Marriage and Family Test 2 Essay

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1. The “romantic love ideal” developed during the 18th and 19th centuries includes five core beliefs. Which is NOT one of them?
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• Love is a struggle
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2. _________ is defined as (1) a strong affection for one another arising out of kinship or personal ties; (2) attraction based on sexual desire; and (3) affection based on admiration, benevolence, or common interests.
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• Love
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3. Casey and Amber have a rational, down-to-earth style of love based on practical considerations. They both had an actual checklist of traits they were looking for in a partner such as their level of education, earnings, and religious or political views. Which style of love does this represent?
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• Pragma
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4. Which of the following is TRUE regarding sex differences in love?
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• Men are more likely than women to be looking for a partner and they fall in love sooner.
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5. Men
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• May not get credited for their expression of love.
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6. Meixiu and Bai Chao have been happily married for over thirty years. Their relationship is based on trust and commitment, and they feel tremendous joy and pride in the family they have raised, and the home they have built. It is likely that they experience:
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• Compassionate love
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7. When we establish eye contact with, touch, or smell the scent of a person with features we see as desirable, our brain releases a flood of chemicals to the nerves and bloodstream that are natural amphetamines such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and phenylethylamine (PEA) that give us the rush we know as sexual attraction. This is the __________ perspective.
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• Biochemical
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8. Which of the following have researchers NOT found to be true about romance in post-modern American society?
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• If two people in a marriage or committed relationship truly love one another, they will always have romance.
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9. Which statement best indicates an avoidant attachment among adults?
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• It’s difficult to trust people completely, and I’d rather not become too dependent on them.
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10. With respect to relationships and breakups:
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• The relationship between adolescent romance and self-esteem and emotional health may be, at least in part, a selection effect.
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11. Anh and Thu had been a couple for nearly a year before Anh decided that she no longer was in love with him. She broke up with Thu. This is an example of:
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• Unrequited love
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12. Wow! Marcus and Gwen are in love. It is a passionate, melodramatic, and an exciting experience! What type of love are they likely experiencing?
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• Romantic love
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13. Michael and his partner Matthew have been together for many years. They began as friends, and over time the relationship moved forward in its degree of commitment and intimacy. It is a comfortable love, with mutual trust, compatibility, and respect. Which style of love does this represent?
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• Storage
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14. In a formally free society, such as the United States, the development of love:
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• Is formed through parents trying to steer their children toward homogamous relationships by limiting or directing their social interactions.
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15. Charlene was devastated when she found that her husband had an affair with a colleague at work. She felt threatened by the loss of an important relationship. This is an example of:
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• Rational jealousy
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16. Ancient Greek and Roman mythology and early Christianity did not equate love with:
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• Marriage
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17. Our earliest forms of love are:
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• Attachments to our primary caregiver.
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18. Reiss’s wheel theory of love examines the various stages in which love develops. He describes four stages of love. Which is not one of them?
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• Biochemical processes
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19. __________ attachments reflect children’s confidence in knowing their caregiver would be available when needed, an assurance that comes from the caregiver having been warm, responsive, and consistently available to infants over time.
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• Secure
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20. Some of the earliest stories of love come from:
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• ancient Greek and Roman mythology.
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21. Which of the following is TRUE regarding Sternberg’s triangular theory of love?
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• Various combinations of the three elements breed different kinds of love.
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22. Benito and Clarissa broke off their relationship recently for reasons that you would identify as micro-level factors. Which is NOT a micro-level factor?
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• The high unemployment in their community prevented Benito from finding a good job.
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23. Sternberg’s triangular theory of love suggests that love has three components:
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• Passion, intimacy, and commitment
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24. Thomas had a crush on Bobby, but the feelings were not reciprocated. This is an example of:
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• Unrequited love
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25. Which is TRUE regarding sexually transmitted infections (STIs)?
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• HPV is estimated to be the most common STI even though chlamydia is the most commonly reported STI.
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26. Dwayne is married to Jolene; however, he was curious about sex with a man and decided to try it once. Which of the following best describes Dwayne?
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• He has a heterosexual identity.
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27. Current estimates of the prevalence of transsexualism are about 1 in __________ for biological males and 1 in __________ for biological females.
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• 10,000; 30,000
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28. Michael often engages in casual sexual interactions with women without any expectations of commitment. This is called:
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• Hooking up
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29. We learn our sexual scripts from several sources. Which is NOT one of these sources?
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• Menarche
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30. With respect to premarital sex:
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• by age 25, 88 percent of women and 89 percent of men have engaged in premarital sex.
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31. Among the Mangaia people of Polynesia, both girls and boys are expected to have a high level of sexual desire in early adolescence. In contrast to the Mangaia, the Dani of New Guinea show little interest in sex beyond what is needed for reproduction. This illustrates:
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• That sex is social
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32. Research on the sexual relationships of gays and lesbians reveals:
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• lesbians may engage in sex less frequently than gay men or heterosexual women, although this may be a function of the way that “sex” is defined.
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33. What were the views towards masturbation in early America?
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• Unheard of for women, thought to be dangerous and unhealthy for men
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34. Your membership in certain groups, such as your sex, race, or social class, shapes who you are, the values you hold, and the opportunities and constraints you experience, including with regard to sexuality. This implies:
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• That sex is social
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35. With respect to sex in marriage:
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• a review of television primetime shows in the early 1990s revealed that less than one in ten sex scenes shown were between married couples.
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36. __________ believed we are all born with biologically-based sex drives. These drives must be channeled through socially approved outlets, he believed; otherwise, the individual will experience conflict within himself or herself, with the family, or with society at large.
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• Sigmund Freud
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37. Individuals who manifest characteristics, behaviors, or self-expressions associated typically with the other gender are called:
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• Transgender
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38. Which of the following is a component of the male script?
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• A man’s looks are relatively unimportant, but his status is enhanced if he is with a beautiful woman.
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39. Which of the following is TRUE regarding sexual orientation?
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• Sexual orientation is likely caused by a complex set of biological (genetics and hormones) and social factors.
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40. Which is TRUE regarding the double standard?
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• Both men and women uphold the double standard.
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41. Estelle works at the Kinsey Institute and researches human sexuality. Her title is probably:
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• Sexologist
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42. Our culture prohibits sex with animals, children, and, unless you live in a few selected counties in Nevada, someone to whom you have paid money. It does not prohibit sex among unmarried people or those of different religious faiths, races, or ethnic backgrounds. These norms or rules are called:
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• Sexual scripts
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43. __________ is/are known for the understanding of the sexual response cycle-(1) desire; (2) excitement; (3) orgasm; and (4) resolution-and found that men and women experience these states in a similar fashion. This work enlightened us about the source of women’s pleasure-the clitoris-and debunked previous myths that some women have orgasms originating in their vaginas.
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• Masters and Johnson
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44. The images of early American sexuality are of prim and proper Puritans and sexually repressed Victorians. Who perpetuated these views?
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• Religious and medical authorities
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45. When do we become sexual beings?
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• Infancy
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46. The norms or rules regarding sexual behavior are called:
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• Sexual scripts
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47. HIV/AIDS:
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• At first seemed to be confined to few groups: gay men, people with hemophilia, and Haitians.
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48. Kate’s blank is female, her blank is feminine, and her blank is homosexual.
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• sex; gender; sexual orientation
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49. sex refers to blank and gender refers to blank.
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• Role in reproduction; culturally and socially constructed differences between the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with femininity and masculinity.
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50. Men are granted far more leeway in sexual behavior than are women, and this is referred to as:
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• The double standard.
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51. Which of the following statements does NOT describe adolescent’s sexual experience?
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• Teenage birthrates have been slowly rising since 1990.
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52. Which of the following might explain sex differences in communication?
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• Certain regions of the prefrontal brain area are activated differently; both hemispheres are activated in women when they perform language tasks, whereas only the left hemisphere is activated in men.
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53. With respect to social class differences in communication:
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• President Obama sometimes “breaks code.”
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54. The phrase “actions speak louder than words” refers to:
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• nonverbal communication is harder to fake, and so is often more believable than verbal communication when the two are in conflict.
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55. The United States is an example of a __________ culture.
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• low-context and individualist
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56. Electronic communication:
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• brings more informality into our written and spoken word.
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57. Telling your partner something private about yourself that he or she would not otherwise know is called:
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• self-disclosure.
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58. An awkward silence, a grimace, holding hands, and a smile are all examples of:
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• nonverbal communication.
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59. There are several specific barriers to understanding verbal communication. Which is the best example of “polarization”?
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• “It’s all your fault.”
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60. You are at a party and decide this is the perfect place to conduct your sociology experiment for your research paper. You want to know if there are any differences in communication styles by sex. In your observation that night you probably witnessed all of the following EXCEPT:
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• Women did the most talking and interrupted more often.
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61. There are six dimensions of culture that can affect communication styles. Which is NOT one of them?
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• open vs. closed cultures
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62. Ella and Cristobal are involved in “the spoken exchange of thoughts, feelings, or other messages,” which is the definition of:
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• verbal communication.
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63. There are several specific barriers to understanding verbal communication. Which is the best example of “static evaluation”?
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• “You’re pregnant? I thought you never wanted children.”
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64. Which of the following statements about conflict is FALSE?
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• Conflict is unhealthy in a relationship.
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65. Alain and Lili are a couple who use communication to promote closeness and intimacy, and who try to use constructive comments, even during arguments. They are an example of a/an:
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• regulated couple.
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66. Content conflict occurs when:
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• there are disagreements about information.
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67. There are five stages in listening. Which is NOT one of them?
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• eye contact
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68. A study that asked Black- and White-sounding telephone callers to inquire about an advertised apartment for rent found:
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• Black-sounding callers were more likely to be told the apartment was already rented.
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69. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that:
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• language shapes our culture, and at the same time, our culture shapes our language.
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70. In a high-context culture, emphasis is placed on ___________, whereas in a low-context culture, emphasis is placed on __________.
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• indirect and nonverbal communication; direct and explicit communication
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71. with respect to self-disclosure:
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• for self-disclosure to benefit a relationship there must be reciprocity and support.
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72. Xuan and suong have different opinions about how to discipline their children, ages 6 and 8. Xuan believes that you should never spank children., but suong sees spanking as an appropriate punishment when their children misbehave. This difference is causing conflict in their marriage. What type of conflict are they experiencing?
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• Value conflict
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73. There are at least six sources of power. Which is NOT one of them?
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• Safeguard power
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74. Communication
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• Is a transactional process
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75. Listening
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• Is the process of giving thoughtful attention to what we hear.
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76. With respect to theories of power:
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• “doing gender” suggests that we reproduce power differentials among men and women simply because they are so ingrained in us.
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77. Which of the following represents a sex difference in communication?
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• Women are more polite in tone and are more likely to show interest and concern.
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78. Which of the following is the best example of the sapir-whorf hypothesis?
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• Alaska native groups have many words in their language for snow.
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79. What is the most difficult type of conflict to resolve?
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• Ego conflict
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80. Anna and Erika live in New York, and the law there forbids them to marry. This represents an example of:
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• The macro-side of marriage
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81. Cultures try to control the development of love by many different mechanisms. Which one is practiced in the United States?
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• Relative freedom
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82. A relationship in which spouses consider themselves to have equal status or standing in the relationship, sharing breadwinning, housework, and childrearing roles is called:
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• A Peer marriage
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83. The idea that men benefit from marriage to a greater degree than do women has been nicknamed by Jessie Bernard:
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• His and her marriage
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84. Sean believes that marriage is increasingly threatened by the hedonistic pursuit of personal happiness at the expense of long-term commitment. His views represent:
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• The martial decline perspective
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85. The fact that married men tend to earn more than their unmarried counterparts is known as a ______
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• Wage premium
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86. Public support for same-sex civil unions has __________ and support for same-sex marriage has __________ over the past five years.
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• Increased; increased
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87. Randall and Kent, a same-sex couple who are legally married, also own a business together. They spend virtually all their time together, and have most of the same friends and interests in common. Which type of marriage do they have?
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• Total marriage
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88. Which of the following examples reveals the macro-level nature of marriage?
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• Elizabeth and Ethan cannot get married because she is only 15.
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89. Which of the following has the greatest effect on the success of a marriage?
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• A satisfying sex life
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90. In spite of other societal changes, attitudes toward ______ remain largely negative.
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• Nonmartial childbearing
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91. The marriage between Roderick and Scherazade, as shown in the opening vignette, shows us that:
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• a good marriage is the result of shared values, commitment, and communication.
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92. Which of the following best explains why governments have an interest in marriage?
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• Society views marriage as a stabilizing force.
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93. Government officials, marriage and family therapists, and religious leaders have created a __________ that aims to influence public policy to promote and strengthen traditional two-parent marriage.
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• Marriage movement
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94. Which of the following is TRUE with respect to marriage rates?
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• The number of people who remain unmarried throughout their lives has remained relatively the same throughout history.
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95. Which of the following post-industrial developments gave young adults more control over the growth and development of their relationships?
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• The young started spending more time at school and at leisure.
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96. Which is true about same-sex marriage?
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• Massachusetts was the first state to legalize same-sex marriage.
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97. Which of the following is a positive consequence of delayed marriage?
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• A lower divorce rate
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98. Which of the following is TRUE regarding marital satisfaction and success?
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• Most married men and women report that their marriages are “very happy.”
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99. Leslie believes that marriages are not really weaker than they were in the past. She thinks that the real threats to marriage are social problems such as poverty, discrimination, poor schools, or the lack of social services that families need to remain strong and resilient. Her views represent:
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• the marital resilience perspective.
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100. According to recent research, couples marrying today are less likely to have different ________.
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• Levels of education
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101. Cole and Johanna are deeply committed to their faith and strongly believe that traditional marriage is the cornerstone of society. They have decided to have a type of marriage that would require some marriage preparation and restrict their future access to divorce. This is called:
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• A covenant marriage
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102. Does marriage benefit everyone equally?
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• Marriage may benefit men more than women, and Whites more than Blacks.
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103. Which group today is most likely to believe that the main purpose of marriage is “to bear and raise children” instead of “for mutual benefit and fulfillment”?
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• Hispanics
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104. Which of the following is TRUE about marriage?
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• Islamic wedding receptions are strictly segregated by sex, with the men and women celebrating in different rooms.
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105. Rosa, a Mexican-American woman, just married Garrett, a Caucasian man. She is bilingual (Spanish and English) and Garrett speaks only English. They worry that this might cause a bit of a problem when he meets her grandparents, who do not speak English well. This is an example of what type of marriage?
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• Heterogamous marriage
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106. Many changes have occurred to marriage in the past generation, including:
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• More couples want to share the breadwinning role.
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107. According to recent research, which of the following individuals would be LEAST likely to have a positive attitude towards intermarriage?
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• Edward, a retired senior
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108. The idea of a selection effect addresses which of the following questions?
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• When do people normally choose to get married?
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109. The idea that married people enjoy better psychological well-being, health, and economic security is the premise of:
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• The marriage premium
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110. What is the best example of a selection effect?
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• Healthier people are more likely to marry than are unhealthy people.
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111. Married people in the United States:
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• Are most twice as likely to report “happy” as are unmarried adults.
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112. During colonial America, marriage:
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• Had a different structure or a set of norms between whites and native Americans.

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