Medical Terminology – Digestive System Reading Words

gastroenterology
study of the digestive system (stomach and intestinal disorders)

gastroenterologist
specialist in the study of the digestive system (stomach and intestinal disorders)

endoscopy
visual examination of an organ

digestive (gastrointestinal) system
breaks down food, prepares it for absorbtion, and eliminates waste substances

dento; odonto
teeth

-ist
specialist

orthodontist
specialist in straight teeth

ortho
straight

gingivo
gum(s)

gingivitis
inflammation of the gums

-itis
inflammation

glosso; linguo
tongue

hypoglossal; sublingual
pertaining to under the tongue

hypo-; sub-
under, below, deficient

-al; -ous; -ic; -ar; -ary; -eal; -ior
pertaining to

oro; stomato
mouth

oral
pertaining to the mouth

oropathy; stomatopathy
disease of the mouth

-pathy
disease

ptyalo
saliva

ptyalism
condition of excessive salivation

-ism
condition

sialorrhea
excessive flow of saliva; hypersalivation; ptyalism

-rrhea
discharge; flow

esophago
esophagus (food travels)

esophagoscope
instrument for examining the esophagus

-scope
instrument for examining

pharyngo
pharynx (throat)

pharyngotonsillitis
inflammation of the pharynx and tonsils

tonsillo
tonsils

gastro
stomach

gastroscopy
visual examination of the stomach

-scopy
visual examination

pyloro
pylorus (lower part of stomach opening to the duodenum)

pylorotomy
incision of the pylorus (sphincter in lower portion of the stomy)

-tomy
incision

-algia; -dynia
pain

gastralgia; gastrodynia
pain in the stomach

-emesis
vomiting

hyperemesis
excessive vomiting

hyper-
excessive, above normal

-megaly
enlargement

gastromegaly; megalogastria
enlargement of the stomach

-orexia
appetite

anorexia
loss of appetite

an-; a-
without, not

-pepsia
digestion

dyspepsia
difficult or painful digestion; indigestion

dys-
bad; painful; difficult

-phagia
swallowing; eating

dysphagia
difficulty swallowing or eating

diarrhea
discharge or flow of watery stools from the bowel

dia-
through; across

oritis; stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth

oral; stomatal
pertaining to the mouth

oralgia; orodynia; stomatodynia; stomatalgia
pain in the mouth

sialic
pertaining to saliva

sialitis
inflammation of a salivary gland

sialorrhea; ptyalism; hypersalivation
excessive secretion of saliva

maxillo
jaw

submaxillary
pertaining to below the jaw

linguodental
pertaining to the tongue and teeth

-osis
abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)

orosis; stomatosis
abnormal condition of the mouth

oromycosis; stomatomycosis
abnormal condition of a mouth fungus

mycosis
abnormal condition of a fungus

logo; -logy
study of

-logist
specialist in the study of

gastrologist
specialist in the study of stomach disorders

enterologist
specialist in the study of intestinal disorders

gastrology
study of the stomach

dentistry
the branch of medicine dealing with the care of the teeth and gums

odontalgia; odontodynia; dentalgia; dentodynia
pain in a tooth; toothache

periodontist
specialist in the areas surrounding the teeth

periodontitis
inflammation around the teeth

gingivosis
abnormal condition of gums

esophagitis
inflammation of the esophagus

mucous
pertaining to mucus

necrosis
an abnormal condition of tissue death

gastritis
inflammation of the stomach

gastrodynia; gastralgia
pain in the stomach

-ia; -ice
condition

duodenoscopy
visual examination of the duodenum

esophagoscopy
visual examination of the esophagus

esophagogastroduodenoscopy
EGD; visual examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum

gastrectomy
removal or excision of all or part of the stomach

-plasty
surgical repair

stomatoplasty; oroplasty
surgical repair of the mouth

esophagoplasty
surgical repair of the esophagus

gastroplasty
surgical repair of the stomach

-tome
instrument to cut

-ectomy
excision, removal

esophagotomy
an incision of the esophagus

esophagotome
instrument to cut through the esophagus

gastrotome
an instrument to cut the stomach

gastrotomy
incision of the stomach

carcino
cancer

carcinoma
cancerous or malignant tumor

cancerous
pertaining to cancer

epigastric
pertaining to above the stomach

hyperemesis
excessive vomiting

hemato; hemo
blood

hematemesis
vomiting blood

aero
air

aerophagia
swallowing air

duodeno
duodenum (first part of the small intestine)

entero
intestine (usually small intestine); includes duodenum, jejunum, and ileum

enteropathy
any intestinal disease

jejuno
jejunum (second part of the small intestine)

jejunorrhaphy
suture of the jejunum

-rrhaphy
suture

ileo
ileum (third part of the small intestine)

ileostomy
incision of the ileum and creation of a permanent opening

-stomy
forming an opening

appendo; appendico
appendix

appendectomy
removal of the appendix

appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix

colo; colono
colon (large intestine – ascending, trasverse, and descending)

colostomy; colonostomy
forming a new opening in the colon

colonoscopy; coloscopy
visual examination of the colon

procto
anus, rectum

proctologist
specialist in the study of the rectum and anus

recto
rectum

rectocele
herniation or protrusion of the rectum

-cele
hernia, swelling

sigmoido
sigmoid colon (s-shaped and extends from descending colon to rectum)

sigmoidotomy
incision of the sigmoid colon

duodenectomy
excision of the first part of the small intestine

jejunectomy
excision of the second part of the small intestine

ileectomy
excision of the third part of the small intestine

duodenostomy
form an opening into the duodenum

jejunostomy
forming an opening into the jejunum

ileostomy
forming an opening into the ileum

jejunal
pertaining to the jejunum

jejunotomy
incision of the jejunum

duodenotomy
incision of the duodenum

ileotomy
incision of the ileum

ileorrhaphy
suture of the ileum

duodenorrhaphy
suture of duodenum

jejunorrhaphy
suture of the jejunum

gastroduodenostomy
the formation of an opening between the stomach and duodenum

-um
structure, thing

gastroileostomy
the formation of an opening between the stomach and ileum

gastroenteroanastomosis; gastroenterostomy
creation of a passage between the stomach and some part of the small intestine

anastomosis
joining of 2 vessels so that contents can continue to flow through

ileitis
inflammation of the ileum

enteral
pertaining to the intestine (usually small intestine)

enterectomy
excision of intestine (usually small)

enterorrhaphy
suture of intestine

enteritis
inflammation of the small intestine

colonectomy; colectomy
excision of colon

colonitis; colitis
inflammation of colon

colotomy; colonotomy
incision into colon

colostomy; colonostomy
surgical creation of an opening into the colon

colorrhaphy; colonorrhaphy
suture of the colon

hepato
liver

spleno
spleen

sigmoidectomy
removal or excision of the sigmoid colon

sigmoiditis
inflammation of hte sigmoid colon

rectitis
inflammation of the rectum

rectocolitis
inflammation of the rectum and colon

proctodynia; proctalgia
pain around the anus or lower rectum

rectoplasty
surgical repair of the rectum

rectovaginal
pertaining to the rectum and vagina

vagino
vagina

-stenosis
narrowing; stricture

rectostenosis
narrowing or stricture of the rectum

proctitis
inflammation of the anus and rectum

proctodynia; proctalgia
pain in the rectum and anus

-spasm
involuntary contraction or twitching

rectospasm
an involuntary contraction of the rectum

proctospasm
an involuntary contraction of the rectum and anus

pathological
study of disease

proctoscopy
visual examination of the anus and rectum

sigmoidoscopy
visual examination of the sigmoid colon

sigmoidoscope
instrument used to examine the sigmoid colon

sigmoidectomy
excision of sigmoid colon

colonitis; colitis
inflammation of colon

coloscope; colonoscope
instrument to examine colon

cholangio
bile vessel

cholangiole
small terminal portion of the bile duct

-ole
small; minute

chole
bile; gall (bitter secretion produced by liver and stored in gallbladder)

cholelith
gallstone

-lith; litho
stone; calculus

cholecysto
gallbladder

cholecystectomy
removal of the gallbladder

choledocho
bile duct (where secretion passes through)

choledochotomy
incision of the common bile duct

hepatitis
inflammation of the liver

pancreato
pancreas

pancreatolysis
destruction of pancreas

-lysis
separation; destruction; loosening

-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specific)

hepatomegaly
enlargement of the liver

cirrhosis
abnormal condition of yellowness; chronic liver disease

-prandial
meal

postprandial
following a meal

post-
after; behind

hepatoma
tumor of the liver

hepatodynia; hepatalgia
pain in the liver

hepatorrhaphy
suture of the liver

hepatectomy
exision of (a portion) of the liver

hepatocyte
liver cell

hepatic
pertaining to the liver

cystic
pertaining to the bladder

pancreatic
pertaining to the pancreas

cholemesis
vomiting bile

cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder

hepatolith
stone or calculus in the liver

pancreatolith
stone or calculus in the pancreas

cholecystolith
stone or calculus in the gallbladder

hepatolith
stone or calculus in the liver

cholangiitis
inflammation of the bile vessel

cholangiography
process of recording the bile vessel

choledocholithiasis
the formation of a stone in the bile duct

choledocholith
a stone in the bile duct

choledochitis
inflammation of the bile duct

choledochorrhaphy
suture of the bile duct

choledochoplasty
surgical repair of the bile duct

choledochotomy
incision of the bile duct

lithiasis
an abnormal condition produced by a stone or calculus

hepatosis
an abnormal condition of the liver

pancreatolithiasis
abnormal condition of pancreatic stones

cholelithiasis
an abnormal or diseased condition of gallstones

cholecystodynia; cholecystalgia
pain in the gallbladder

cholecystolithiasis
abnormal condition of gallbladder stones

biliary
pertaining to bile or gall

laparoscopic
pertaining to visual examination of the abdomen

pancreatectomy
excision of the pancreas

esophagoplasty
surgical repair of the esophagus

choledochoplasty
surgical repair of the bile duct

thermometer
an instrument for measuring degrees of heat or cold

thermo
heat, temperature

toxo; toxico; -toxic
poison

toxicology
study of poisons

toxicosis
abnormal condition of posion

-gram
record, writing

-graphy
process of recording

-y
condition; process

jaundice
yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes

polypo
small growth

polyposis
condition in which polyps develop in the intestinal tract

ultra-
excess, beyond

sono
sound

lithotripsy
procedure for eliminating a stone within the gallbladder or urinary system by crushing the stone surgically or using ultrasonic shock waves to shatter it

-tripsy
crushing

naso
nose

cirrho; jaundo
yellow

corporo
body

myco
fungus

tomo
to cut

-oma
tumor

-logy
study of

-oid
resembling

ab-
from, away from

endo-
in, within

epi-
above, upon

extra-
outside

peri-
around

ano
anus

sialo
saliva, salivary glands

-graph
instrument to record

linguogingival
pertaining to the tongue and gums

pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas

subglossal; sublingual
pertaining to below the tongue

glossitis
inflammation of the tongue

benign
noncancerous

malignant
cancerous

-oma
tumor

gastroma
tumor of the stomach

cystoma
tumor of the bladder

gastrocarcinoma
cancerous tumor of the stomach

cystocarcinoma
cancerous tumor of the bladder

orthopnea
being able to breathe comfortably only while sitting up straight

cholecystogram
a record of the gallbladder

cholelithectomy
removal of gall stones

cholelithotomy
incision in order to remove gall stones (you can’t cut into gall stones)

hyperthermia
higher than normal body temperature (a fever)

febrile
medical term for fever; elevated temperature

afebrile
without fever

hypothermia
lower than normal body temperature

diathermy
treatment that generates heat through tissues

hyperactivity; hyperactive
excessive activity

hypoactivity; hypoactive
under active

hypertension
high blood pressure

hypotension
low blood pressure

maxilloplasty
repair of the upper jaw

-rrhexis
rupture

-rrhagia
bursting forth

-ectasis
dilation; expansion

orogastric; stomatogastric
pertaining to the mouth and stomach

esophagospasm
twitching of the esophagus

esophagostenosis
narrowing of the esophagus

esophagectasis
dilation (stretching) of the esophagus

intubation
introducing or inserting a tube into the body

gastrorrhaphy
suturing of the stomach

duodenitis
inflammation of the duodenum

duodenojejunostomy
form a new opening between the duodenum and the jejunum

jejunoileitis
inflammation of the jejunum and the ileum

jejunoileostomy
forming a new opening between the jejunum and the ileum

duodenojejunoileitis
inflammation of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum

enterocolostomy
forming a new opening between the small intestine and colon

sigmoidocarcinoma
cancerous tumor of the sigmoid colon

rectal examination
bimanual exam; digital (fingers) exam

rectosigmoidoscopy
visual examination of the rectum and sigmoid colon

proctoscope
instrument to examine the anus and rectum

proctology
study of the anus and rectum

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