-ia; -ice
condition
duodenoscopy
visual examination of the duodenum
esophagoscopy
visual examination of the esophagus
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
EGD; visual examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
gastrectomy
removal or excision of all or part of the stomach
-plasty
surgical repair
stomatoplasty; oroplasty
surgical repair of the mouth
esophagoplasty
surgical repair of the esophagus
gastroplasty
surgical repair of the stomach
-tome
instrument to cut
-ectomy
excision, removal
esophagotomy
an incision of the esophagus
esophagotome
instrument to cut through the esophagus
gastrotome
an instrument to cut the stomach
gastrotomy
incision of the stomach
carcino
cancer
carcinoma
cancerous or malignant tumor
cancerous
pertaining to cancer
epigastric
pertaining to above the stomach
hyperemesis
excessive vomiting
hemato; hemo
blood
hematemesis
vomiting blood
aero
air
aerophagia
swallowing air
duodeno
duodenum (first part of the small intestine)
entero
intestine (usually small intestine); includes duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
enteropathy
any intestinal disease
jejuno
jejunum (second part of the small intestine)
jejunorrhaphy
suture of the jejunum
-rrhaphy
suture
ileo
ileum (third part of the small intestine)
ileostomy
incision of the ileum and creation of a permanent opening
-stomy
forming an opening
appendo; appendico
appendix
appendectomy
removal of the appendix
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix
colo; colono
colon (large intestine – ascending, trasverse, and descending)
colostomy; colonostomy
forming a new opening in the colon
colonoscopy; coloscopy
visual examination of the colon
procto
anus, rectum
proctologist
specialist in the study of the rectum and anus
recto
rectum
rectocele
herniation or protrusion of the rectum
-cele
hernia, swelling
sigmoido
sigmoid colon (s-shaped and extends from descending colon to rectum)
sigmoidotomy
incision of the sigmoid colon
duodenectomy
excision of the first part of the small intestine
jejunectomy
excision of the second part of the small intestine
ileectomy
excision of the third part of the small intestine
duodenostomy
form an opening into the duodenum
jejunostomy
forming an opening into the jejunum
ileostomy
forming an opening into the ileum
jejunal
pertaining to the jejunum
jejunotomy
incision of the jejunum
duodenotomy
incision of the duodenum
ileotomy
incision of the ileum
ileorrhaphy
suture of the ileum
duodenorrhaphy
suture of duodenum
jejunorrhaphy
suture of the jejunum
gastroduodenostomy
the formation of an opening between the stomach and duodenum
-um
structure, thing
gastroileostomy
the formation of an opening between the stomach and ileum
gastroenteroanastomosis; gastroenterostomy
creation of a passage between the stomach and some part of the small intestine
anastomosis
joining of 2 vessels so that contents can continue to flow through
ileitis
inflammation of the ileum
enteral
pertaining to the intestine (usually small intestine)
enterectomy
excision of intestine (usually small)
enterorrhaphy
suture of intestine
enteritis
inflammation of the small intestine
colonectomy; colectomy
excision of colon
colonitis; colitis
inflammation of colon
colotomy; colonotomy
incision into colon
colostomy; colonostomy
surgical creation of an opening into the colon
colorrhaphy; colonorrhaphy
suture of the colon
hepato
liver
spleno
spleen
sigmoidectomy
removal or excision of the sigmoid colon
sigmoiditis
inflammation of hte sigmoid colon
rectitis
inflammation of the rectum
rectocolitis
inflammation of the rectum and colon
proctodynia; proctalgia
pain around the anus or lower rectum
rectoplasty
surgical repair of the rectum
rectovaginal
pertaining to the rectum and vagina
vagino
vagina
-stenosis
narrowing; stricture
rectostenosis
narrowing or stricture of the rectum
proctitis
inflammation of the anus and rectum
proctodynia; proctalgia
pain in the rectum and anus
-spasm
involuntary contraction or twitching
rectospasm
an involuntary contraction of the rectum
proctospasm
an involuntary contraction of the rectum and anus
pathological
study of disease
proctoscopy
visual examination of the anus and rectum
sigmoidoscopy
visual examination of the sigmoid colon
sigmoidoscope
instrument used to examine the sigmoid colon
sigmoidectomy
excision of sigmoid colon
colonitis; colitis
inflammation of colon
coloscope; colonoscope
instrument to examine colon
cholangio
bile vessel
cholangiole
small terminal portion of the bile duct
-ole
small; minute
chole
bile; gall (bitter secretion produced by liver and stored in gallbladder)
cholelith
gallstone
-lith; litho
stone; calculus
cholecysto
gallbladder
cholecystectomy
removal of the gallbladder
choledocho
bile duct (where secretion passes through)
choledochotomy
incision of the common bile duct
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
pancreato
pancreas
pancreatolysis
destruction of pancreas
-lysis
separation; destruction; loosening
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specific)
hepatomegaly
enlargement of the liver
cirrhosis
abnormal condition of yellowness; chronic liver disease
-prandial
meal
postprandial
following a meal
post-
after; behind
hepatoma
tumor of the liver
hepatodynia; hepatalgia
pain in the liver
hepatorrhaphy
suture of the liver
hepatectomy
exision of (a portion) of the liver
hepatocyte
liver cell
hepatic
pertaining to the liver
cystic
pertaining to the bladder
pancreatic
pertaining to the pancreas
cholemesis
vomiting bile
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder
hepatolith
stone or calculus in the liver
pancreatolith
stone or calculus in the pancreas
cholecystolith
stone or calculus in the gallbladder
hepatolith
stone or calculus in the liver
cholangiitis
inflammation of the bile vessel
cholangiography
process of recording the bile vessel
choledocholithiasis
the formation of a stone in the bile duct
choledocholith
a stone in the bile duct
choledochitis
inflammation of the bile duct
choledochorrhaphy
suture of the bile duct
choledochoplasty
surgical repair of the bile duct
choledochotomy
incision of the bile duct
lithiasis
an abnormal condition produced by a stone or calculus
hepatosis
an abnormal condition of the liver
pancreatolithiasis
abnormal condition of pancreatic stones
cholelithiasis
an abnormal or diseased condition of gallstones
cholecystodynia; cholecystalgia
pain in the gallbladder
cholecystolithiasis
abnormal condition of gallbladder stones
biliary
pertaining to bile or gall
laparoscopic
pertaining to visual examination of the abdomen
pancreatectomy
excision of the pancreas
esophagoplasty
surgical repair of the esophagus
choledochoplasty
surgical repair of the bile duct
thermometer
an instrument for measuring degrees of heat or cold
thermo
heat, temperature
toxo; toxico; -toxic
poison
toxicology
study of poisons
toxicosis
abnormal condition of posion
-gram
record, writing
-graphy
process of recording
-y
condition; process
jaundice
yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes
polypo
small growth
polyposis
condition in which polyps develop in the intestinal tract
ultra-
excess, beyond
sono
sound
lithotripsy
procedure for eliminating a stone within the gallbladder or urinary system by crushing the stone surgically or using ultrasonic shock waves to shatter it
-tripsy
crushing
naso
nose
cirrho; jaundo
yellow
corporo
body
myco
fungus
tomo
to cut
-oma
tumor
-logy
study of
-oid
resembling
ab-
from, away from
endo-
in, within
epi-
above, upon
extra-
outside
peri-
around
ano
anus
sialo
saliva, salivary glands
-graph
instrument to record
linguogingival
pertaining to the tongue and gums
pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
subglossal; sublingual
pertaining to below the tongue
glossitis
inflammation of the tongue
benign
noncancerous
malignant
cancerous
-oma
tumor
gastroma
tumor of the stomach
cystoma
tumor of the bladder
gastrocarcinoma
cancerous tumor of the stomach
cystocarcinoma
cancerous tumor of the bladder
orthopnea
being able to breathe comfortably only while sitting up straight
cholecystogram
a record of the gallbladder
cholelithectomy
removal of gall stones
cholelithotomy
incision in order to remove gall stones (you can’t cut into gall stones)
hyperthermia
higher than normal body temperature (a fever)
febrile
medical term for fever; elevated temperature
afebrile
without fever
hypothermia
lower than normal body temperature
diathermy
treatment that generates heat through tissues
hyperactivity; hyperactive
excessive activity
hypoactivity; hypoactive
under active
hypertension
high blood pressure
hypotension
low blood pressure
maxilloplasty
repair of the upper jaw
-rrhexis
rupture
-rrhagia
bursting forth
-ectasis
dilation; expansion
orogastric; stomatogastric
pertaining to the mouth and stomach
esophagospasm
twitching of the esophagus
esophagostenosis
narrowing of the esophagus
esophagectasis
dilation (stretching) of the esophagus
intubation
introducing or inserting a tube into the body
gastrorrhaphy
suturing of the stomach
duodenitis
inflammation of the duodenum
duodenojejunostomy
form a new opening between the duodenum and the jejunum
jejunoileitis
inflammation of the jejunum and the ileum
jejunoileostomy
forming a new opening between the jejunum and the ileum
duodenojejunoileitis
inflammation of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
enterocolostomy
forming a new opening between the small intestine and colon
sigmoidocarcinoma
cancerous tumor of the sigmoid colon
rectal examination
bimanual exam; digital (fingers) exam
rectosigmoidoscopy
visual examination of the rectum and sigmoid colon
proctoscope
instrument to examine the anus and rectum
proctology
study of the anus and rectum