Marketing Ch5/Ch8

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Culture
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values, beliefs, preferences, and tastes handed down from one generation to the next
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Sub cultures
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groups with their own distinct modes of behavior.
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Asch Phenomenon
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named after psychologist S.E. Asch, who first documented characteristics of individual behavior.
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Norms
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are the values, attitudes, and behaviors a group deems appropriate for its members.
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roles
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define behavior that members of a group expect of individuals who hold specific positions within that group.
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reference groups
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people or institutions whose opinions are valued and to whom a person looks for guidance in his or her own behavior, values, and conduct, such as spouse, family, friends, or celebrities.
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Opinion Leaders
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trendsetters who purchase new products before others in a group and then influence others in their purchases.
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Need
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Imbalance between a consumer’s actual and desired states
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Motive
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Inner state that directs a person toward the goal of satisfying a need.
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Perception
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meaning that a person attributes to incoming stimuli gathered through the five senses.
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Perceptual screens
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the mental filtering processes through which all inputs must pass
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Subliminal perception
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the subconscious receipt of incoming information.
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Attitudes
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person’s enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations, emotions, or action tendencies toward some object or idea.
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Learning
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Knowledge or skill acquired as a result of experience, which changes consumer behavior.
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Drive
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is any strong stimulus that impels action
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response
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an individual’s reaction to a set of cues and drives
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Reinforcement
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the reduction in drive that results from a proper response.
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Shaping
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the process of applying a series of rewards and reinforcements to permit more complex behavior to evolve
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Self-concept
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Person’s multifaceted picture of himself or herself.
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High-involvement purchase decisions
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Purchases with high levels of potential social or economic consequences are:
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Low-involvement purchase decisions
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Routine purchases that pose little risk to the consumer are:
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Evoked set
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Number of alternatives a consumer actually considers in making a purchase decision.
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Evaluative cr4iteria
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Features a consumer considers in choosing among alternatives
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Cognitive dissonance
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Imbalance among knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes that occurs after an action or decision, such as a purchase.
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Routinized response behavior
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routinely choosing a preferred brand or on of limited group of acceptable brands
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Limited problem-solving
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Introduction of a new shampoo is an example of:
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Extended problem solving
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when brands are difficult to categorize or evaluate.
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Marketing research
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process of collection and using information for marketing decision making
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Full-service research supplier
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an organization that contracts with clients to conduct complete marketing research projects is:
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Limited-service research supplier
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a firm that specializes in a limited number of activities
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Syndicated service
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an organization that regularly provides a standardized set of data to all customers is called:
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Exploratory research
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process of discussing a marketing problem with informed sources both within and outside the firm and examining information from secondary sources.
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sales analysis
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provides important details to management
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hypothesis
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a tentative explanation for some specific event
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research design
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to test hypotheses and find solution to marketing problems a marketer creates:
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Secondary data
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previously published information
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Primary data
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information collected for a specific investigation
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Sampling
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process of selecting survey respondents or research participants
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Population/Universe
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the total group of people the researcher wants to study is called?
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Probability sample
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is on that gives every member of the population a chance of being selected.
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simple random sample
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every member of the relevant universe has an equal opportunity of selection.
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Stratified sample
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randomly selected sub samples of different groups are represented in the total sample
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cluster sample
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researchers select a sample of subgroups from which they draw respondents
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non probability sample
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relies on personal judgment somewhere in the selection process.
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Convenience sample
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a non-probability sample selected from among readily available respondents
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Quota sample
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is a non probability sample divided to maintain the proportion of certain characteristics among different segments or groups seen in the population as a whole.
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Interpretative research
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a method in which a researcher observes a customer or group of customer in their natural setting and interprets their behavior base on an understanding of the social and cultural characteristics of that setting.
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Focus group
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Personal interview of a small group of individuals that relies on group discussion about a certain topic
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Mall intercepts
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interview conducted in a mall
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Marketing information system
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is a planned, computer-based system designed to provide decision makers with a continuous flow of information relevant to their areas of responsibility
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MDSS marketing decision support system
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marketing information system component that links a decision maker with relevant databases and analysis tools
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Sales forecasting
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estimate of a firm’s revenue for a specified future period
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Qualitative forecasting
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rely on subjective data that reports opinions rather than exact historical data
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Quantitative forecasting
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use statistical computations such as trend extensions based on past data, computer simulations, and econometric models
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jury of executive opinion
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combines and averages the outlooks of top executive from such areas as marketing, finance, production, and purchasing.
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Delphi Technique
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solicits opinions from several people, but it also gather input form experts outside the firm, such as academic researchers, rather than relying completely on company executives
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Sales force composite
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develops forecasts base on the belief that organization members closest to the marketplace- those with specialized product, customer, and competitive knowledge- offer the best insights concerning short-term future sales.
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survey of buyer intentions
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gathers input through mail-in questionnaires, online feedback, telephone polls and personal interviews to determine the purchasing intention of a representative group of present and potential customers.
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Trend analysis
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forecasts for future sales by analyzing the historical relationship between sale and time.
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Exponential smoothing
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weighs each year’s sales data, giving weight to results from the most recent years.

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