Medical Terminology Chapter 7 (Additional Medical Terms)

Increase of nitrogenous substances, especially in urea, in urine

Increased formation and secretion of urine

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
Kidney disease that has advanced to the point that the kidneys can no longer adequately filter the blood and, ultimately, requires dialysis or renal transplantation for survival; also called CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE (CRF)

Involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which bladder control should be established; also called bed-wetting at night or nocturnal enuresis

Abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis

interstitial nephritis
Condition associated with pathological changes in the renal interstitial tissue that may be primary or due to a toxic agent, such as a drug or chemical, which results in destruction of nephrons and severe impairment in renal function

renal hypertension
High blood pressure that results from kidney disease

Elevated levels of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood as a result of the kidney’s failure to expel these waste products in the urine; also called azotemia

Wilms tumor
Malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in young children, usually before age 5

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Laboratory test that measures the amount of urea (nitrogenous waste product) in the blood and demonstrates the kidneys’ ability to filter urea from the blood for excretion in urine

creatinine clearance
Laboratory test that measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney

computed tomography (CT)
Radiographic study using a narrow beam of x-rays that rotates in a full arc around the patient to acquire multiple views of the body, which a computer interprets to produce cross-sectional images of an internal organ or tissue; also called computerized axial tomography (CAT) scanning

Radiographic study of the kidney, ureters, and, usually, the bladder after injection of a contrast agent

intravenous pyelography (IVP)
Radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial x-ray films are taken to provide visualization of the entire urinary tract; also called intravenous urography (IVU) or excretory urography (EU)

retrograde pyelography (RP)
Radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is introduced through a cystoscope directly into the bladder and ureters using a small-caliber catheters

nuclear scan
Radiographic technique that produces images of an organ or area of the body by introducing a radionuclide substance (tracer or radiopharmaceutical) that releases a low level of radiation; also called nuclear scanning, or radionuclide imaging, and nuclear medicine scan

Nuclear scan that determines renal function and shape

ultrasonography (US)
Radiographic technique using high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that bounce off body tissues and are recorded to produce an image of an internal organ or tissue; also called ultrasound and echo

Physical, chemical, and microscopic evaluation of urine

voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)
Radiography of the bladder and urethra while the bladder fills and empties

catheterization (Cath)
Insertion of a catheter (hollow flexible tube) into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or remove fluid, most commonly through the urethra into the bladder to withdraw urine

Mechanical filtering process used to clean blood of high concentrations of metabolic waste products, draw off excess fluids, and regulate body chemistry when kidneys fail to function properly

hemodialysis (HD)
Process of removing excess fluids and toxins from the blood by continually shunting (diverting) the patient’s blood from the body into a dialysis machine for filtering, and then returning the clean blood to the patient’s body via tubes connected to the circulatory system

peritoneal dialysis (PD)
Dialysis in which the patient’s own peritoneum is used as the dialyzing membrane

renal transplantation
Organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with end-stage renal disease; also called kidney transplantation

ureteral stent
Placement of a thin tube into the ureter to prevent or treat obstruction of urine flow from the kidney

Incision of a urethral stricture

Kill bacteria that commonly cause urinary tract infections (UTI)

Suppress spasms of the ureter, bladder, and urethra by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, thus allowing normal emptying of the bladder

Block reabsorption of sodium by the kidneys, thereby increasing the amount of salt and water excreted in the urine

potassium supplements
Replace potassium loss due to diuretic drugs