Medical Terminology, Chapter 9, The Urinary System

ablation
the removal of a body part or the destruction of its function

acute renal failure (ARF)
has sudden onset and is characterized by uremia

anuria
the absence of urine formation by the kidneys

benign prostatis hypertrophy
an abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland that occurs most often in men over age 50

bladder retraining
a program of urinating on a schedule with increasingly longer time intervals

bladder ultrasound
the use of a handheld ultrasound transducer to measure the amount of urine remaining in the bladder after urination

catheterization
performed to withdraw urine for diagnostic purposes, to control incontinence, or to place fluid into the bladder

chronic renal failure
the progressive loss of renal functions

computed tomography
used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system

cystalgia
pain in the urinary bladder

cystectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder

cystitis
an inflammation of the bladder

cystocele
a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall; also called a fallen bladder

cystography
a radiographic examination of the bladder after instillation of a contrast medium via a urethral catheter

cystolith
a stone located in the urinary bladder

cystopexy
the surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall

cystorrhaphy
the surgical suturing of the bladder

cystoscopy
the visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope

dialysis
a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function

diuresis
the increased output of urine

digital rectal examination
performed on men to screen for prostate enlargement, infection, and indications of prostate cancer

diuretics
medications administered to increase urine secretion in order to rid the body of excess water and salt

dysuria
difficult or painful urination

edema
excessive fluid in the body tissues

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
refers to the late stages of chronic renal failure in which there is irreversible loss of the function of both kidneys

enuresis
the involuntary discharge of urine

epispadias
a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening where in the male, the urethral opening is located on the upper surface of the penis, and in the female the urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris

extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)
the destruction of stones with the use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel

female urethra
approximately 1.5 inches long; urethral meatus is located between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina; conveys only urine

glomerulonephritis
a form of nephritis that involves primarily the glomeruli; also known as Bright’s disease

glomerulus
a cluster of capillaries surrounded by a cup-shaped membrane called the Bowman’s capsule

hemodialysis
the process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient’s blood to replace the function of damaged kidneys

hemolytic uremic syndrome
a condition in which hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia cause acute renal failure and possibly death

hydronephrosis
the dilation (swelling) of one or both kidneys

hydroureter
the distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked

hyperproteinuria
the presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine

hypoproteinemia
the presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood

hypospadias
a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening where in the male the urethral opening is on the under surface of the penis, and in the female the urethral opening is into the vagina

incontinence
the inability to control excretory functions

indwelling catheter
one that remains inside the body for a prolonged time

interstitial cystitis
a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder

intravenous pyelogram
a radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters used to diagnose changed in the urinary tract

Kegel exercises
a series of pelvic muscle exercises used to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor to control urinary stress incontinence in women

KUB (Kidneys, Ureter, Bladder)
a radiographic study of these structures without the use of a contract medium

lithotomy
a surgical incision for the removal of a stone from the bladder

lithotripsy
to crush a stone

male urethra
approximately 8 inches long; urethral meatus is located at the tip of the penis; transports both urine and semen

meatotomy
a surgical incision made in the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening

medulla
the inner region of the kidney

nephrectasis
the distention of a kidney

nephritis
an inflammation of the kidney or kidneys

nephrolith
a stone located in the kidney; also known as renal calculus or a kidney stone

nephrolithiasis
a disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the kidney

nephrolithotomy
the surgical removal of a nephrolith (kidney stone) through an incision in the kidney

nephrologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys

nephrolysis
the freeing of a kidney from adhesions

nephron
a functional unit of the kidney

nephropathy
any disease of the kidney including degenerative and inflammatory conditions

nephropexy
the surgical fixation of a floating kidney

nephroptosis
the prolapse of a kidney

nephropyosis
suppuration (formation or discharge of pus) of the kidney

nephrosis
any degenerative kidney disease causing nephrotic syndrome without inflammation

nephrostomy
the establishment of an opening from the pelvis of the kidney to the exterior of the body

nephrotic syndrome
a condition in which very high levels of protein are lost in the urine and abnormally low levels of protein are present in the blood

neurogenic bladder
a urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination

nocturia
excessive urination during the night

nocturnal enuresis
urinary incontinence during sleep

oliguria
scanty urination

overactive bladder (OAB)
occurs when the detrusor muscle in the wall of the bladder is too active

paraspadias
a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethral opening is on the side of the penis

percutaneous nephrolithotomy
treatment of a kidney stone that is performed with a nephroscope inserted through a small incision in the back

peritoneal dialysis
dialysis in which the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood

polycystic kidney disease
a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys

polyuria
excessive urination

prostate cancer
one of the most common cancers among men

prostate gland
part of the male reproductive system and surrounds the urethra

prostatectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland

prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
blood test used to screen for prostate cancer

prostatism
the condition of having symptoms resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatis hypertrophy

prostatitis
an inflammation of the prostate gland

pyelitis
an inflammation of the renal pelvis

pyelonephritis
an inflammation of both the renal pelvis and of the kidney

pyeloplasty
the surgical repair of the renal pelvis

pyelotomy
a surgical incision into the renal pelvis

renal
pertaining to the kidneys

renal colic
an acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passing of a kidney stone

renal cortex
the outer region of the kidney

renal failure
the inability of one or both of the kidneys to perform their functions

renal pelvis
the funnel-shaped area within each kidney that is surrounded by renal cortex and medulla

renal transplantation
the grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient’s failed kidneys; a kidney transplant

retrograde urography
a radiograph of the urinary system taken after dye has been placed in the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward (backward) through the urinary tract

stone
an abnormal mineral deposit that has formed within the body; also known as a calculus

stress incontinence
the inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing, or coughing

suprapubic catheterization
the placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone

transurethral prostatectomy
the removal of an overgrowth of tissue from the prostate gland through a resectoscope

trigone
the smooth triangular area on the inner surface of the bladder located between the openings of the ureter and urethra

trigonitis
an inflammation of the urinary bladder that is localized in the region of the trigone

urea
the major waste product of protein metabolism

uremia
a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea is retained in the blood

ureterectasis
the distention of a ureter

ureterectomy
the surgical removal of a ureter

ureterolith
a stone located in a ureter

ureteroplasty
the surgical repair of a ureter

ureterorrhagia
the discharge of blood from the ureter

ureterorrhaphy
the surgical suturing of a ureter

ureters
two narrow tubes which transport urine from the kidney to the bladder

urethra
the tube extending from the bladder to the outside of the body

urethral catheterization
peformed by inserting a tube along the urethra and into the bladder

urethral meatus
the external opening of the urethra

urethritis
an inflammation of the urethra

urethropexy
the surgical fixation of the urethra, usually for the correction of urinary stress incontinence

urethrorrhagia
bleeding from the urethra

urethrorrhea
an abnormal discharge from the urethra

urethrostenosis
abnormal narrowing of the urethra

urethrostomy
the surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin

urethrotomy
a surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture

urinalysis
the examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements

urinary bladder
a hollow muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from the body

urinary hesitancy
difficulty in starting a urinary stream

urinary incontinence
the inability to control the voiding of urine

urinary tract infection (UTI)
an infection that usually begins in the bladder but that can affect all or parts of the urinary system

urination
the normal process of excreting urine

urochrome
the pigment that gives urine its normal yellow-amber or straw color

urologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males

vesicovaginal fistula
an abnormal opening between the bladder and vaginan that allows the constant flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina

voiding cystourethrography
a diagnostic procedure in which a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra

Wilms tumor
a malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children