Mass Media Finals

public service announcement
1. The Truth antismoking campaign, for instance, is developed especially for young audiences and emphasizes the health risks of tobacco use. It is a contemporary example of what form of promotion?
2. This is the activity which focuses on communicating the interests, concerns, and issues pertinent to particular individuals and organizations to local, state, and national legislatures.
3. This is a type of communication that concentrates on persuading clients to support a very specific issue such as a cause or a social movement.
Daisy Girl
4. In 1964, Lyndon Johnson’s campaign created this highly controversial and highly effective political ad.
5. Kevin Roberts, CEO of Saatchi & Saatchi Ideas Company, coined his this term to name the combination of sights, sounds and motions that makes good advertising so engaging and successful.
Mass Production
6. Supported by advertising, this new activity greatly modernized American manufacturing. Moreover, it helped to create a lasting marriage between advertising and media in the US.
product placement
7. This is the name of the highly effective way of creating audience affinity with a product or message without direct commercial advertising. It comprises the mixing of identifiable products and brands into entertainment programming.
new technologies
8. The success of narrowcasting has, in large part, been made possible through ______________. The advent of these has created opportunities for advertisers to reach new audiences in new ways.
9. This is the name of the unethical billing practice where website owners hire services to create large runs of repetitive, automated link clicks –thus giving a false representation of the number of real-page views. The end result of this is higher rates for ads placed on various websites.
Ivy Ledbetter Lee
10. This former newspaper reporter took on the job of cleaning up the public image of large American companies in the early 1900s and simultaneously established public relations as a separate profession. Many consider him to be the father of modern PR.
11. This company ran a startling 30-second ad, which ended with the slogan, “Why 1984 won’t be like ‘1984.’” Today, this company is a leading manufacturer of converged media platforms.
12. This is the traditional means of using advertising. It seeks the widest reach and the largest number of “eyes” or “ears” for an ad and uses media to get out the message in one large push.
product affinity
13. Regardless of how advertisements are presented in the media, most try to accomplish the same thing: to persuade us to accept a product’s message or brand and to create a strong emotional relationship with this product. This is known as
long-tail advertising
14. Google has developed the world’s largest Internet-ad placement services, also known as _______________. With these services, advertisers pay for ad placements that match keyword searches that appear next to search results
Literate Media Consumers
15. Audience members do not simply parrot or accept the claims made in advertisements. Which of the following groups would scrutinize advertising claims prior to purchasing a product?
16. This type of communication attempts to persuade individuals to take some form of action (buy, believe, consume) toward a product, idea, or service. According to Chapter 8, it is what makes the wealth of content seen in today’s media possible.
Nuestro Barrio
17. Freddie Mac—more formally known as the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation—created its own TV show to attract potential Hispanic homebuyers. The show’s producers patterned their programming in a way similar to what storytelling device popular in Hispanic media?
18. As much as advertisers rely on consumers’ desires or their sense of social responsibility to facilitate cultural change or to sell a product, they also rely on key universal appeals. This is one of these
19. To better identify their markets and to test the impact they have on their targeted audiences, advertisers often run sophisticated studies that examine basic human characteristics such as individuals’ age, gender, race and income. Studies of this nature are known as
20. To better identify their markets and to test the impact they have on their targeted audiences, advertisers often run sophisticated studies that look at individuals’ lifestyles, values, attitudes and personalities. Studies of this nature are known as
21. According to Chapter 8, while it appears that Starbucks makes money by selling cups of coffee, at its core, the Starbucks “product” is really the ____________payoff that results from a manufactured cultural experience.
advertising revenue
22. In the United States, as they do in much of the world, _______________make(s) possible the variety of mass media content that we all enjoy.
23. The Industrial Revolution gave birth to _____________, a system that creates and encourages the purchase of goods and services in increasing amounts.
24. In the early years of the 18th century, __________were the dominant mass media in the United States. During this time, colonial publishers supported their enterprises through revenues from advertising-paid announcements posted by local merchants.
25. To better identify their markets and to test the impact they have on their targeted audiences, advertisers often run sophisticated studies that look at individuals’ lifestyles, values, attitudes and personalities. Studies of this nature are known as
economies of scale
1. By increasing production levels and sometimes expanding business, a dominant, vertically integrated company may make it extremely difficult for smaller, less integrated competitors to compete with it. This is due to what is called
2. The ____________ stage, known traditionally as the principal photography stage, is when all of the story scenes are filmed or shot in high-definition video. This stage is usually the most costly and resource-intensive stage of any mass media project.
vertical integration
3. One company can maximize its profits when it operates and controls all of the means of production, distribution, and exhibition for a large segment of the mass media (such as news publishing or the movie industry). The name given to this practice is
Direct media revenues
4. This is the name of the funds collected by media companies as a result of selling products and content directly to the consumer through a combination of sales. Books, movie tickets, DVDs and paid subscriptions are all examples of these.
market model
5. The dominant U.S. media business model is known as the ___________________. It funds the majority of its media through a combination of advertising revenue and subscription fees.
studio system
6. During much of the golden age of Hollywood, the ________________ comprised a handful of enormous movie studios that virtually ruled the entire film industry. Key to its success was control over everything from screenwriters’ and actors’ contracts, to production facilities and financing, distribution, and even the ownership of movie theaters.
7. The final project is released to theaters, or it premiers in the lead television network’s programming schedule this stage. If the movie is based on a popular book, the publisher often shares in the marketing and promotions for the film, helping to create more market buzz and more media coverage.
8. This is the name of a business unit which is formed by smaller competitors which join forces with other smaller operators to form a cooperative able to better compete with media giants
public sphere model
9. From an economic perspective, the _________________ assumes that the more a media company or media conglomerate operates in the public interest, the more people it will be able to serve and thus the more profitable it will be.
Rupert Murdoch
10. The News Corporation, one of the top five or 10 global media conglomerates in the world today was founded in 1980 by this Australian media entrepreneur
11. A producer will often invest a significant amount of time and resources to shape the screenplay and characters, researches the story background and potential shoot locations and builds a detailed production budget to estimate project costs during this phase.
public trust
12. Radio and television broadcasting—both now and, especially, in the decades before cable and satellite—require the allocation of frequencies by federal governments. These broadcast frequencies are viewed as being owned and controlled as a ______________
National Public Radio
13. This partially government funded nonprofit radio network was founded in 1970. It represents an alternative to commercial radio.
Indirect media revenues
14. This is the name of the funds collected by media companies as a result of advertising-related sales such as product placements. Other forms of these come from licensing and syndication of media products, or portions of media products reused by other content distribution companies.
15. During this stage, a film or television producer acquires the film rights to a story by purchasing the book rights, script or story concept.
Wire service
16. Hearst, Pulitzer, and Scripps built their newspapers, in part, due to the new electronic media that facilitated the sale of news between publishers. These agencies were known as
17. While media companies produce content useful for our entertainment or information, they must also fulfill their ____________________ responsibility to the shareholders who own the corporations themselves.
Orson Wells
18. In 1941, this young director, hit a roadblock when William Randolph Hearst attempted to buy and later destroy all copies of his recently produced film before its release.
media asset value
19. Media business analysts try to predict the total eventual revenues from both direct and indirect sources during the shelf life of a particular media property. The total projected value, is sometimes referred to as
Federal Communication Commission (FCC)
20. The __________________ was established by Congress through the Communications Act of 1934. It empowered the Federal government to regulate the licensing and use of the entire broadcast spectrum.
21. Part of the FCC’s regulatory mandate, enforced through its licensing authority, is to monitor and limit the _____________of radio and television stations in an effort to maintain a viable competitive broadcast marketplace that is not dominated by any single media company
22. In the 20th century this media ownership model, in which a single entity owns the majority of the media industries in its market, emerged as the dominant model of mass media in the US
media monopoly
23. The period between the late 19th and early 20th centuries was known as the era of the _________________. During this period, the production and distribution of specific media industries was dominated by a single group
Apple Computer iTunes
24. This store has become the largest legal supplier of downloadable music on the Internet. As a result, it dominates the music industry, significantly influencing which artists become popular, which tours sell the most tickets, and, owing to its tie-ins to television programs such as American Idol.
media are much more likely now than in Wilson’s day to do their own fact-checking and to question a president’s assertions.
1. Our text discusses President Woodrow Wilson’s strategy to rally American support behind the country’s entry into World War I and President George W. Bush’s strategy to rally American support to strike Iraq, concluding that
can be found in both blogs and on the editorial pages of virtually all major American newspapers.
Opinionated commentary
criticism of biased messages in entertainment media can have a positive impact on audience demand
Our text offers Mel Gibson’s 2004 movie The Passion of the Christ as an example of the claim that
tend to prefer National Public Radio and the Internet radio versions of CNN and MSNBC rather than broadcast talk radio
Liberal radio audiences
presented an anti-Bush story that turned out to be based on forged documents
5. During the 2004 presidential race, in which President George W. Bush ran against Senator John Kerry, former CBS news anchor Dan Rather
The West Wing
6. This TV show serves as an example of network programming that can effectively incorporate liberally biased political messages within the context of a weekly dramatic series and still be entertaining.
the government has the potential to influence these outlets’ program content
7. Because the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and National Public Radio (NPR) are funded partially by federal tax dollars,
media reporters’ and commentators’ tendency to be moved by stories of human tragedy and encourage their viewers to take action
8. “Bias by extraordinary experiences” refers to
naturally gravitate toward news sources whose apparent bias aligns with our own
9. As media consumers, we enact our own “bias of selection” when we
Air America was intended to serve as a liberal counterweight to predominantly conservative talk radio
10. Which of the following statements about Air America is true?
lanting of reporting to one side reflecting the views of a media outlet’s employees or owners
11. While there is a great deal of debate about the definition of the “media bias,” the term can be defined non-controversially as
when people are polled about specific “hot” topics, most criticize media outlets whose coverage disagrees with their own
12. Studies by nonpartisan groups such as the Gallup polling organization and the Pew Research Center consistently show that
from an advertising-revenue standpoint, it makes good business sense for Fox News Channel to represent a conservative position in its programming
13. Studies have shown that
are sometimes sponsored by mainstream media organizations but are usually independent
14. Blogs, which feature intentionally opinionated commentary,
found that, among new journalists, liberals outnumbered conservatives by a ratio of 8 to 1.
15. Surveys taken at journalism schools in the 1980s and 1990s
uses his movies to clearly advocate liberal positions on hot-button social and political issues.
16. The filmmaker Michael Moore, who has produced documentaries such as Fahrenheit 9/11 and Bowling for Columbine,
make it easy for readers to distinguish separate news reporting from editorial opinion.
17. Print media such as newspapers
two-thirds of the respondents believed that the news media are biased in their reporting.
18. A national study conducted by the Gannett First Amendment Center in 2005 found that
the 24/7 news cycle, which requires constant infusions of new content to fill endless airtime.
19. One of the factors leading TV news networks in recent years to increase the amount of commentary and editorializing they include in their coverage is
was repealed by the FCC in 1987.
20. The “equal time law,” also known as the Fairness Doctrine,
healthy debate from people all across the political spectrum is necessary if the media wish to avoid bias.
21. Catherine Crier, a former Texas state judge who wrote the book Contempt: How the Right is Wronging American Justice, has argued that
Fox News caters to a conservative audience while CNN and MSNBC gear their programming toward a liberal audience.
22. According to our text, many of the opinion programs airing on cable TV news networks are intentionally biased for business reasons; that is, these shows are purposely constructed in order to attract a particular audience segment. Specifically,
unwitting bias.
23. When producing a news broadcast, producers have to make hard choices about which stories are included and which are excluded, and about which included stories are covered first and given the most air time. These editorial judgments result in
New York Times v. Sullivan
1. In ___________________________ the U.S. Supreme Court set the legal bar for determining defamation cases against media organizations – which remains unchanged today. Writing for the Court, Justice William Brennan stated that to be held liable for defamation, a media organization or individual reporter must have acted in actual malice and to have published this with “reckless disregard for the truth.”
The New England Courant
2. Benjamin Franklin is well known for his inventions. His older brother, James, however, is also well known for inventing which early American newspaper?
The Fourth Estate
3. This is the name of the US press as superimposed upon the formal tripartite structure of our government. Free from the authority of and reporting on the doings of the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches it is known as _______________________.
4. One of the core challenges for applying mass media law to the World Wide Web stems from the International nature of new electronic media. The legal term relating to the geographical area over which law can be applied is referred to as
Constitutional Convention
5. Between May and September 1787, delegates of the ______________________ congregated in Philadelphia to compose a document that would form the core of a new democratic nation.
6. In general terms, _______________is any behavior considered lewd, offensive or indecent.
“Congress shall make no laws…”
7. The first five words of the First Amendment to the US Constitution are:
8. In the pre-printing press world, it was relatively easy to hunt down the sources of anti-government writings and put them out of business. But the spread of the printing press ushered in an entirely new age that made it very difficult for the Crown’s ___________ to do their jobs.
Espionage Act
9. The concept of freedom of the press evolved significantly throughout the 20th century. In 1917, for example, on the heels of World War I, Congress in cooperation with President Woodrow Wilson enacted the __________________, which made it a federal crime to publish anything that “attempted to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal of duty in the U.S. Armed Forces.”
Smith Act
10. The concepts of freedom of the press and freedom of expression evolved significant throughout the 20th century. In 1940, Congress passed the _____________ This law attempted to control the “danger and menace” of the American Communist Party, and made it a federal crime to “advocate the violent overthrow of the government, or to conspire to advocate the violent overthrow of the government, or to be a member of any organization advocating the violent overthrow of the government.”
the work uses course or abusive language
11. In Miller v. California, an important “test” for obscenity-versus-freedom-of-speech cases emerges. Which of the following does NOT articulate a key part of what is known as the Miller test:
12. John Stuart Mill’s ethical system states that the right course of action is the one that leads to the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people within certain reason. This view forms part of a tradition of ethics called
13. The Sedition Act, The Espionage Act, and the Smith Act represented early attempts at government ________________. By its very nature, this activity suppresses free speech and limits the ability of the media to report on government actions.
The New England Courant
14. This is the name of the first American newspaper to establish itself as a successful business enterprise and the first to use a staff of reporters.
shield laws
15. Many states have enacted what are known as_________________. These laws clarify and solidify the protection accorded to reporters from governmental pressure to reveal their sources.
16. In general terms, _________________is any form of media that depicts sexual behavior for the purposes of arousing an audience.
freedom of information
17. In 1966, Congress established an important information-gathering tool for journalists with this statue. In principle, it opens government records that were previously closed to public scrutiny
18. This is the concept designed to protect the intellectual property and the rights of individual creators and owners from unauthorized and uncompensated appropriation of their work. In other words, copyright law protects the creators of intellectual properties by controlling the unauthorized “copying” and distribution of their works.
appropriation tort
19. To prohibit the unauthorized appropriation or use of an individual’s name, likeness and certain private data for commercial purposes without the prior consent of the individual, Congress commissioned what is known as an ___________________.
public figure
20. Simply put, a ________________ is an individual who has chosen to place himself or herself in the public arena and benefits from the media exposure.
21. A study by Digital Life America reported that an overwhelming majority of movie downloads were done illegally. According to this study, only _______percent of Americans utilized legal movie download services.
22. According to Chapter 11, defamation is any form of implied or explicit communication that damages a person’s, organization’s or product’s reputation or standing in the community. The name for written, or published, defamation is ___________.
fair use
23. This term is assigned to the category of copyright law covering certain cases of limited lawful use without license or release. It includes limited reproduction by means of photocopies, audio/video copies, and digital copies (CDs, tapes, discs); and is directed toward the support of education and research.
24. By the early 1700s, the British Crown and Parliament abolished the Stationers Guild’s printing license as it applied to the United Kingdom but not, however, in the __________ colonies.
prior restraint
25. The activity of a government to stop someone from publishing or airing a story before it has any chance of distribution in the mass media is known as
Stationers Guild
26. 1556, Parliament authorized the ______________ to regulate and enforce licensing fees on printing presses and printed documents of all kinds—by force, if necessary. To print anything on a printing press in England, one had to pay a fee to the Guild.
1. Between January 1, 1992 and July 8, 2009, approximately how many journalists lost their lives while practicing their craft?
2. Journalists have traditionally followed the well established path of the five W’s (and one H) of journalism. Which of the following is not one of the five W’s?
Editors have limited time to select and focus their stories before they are published.
3. Traditional mediation of news stories has become limited by the “new” 24/7 news cycle. Which of the following is a good reason for the limit?
The practice of journalism has become an extraordinarily public endeavor
4. The new technologies encompassed by society — email, blogs, social networking sites and tweets — have had a huge impact on what we call journalism. Which of the following statements is most true?
Copyright law
5. Websites like Google News and InForm make their money by distributing materials they’ve sorted from other websites. These sites are controversial because of which the following types of legal rulings.
uses both short-tail and long-tail journalism
6. CNN is a good example of a media organization that
all-platform journalists
7. Today’s journalists need to be multimedia journalists. In 2008 CNN announced it would start hiring employees who could enhance the changing industry. They advertised for employees they called
8. Walter Cronkite died July 17, 2009. He was a famed network anchor for which of the four national TV networks that ruled the national dissemination of TV news.
The Huffington Post
9. This blog was founded in 2005 by a “liberal” columnist. It is now among the five largest news and commentary websites in the world, attracting nearly 9 million unique visitors monthly in 2009.
Matthew Drudge
10. __________, who has “become one of the most famous, albeit controversial conservative online commentators in America, never went to journalism school and spent time early on in his career as a telemarketer.
citizen journalists
11. The widespread use of the Internet by Americans offer a great opportunity to practice journalism by people who have little or no formal journalistic education or training. This text’s author labels these individuals as:
find the need for training for media specialties like radio, TV and newspaper, becoming increasingly more infrequent, if not outright rare
12. In the past, media students trained to be newspaper reporters, magazine reporters, broadcast journalists and/or photojournalists. Because of convergence today’s media students
Tom Wolfe
13. The author of this text has reinvented the term “new journalism.” The term was originally used in the 1960s and 1970s to describe a literary style of news writing typically found in magazines. Which of the following journalists is given credit for coining the term “new journalism”?
14. “Unless there’s a way to turn the Internet off, publishers are going to have to figure something out or _________,” Eric Newton, vice president of Journalism Programs for the Knight Foundation, said in reference to the future of printed newspapers. What goes into the blank?
hyper-local news sites
15. is a news site that was launched in 2004 by the Missouri School of Journalism. It does not compete with larger news sites. is a good example of
news aggregator sites
16. A journalistic business that does not produce its own stories or perform its own journalism, but instead only compiles and presents news from other sites is called
17. Journalists coming out of journalism schools need to be multimedia journalists who can do basic work in cross-media platforms by themselves in the field. This text’s author calls this new breed of journalists
Dead air
18. Downtime, where no news or information is being disseminated, in the broadcast industry is known familiarly as
Mediated news content
19. When an Internet user finds the story he/she is looking for, it is difficult to determine, if the story has been vetted? Which of the following types of journalism might offer the “best” vetted stories?
The Los Angeles Times
20. All of the following news operations are considered to be pioneers in journalism’s adaptation to the 24/7 news cycle except
Ted Turner
21. CNN practices both short-tail and long-tail journalism. CNN was founded by
MSNBC, the website
22. Short-tail journalism is a term borrowed from the field of economics. Short-tail retailers focus on large-volume sales of small quantities of specialty items. Which of the following is not a typical short-tail journalism operation?
23. As journalism reinvents itself for distribution on the Internet, the basic element of journalism remains — storytelling. Only one basic requirement for “wanna-be” journalists remains. They must still, as always, be able to
Al Neuharth
24. In 1982 USA Today was launched. This national newspaper was the print equivalent of CNN. USA Today was launched by
Sonia Sotomayor
1. This woman is the first female latina member of the US Supreme Court.
Northern Star
2. This was the name of Frederick Douglass’ first newspaper
$660 billion
3. While gay men and women still face legalized discrimination in the US, they have gained the attraction of advertisers. By 2006, the economic value of gay and lesbian market in the United States had grown to what estimated size?
Helen Gurley Brown
4. Few fans of the HBO series Sex and the City realize that the controversial best-selling book Sex and the Single Girl, published in 1962, inspired the cable show.
5. In the history of the Academy Awards, how many black women or men have won the title of “Best Actor”?
6. Sidney Poitier became the first black man to win the Academy Award for Best Actor in what year?
Pedro J. González
7. This man was one of the pioneers of Latino radio. He started broadcasting from KELW in California in 1927 with his show Los Madrugadores, which combined live musical performances with public-interest programming and promotions of community events.
8. A pivotal moment in the history of the Latino media came in 1986, when Mexican media giant Televisa and the American greeting card company Hallmark formed a partnership to create a new television network. Today, it is the largest Spanish-language television network in the world.
Daughters of Bilitis
9. This was the first major lesbian rights organization in the United States.
10. This was an early staple of the Latino immigrant press. A short, weekly column it provided readers with satirical commentary on current events, issues and trends, often through fictional characters and stories. By masking its stark criticisms in comedic characters, it highlighted the surrendering of cultural values and norms that Latinos faced every day.
Kerner Commission
11. In 1967, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed the _________________ to investigate the increase in race-related violence in the United States.
12. Travelling throughout the United States, these railway porters secretly distributed the black newspaper the Defender to the black community. In effect, they contributed to the diversification of American culture.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary
13. _________________________ was the first black woman to edit a newspaper.
Chicago Defender
14. This newspaper was one of the largest and most influential national black-published newspapers in history. It led the way for many other black publishers during the Jim Crow and civil rights eras.
15. This is the name of the period following the Civil War in which all freed slaves were granted federally protected civil rights.
Frederick Douglass
16. At one time, U.S. law granted former masters and slave hunters the right to reclaim runaway slaves as property. With the help of some of his fellow abolitionists, this Black American journalist fled to England, which had already abolished slavery, and where he would continue lecturing to foster international support for the abolition movement. While there, his supporters raised $700 and purchased his freedom.
17. One of the many horrendous dynamics of slavery is this. It is the practice of reducing peoples and cultures to mere objects.
Pauline Frederick
18. ___________________was the first full-time television network newswoman in history. Twenty years into her career, however, NBC company forced her out of her job because of her age and appearance.
19. The first official latino radio station in the united states _______ ______ was broadcasted in san antonio texas.
The Advocate
20. In 1975, David Goldstein purchased this publication a Los Angeles based gay magazine, which over the next 10 years he built into the largest circulating gay publication in the world.
21. This US President formed a national commission overseeing the implementation of Executive Order 9981 — which enforced the integration of the armed forces.
Yellow Peril
22. Americans began to react negatively to the growing Chinese population in the country and labelled Chinese immigration as the __________________. This racist phrase was commonly printed in the newspapers of William Randolph Hearst.
Great Migration
23. This is the name of the period in which approximately 1.3 million blacks emigrated from the South between 1916 and 1930.
24. In 1972, the television series Kung Fu debuted on ABC. Set around the turn of the 20th century, the show followed the adventures of a Chinese Shaolin monk, who also happened to be a highly skilled martial arts expert The role, however, was played by the late David Carradine—a white American actor. Carradine would use apply makeup and pulling back the skin around the eyes to give himself the clichéd Asian look—to pass himself off as half-Chinese. This practice is known as:

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