Medical terminology chapter 2-2

Cells
the basic structural and functional units of the body. Cells are specialized and grouped together to form tissues and organs

Cytology
the study of the anatomy, physiology, pathology and chemistry of the cell (cyt means cell, and -ology means study of)

cytologist
specialist in the study and analysis of cells (cyt means cell, -ologist means specialist)

cell membrane
the tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of the cell by separating them from its external environment

cytoplasm
the material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus (cyt/o means cell, -plasm means formative material of cells)

nucleus
is surrounded by the nuclear membrane, is a structure within the cell. It controls the activities of the cell and helps the cell divide

stem cells
unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division.

adult stem cells
somatic stem cells. undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ. Role is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found.

undifferentiated
not having a specialized function or structure

differentiated
having specialized function or structure

hemopoietic
blood forming

graft-versus-host disease
rejection between the donor and recipient

embryonic stem cells
undifferentiated cells that are unlike nay specific adult cell; however, they have the ability to form any adult cell

gene
fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes control hereditary disorders and all physical traits such as hair, skin, and eye color

genetics
the study of how genes are transferred from parent to their children and the role of genes in health and disease (gene means producing, -tics means pertaining to). Geneticist is a specialist

dominant gene
when inherited from either parent, the offspring will inherit that genetic condition or characteristic. ex: Huntington’s disease

recessive gene
when same is inherited from both parents, the offspring will have that condition. ex: sickle cell anemia

recessive gene
when inherited from only one parent, and a normal gene is inherited from the other parent, the off spring will not have that condition. ex: even if they do not develop sickle cell anemia, he/she will have the sickle cell anemia trait, able to transmit that gene to their offspring

genome
complete set of genetic information of an organism

chromosomes
genetic structures located within the nucleus of each cell. Made up of the DNA molecules containing the body’s genes. Each chromosome contains about 100,000 genes

somatic cell
any cell in the body except the gamete (sex cells) somatic means pertaining to the body in general. contain 46 chromosomes arranged into 23 pairs. there are 22 identical pairs of chromosomes, plus another pair. in a female: XX. In male: XY. determines the sex of the individual

sex cell
sperm or egg. also known as a gamete. Only cell that does not contain 46 chromosomes. Each ovum (egg) or sperm has 23 single chromosomes. when a sperm and ovum join, newly formed offspring receives 23 chromosomes from each parent

what determines the gender of the child
X or Y chromosome

Helix
shape twisted like a spiral staircase

double helix
two strands twisted together

DNA
abbreviated for deoxyribonucleic acid. found in the nucleus of all types of cells except erythrocytes (red blood cells). RBC do not have a nucleus. No two DNA patters are exactly the same except for identical twins.

genetic mutation
change of the sequence of a DNA molecule. Potential causes of genetic mutation include exposure to radiation or environmental pollution

somatic cell mutation
change within the cells of the body. affect the individual but cannot be transmitted to the next generation

gametic cell mutation
change within the genes in a gamete (sex cell) that can e transmitted by a parent to his or her children

genetic engineering
manipulating or splicing of genes for scientific or medical purposes. The production of human insulin from modified bacteria is an example of one result of genetic engineering

genetic disorder
hereditary disorder. pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene. some are obvious at birth, others may become evident at any time in life

cystic fibrosis (CF)
genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects the respiratory and digestive systems

down syndrome (DS)
genetic variation that is associated with a characteristic facial appearance, learning disabilities, and physical abnormalities such as heart valve disease

Hemophilia
group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood-clotting factor is missing. This blood coagulation disorder is characterized by spontaneous hemorrhages or severe bleeding following an injury.

Huntington’s disease (HD)
genetic disorder that is passed from parent to child. Each child of a parent with the gene for Huntington’s disease has a 50-50 chance of inheriting this defective gene. this condition causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that most appear in midlife. eventually results in uncontrolled movements and the loss of some mental abilities

muscular dystrophy
group of genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles that control movement

Phenylketonuria
genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing. commonly known as PKU. can be detected by a blood test performed on infants at birth. With careful dietary supervision, children born with PKU can lead normal lives. Without early detection and treatment, PKU causes severe mental retardation

Tay-Sachs disease
fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance buildup in tissues and nerve cells in the brain. Both parents must carry the mutated gene to have an affected child. The most common form of the disease affects babies who appear healthy at birth and seem to develop normally for the first few months. Development then slows, and a relentless deterioration of mental and physical abilities results in progressive blindness, paralysis, and early death.

tissue
group or layer of similarity specialized cells that join together to perform certain specific functions.

histology
study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues (hist means tissue, -ology means study of)

histologist
specialist in the study of the organization of tissues at all levels (hist means tissue, -ologist means specialist)

Epithelial tissues
from a protective covering for all the internal and external surfaces of the body. also form glands

Epithelium
specialized epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and the surface layette of mucous membranes

endothelium
specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs

connective tissues
support and connect organs and other body tissues

dense connective tissues
bone and cartilage, form the joints and framework of the body

adipose tissue
also known as fat, provides protective padding, insulation, and support (adip means fat, and -ose means pertaining to)

loose connective tissue
surrounds various organs and supports both nerve cells and blood vessels

liquid connective tissues
which are blood and lymph, transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body

muscle tissue
contains cells with the specialized ability to contract and relax

nerve tissue
contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and to conduct electrical impulses

aplasia
defective development, or congenital absence, of an organ or tissue (a- means without, -plasia means formation)

hypoplasia
the incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells (hypo-means deficient, -plasia means formation)

anaplasia
change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other (ana-means backward, and -plasia means formation). characteristic of tumor formation in cancers

dysplasia
the abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs. (dys- means bad, -plasia means formation)

hyperplasia
the enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues (hyper- means excessive, and -plasia means formation)

hypertrophy
general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not in the number, of cells in the tissues (hyper- means excessive -trophy means development) not due to tumor formation

gland
group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable of producing secretions

secretion
substance produced by a gland

exocrine glands
secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body, such as sweat gland (exo- means out of, -crine means to secrete)

endocrine glands
produces hormones, do not have ducts (endo- means within, -crine means to secrete) these hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream, and are then transported to organs and structures throughout the body

adenitis
the inflammation of a gland (aden means gland, -itis means inflammation)

adenocarcinoma
malignant tumor that orginates in glandular tissue (aden/o means gland, carcin means cancerous, -oma means tumor)

malignant
harmful, capable of spreading, and potentially life threatening

adenoma
benign tumor that arises in or resembles glandular tissue (aden means gland, -oma means tumor.)

Benign
not life threatening

Adenomalacia
abnormal softening of a gland (aden/o means gland, -malacia means abnormal softening)

adenosis
any disease or condition of a gland (aden means gland, -osis means an abnormal condition or disease)

adenosclerosis
abnormal hardening of a gland (aden/o means gland, -sclerosis means abnormal hardening)

adenectomy
surgical removal of a gland (aden means gland, -ectomy means surgical removal)