Medical Terminology – Ch 2 – The Human Body in Health & Disease

aden/o
Gland
(word root w/ combining form)

adip/o
Fat
(word root w/ combining form)

anter/o
Before, Front
(word root w/ combining form)

caud/o
Lower part of the body, Tail
(word root w/ combining form)

cephal/o
Head
(word root w/ combining form)

cyt/o
Cell
(word root w/ combining form)

– cyte
Cell
(suffix)

end –
In, Within, Inside
(prefix)

endo –
In, Within, Inside
(prefix)

exo –
Out of, Outside, Away from
(prefix)

– ist
Specialist, One who studies, Practitioner
(suffix)

hist/o
Tissue
(word root w/ combining form)

histi/o
Tissue
(word root w/ combining form)

– ologist
Specialist, One who studies, Practitioner of
(suffix)

– ology
The science of, The study of
(suffix)

path/o
Disease, Suffering, Feeling, Emotion
(word root w/ combining form)

– pathy
Disease, Suffering, Feeling, Emotion
(suffix)

plas/i
Development, Growth, Formation
(prefix)

plas/o
Development, Growth, Formation
(word root w/ combining form)

– plasia
Devlopment, Growth, Formation
(suffix)

poster/o
Behind, Toward the back
(word root w/ combining form)

– stasis
Control, Equilibrium, Maintenance of a constant level
(suffix)

– static
Control, Equilibrium, Maintenance of a constant level
(suffix)

anatomic reference systems
Systems used to describe locations of the structural units of the body. Anatomical reference systems include:
(a) Body Planes
(b) Body Directions
(c) Body Cavities
(d) Structural Units

anatomy
The study of the structures of the body.

physiology
The study of the functions of the structures of the body.

vertical plane
An up-and-down plane that that runs perpendicular (at a right angle) to the horizon. The particular types of verticle planes include:
(a) Sagittal Plane
(b) Midsagittal Plane (aka Midline)
(c) Frontal Plane (aka Coronal Plane)

horizontal plane
A flat, cross-wise or side-ways plane that runs parallel to the horizon. A particular type of horizontal plane is:
(a) Transverse Plane

anatomic position
Presented in such a way that the body is placed in the standard position. This positioning includes:
(a) Standing up straight so that the body is fully erect
(b) Standing with the body facing forward
(c) Holding the arms at sides, fully extended
(d) Turning the hands so that the palms face frontward.

sagittal plane
A specific type of vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions.

midsagittal plane
A specific type of vertical plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves. (aka: midline).

midline
A specific type of vertical plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves. (aka: midsagittal plane).

frontal plane
A specific type of vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions; located at right angles to the sagittal plane. (aka: coronal plane).

coronal plane
A specific type of vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions; located at right angles to the sagittal plane. (aka: frontal plane).

ventral
A body direction term that refers to the front, or the belly side. (opposite: dorsal).

dorsal
A body direction term that refers to the back. (opposite: ventral).

anterior
A body direction term that refers toward the front or situated in/on the forward part. (opposite: posterior).

posterior
A body direction term that refers to toward the back or situated in/on the back part. (opposite: anterior).

superior
A body direction term that refers to toward the head, placement above, or the uppermost. (opposite: inferior).

inferior
A body direction term that refers to toward the foot, placement below, or the lowermost. (opposite: superior).

cephalic
A body direction term that refers to toward the head. (opposite: caudal).

caudal
A body direction term that refers to toward the lower part of the body or the tail. (opposite: cephalic).

proximal
A body direction term that refers to situated nearest to the midline or at the beginning of. (opposite: distal).

distal
A body direction term that refers to situated farthest from the midline or from the beginning of. (opposite: proximal).

medial
A body direction term that refers to toward or nearer to the midline or beginning. (opposite: lateral).

llateral
A body direction term that refers to toward or nearer to the side or away from the midline. (opposite: lateral).

homeostasis
The process by which the body maintains a constant, stable, internal environment. Establishment of an equilibrium.

cell
The basic structural and functional units of the body that, if specialized and grouped together, form tissues and organs.

stem cells
Unspecialized (undifferentiated) cells that have a prolonged lifespan & are also able to renew themselves by cell division. By such self-regeneration, they can be replaced, rather than die off . Specific types include:
(a) adult stem cells (aka: somatic stem cells)
(b) embryonic stem cells (aka: fetal stem cells).

differentiated
Specialized; Having a specialized function or structure.

undifferentiated
Unspecialized; Not having a specialized function or structure.

adult stem cells
Undifferentiated cells, found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ, that have the primary role of maintaining and repairing the tissue in which they are found. (aka somatic stem cells).

somatic stem cells
Undifferentiated cells, found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ, that have the primary role of maintaining and repairing the tissue in which they are found. (aka adult stem cells).

embryonic stem cells
Undifferentiated cells, that are more primitive than adult stem cells, are unlike any specific adult cell, and which have the potential ability to form any adult cell (aka: fetal stem cells).

fetal stem cells
Undifferentiated cells, that are more primitive than adult stem cells, are unlike any specific adult cell, and which have the potential ability to form any adult cell (aka: embryonic stem cells).

gene
A fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity.

genetics
The study of how genes are transferred from parent to child and the role genes play in health and disease.

geneticist
A specialist in the field of genetics.

genome
The complete set of generic information of an organism. The full genetic code or genetic map of an organism.

chromosomes
The genetic structures that are located within the nucleus of erach cell and which are composed of the DNA molecules containing the body’s genes.

genetic mutation
A change of the sequence of a DNA molecule.

genetic disorder
A pathological condition caused by an abdent or defective gene. (aka: hereditary disorder).

tissue
A group or layer of similarly specialized cells that join together to perform certain functions. The four main types of tissue include:
epithelial tissues
connective tissues
mucle tissue
nerve tissue

histology
The study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues.

histologist
A specialist in the study of the organization of tissues at all levels.

gland
A group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable of producing secretions. Two basic types of glands are: endocrine (ductless – usually hormone-producing) and exocrine (ducts).

endocrine gland
A gland that does not have ducts and which produces hormones. These hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream and are then transported to organs and structures throughout the body.

exocrine gland
A gland that secretes chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body.

secretion
The substance that is produces by a gland.

body organ
A somewhat independent part of the body that performs a specific function.

body system
Related tissues and organs, organized into a larger unit, having a specialized function.

pathology
(1) The study of disease, including the nature and cause as well as the produced changes in structure and function.

***** or ******

(2) A condition, abnormality, or dysfunction produced by a disease.

pathologist
One who specializes in laboratory analysis of tissue samples to confirm or establish a diagnosis.

etiology
The study of the causes of diseases.

pathogen
A disease-producing microorganism. (aka: pathenogen)

pathenogen
A disease-producing microorganism. (aka: pathogen)

communicable disease
Any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or by indirect contact with contaminated objects. (aka: contagious disease).

contagious disease
Any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or by indirect contact with contaminated objects. (aka: communicable disease).

epidemiology
The study of of outbreaks of disease within a population group.

epidemiologist
A specialist who studies outbreaks of disease within a population group.

endemic
The ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group, or area.

epidemic
The sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population, group, or area.

pandemic
An outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide.

functional disorder
A disorder that produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified.

iatrogenic illness
An unfavorable response to a prescribed medical treatment.

idiopathic disorder
An illness without a known cause.

infectuous disease
An illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bacteria and viruses.

nosocomial infection
A disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting.

organic disorder
A disorder tht produces symptoms caused by detectable physical changes in the body.

congenital disorder
An abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth. (These conditions can be caused b a developmental disorder before birth, prenatal influences, premature birth, or injuries sustained during the birth process.

developmental disorder
A disorder that results in an anomaly or malformation. (aka: birth defect).

birth defect
A disorder that results in an anomaly or malformation. (aka: developmental disorder).

anomaly
An deviation from what is regarded as normal. (aka: abnormality).

atresia
The congenital absence of a normal body opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular.

aplasia
The defective development of, or the congenital absence of, an organ or tissue.

hypoplasia
The incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells.

anaplasia
A change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other. (This abnormal cell development is characteritic of tumor formation in cancers).

dysplasia
The abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs.

hyperplasia
The enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in tissue.

hypertrophy
A general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not in the number, of cells in the tissues.

adenitis
The inflammation of a gland.

adenocarcinoma
A malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue.

adenoma
A benign tumor that arises in or resembles glandular tissue.

adenomalacia
The abnormal softening of a gland. (opposite: adenosclerosis).

adenosis
Any disease or condition of a gland.

adenosclerosis
The abnormal hardening of a gland. (opposite: adenomalacia).

adenectomy
The surgical removal of a gland.

malignant
Harmful, capable of growing quickly and spreading to other areas, and potentialy life threatening.

benign
Not lifethreatening. May grow slowly, but not likely to spread to other areas.

indirect contact transmission
A situation whereby a susceptible person is infected ny contact with a contaminated surface.

bloodborne transmission
The spread of a disease through direct contact with blood or other body fluids that are contaminated with blood.

airborne transmission
The spread of disease through contact with contaminated respiratory droplets spread by a cough or sneeze.

foodborne and waterborne transmission
The spread of disease that is caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water that has not been properly treated to remove contamination or kill any pathogens present. (aka: fecal-oral transmission).

fecal-oral transmission
The spread of disease that is caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water that has not been properly treated to remove contamination or kill any pathogens present. (aka: foodborne and waterborne transmission).

vector borne transmission
The spread of disease due to the bite of a vector. Vectors insects or animals that are capable of transmitting a disease to humans and these include:
flies
mites
fleas
ticks
rats
dogs
mosquitoes

transmission
The spread of disease.

contamination
A pathogen is present and exposure to it creates a situation in which the pathogen is transferred (either directly or indirectly) from the host/carrier to the recipient, creating the risk of possibly spreading the disease.

epithelial tissues

epithelium

endothelium

connective tissues

dense connective tissues

adipose tissue

loose connective tissue

liquid connective tissue

muscle tissue

vouluntary muscle tissue

involuntary muscle tissue

striated muscle tissue

smooth muscle tissue

nerve tissue

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