Medical Terminology Chp. 2 Study Guide

The process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment are know as_____
-hematostasis, homeostasis, homestasis, homostasis
Homeostasis
Which of the following is a characteristic of the anatomic position?
-extending the arms upward, bending the knees, standing up straight so the body is erect, turning the palms of the hands toward the back
Standing up straight so the body is erect
_____ has a specialized ability to contract and relax.
-adipose tissue, dense connective tissue, muscle tissue, nerve tissue
Muscle Tissue
When a recessive gene for a disease is inherited from ____
both parents, the offspring will have that condition
A/An ____ is an acquired in a hospital or clinical setting.
-iatrogenic illness, functional disorder, idiopathic disorder, nosocomial infection
Nosocomial Infection
The term ____ is opposite of anterior.
-dorsal, posterior, superior, ventral
Posterior
A/An ____ divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
-frontal plane, horizontal plane, sagittal plane, transverse plane
Frontal Plane
The organs of reproduction are protected by the ____ cavity.
-abdominal, dorsal, pelvic, ventral
Pelvic
A transverse plane divides the body into ____ and inferior portions.
-anterior, lateral, posterior, superior
Superior
Which term means toward the lower part of the body?
-caudal, cephalic, distal, proximal
Caudal
The ____ body regions are located on the left and right sides and are covered by the lower ribs.
Left and right hypochondriac
The term ____ describes the congenital absense of a normal opening or the failure of a structure, such as the anus, to be tubular.
-anaplasia, aplasia, atresia, dysplasia
Atresia
The ____ plane, which is also known as the midline, divides the body into equal left and right halves
-coronal, frontal, midsagittal, transverse
Midsagittal
Which term describes a benign tumor formed from glandular tissue?
-ademoma, adenomalacia, adenosclerosis, adenosis
Adenoma
Which term means the direction toward or nearer the midline?
-distal, lateral, medial, sagittal
Medial
A physician who specializes in the care of older people is known as a ____
-cardiologist, geriatrician, internist, obsetrician
Geriatrician
Which condition is the abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs?
-anaplasia, aplasia, dysplasia, hyperplasia
Dysplasia
Which term refers to an outbreak of a disease occuring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide?
-endemic, epidemic, geodemic, pandemic
Pandemic
Which term means the study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues?
-anatomy, histology, pathology, physiology
Histology
Which term means toward the side?
-distal, lateral, medial, proximal
Lateral
Which term means the study of the functions of body structures?
-anatomy, cytology, histology, physiology
Physiology
A/An ____ disorder, such as panic attack, produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified.
-functional, infectious, idiopathic, organic
functional
_____ is a genetic disorder in which an essential digestive enzyme is missing.
-hemophilia, huntington’s disease, phenylketonuria, tay-sachs
Phenylketonuria
Which of these diseases is NOT spread by bloodborne transmission?
-hepatitis B, HIV, STD’s, tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
A genome is_____
the complete set of an individual’s genetic information
The _______ system filters blood to remove waste while maintaining the electrolyte and fluid balance within the body.
Urinary
The _____ system supports and shapes the body. It also protects the internal organs, forms some blood cells, and stores minerals.
Skeletal
The _____ system protects the body against invasion by bacteria. It also aids in regulating the body temperatue and water content.
Integumentary
Hormones are secreted by _____ glands.
Endocrine
The term ______ refers to the back of the organ or body. The opposite of this term is ventral.
Dorsal
A/An ____ is a fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity.
Gene
An inflammation of te peritoneum is known as______
Peritonitis
Protective padding, insulation, support, and a nutrient reserve are provided by ____ tissue.
Adipose
The enlargement in the bulk of an orga that is not due to tumor formation is known as______
Hypertrophy
______ glands, such as sweat glands, secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other orangs or out of the body.
Exocrine
Abnormal hardening of a gland is known as ________
Adenosclerosis
An abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arragement in a tissue is known as______
Hyperplasia
Blood and lymph are examples of ____ connective tissue.
Liquid
A/An ________ is a specialist in the study of tissue organization at all levels.
Histologist
A/An ______ is a deviation from what is regarded as normal.
Anamoly
A/An ______ disorder is an abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth.
Congenital
The _______ region is located below the stomach.
Hypogastric
A postmortem examination is known as a/an _______
Autopsy
The larynx is part of the ______ system.
Respiratory
The study of the causes of diseases is known as _______
Etiology
A ______ is a group of specialized epithelial cells that can produce secretions/
Gland
The surgical removal of a gland is known as a/an _______
Adenectomy
The study of how traits are transfered from parents to their children and the role of genes in health and disease is known as _______
Genetics
The ______ cavity contains the organs of the digestive system.
Abdominal
______ syndrome is a genetic disorder that includes characteristic facial features, some degree of mental retardation, vision disorders, and other health problems.
Down
The distal end of the humerus is located near the shoulder.(T/F)
False
A sagittal plane divides the body into unequal upper and lower portions.(T/F)
False
The term inguinal, which means relating the groin, refers to the entire lower portion of the abdomen.(T/F)
True
DNA is packaged in a chromosome as two spiraling strands that twist together to form a double helix.(T/F)
True
The epigastric region surronds the umbilicus.(T/F)
False
The thoracic cavity surronds and protects the heart and lungs.(T/F)
True
Each chromosome contains 46 genes.(T/F)
False
A gamete is the only type of cell that does not contain 46 chromosomes.(T/F)
True
Anatomy means any deviation from what is regarded as normal.(T/F)
False
Hemophilia is a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood-clotting factor is missing.(T/F)
True
Stem cells can be harvested from the bone marrow of a newborn infant.
False
The umbilicus is also known as the belly button or naval.
True
Quadrant means divided into six equal parts.
False
The term proximal means situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure.
True
DNA is found only in gametes.
False
Somatic cell mutation can be transmitted to the offspring.
False
The messentery attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall.
True
The term retroperitoneal means located behind the peritoneum.
True
Cytology is the study of the formation, structure, and function of cells.
True
The dorsal cavity contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis.
False
Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ.
True
A genetic mutation is a change of the sequence of a DNA molecule.
True
Freckles are a physical trait that is transmitted by a recessive gene.
False
Tay-Sachs disease is a fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance build up in the lungs.
False
Huntington’s disease is a genetic disorder causing nerve degeneration that can result in uncontrolled movements and the loss of some mental abilities.
True
A benign tumor from recognizable glandular structures.
Adenoma
Abnormal hardening of a gland.
Adenosclerosis
Abnormal softening of a gland.
Adenomalacia
Any disease condition of a gland.
Adenosis
Inflammation of a gland.
Adenitis
Protects the spinal cord.
Spinal Cavity
Protects the major organs of digestion.
Abdominal Cavity
Protects the heart and lungs.
Thoracic Cavity
Protects the brain.
Cranial Cavity
Protects reproductive and excretory system organs.
Pelvic Cavity
Outer layer of membrane that lines the abdominal cavity.
Parietal Peritoneum
Membrane that protects and supports organs in the abdominal cavity.
Peritoneum
Located behind the peritoneum of the abdominal cavity.
Retroperitoneal
Inner layer of membrane that surronds the organs of the abdominal cavity.
Visceral Peritoneum
Suspends parts of the intestine within the abdominal cavity.
Mesentery
The defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue.
Aplasia
Incomplete development of an organ or tissue.
Hypoplasia
A change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other.
Anaplasia
Abnormal tissue development.
Dysplasia
Abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement.
Hyperplasia
A disorder with no detectable physical changes to explain the symptoms.
Functional Disorder
A disorder with pathologic physical changes that explain the symptoms.
Organic Disorder
An illness caused by a pathogenic organism.
Infectious Disorder
An illness without known cause.
Idiopathic Disorder
Any disease transmitted from one person to another.
Communicable Disease