Marine Science Midterm Study Guide

Percentage of Earth’s surface covered by seawater?
71%

Oceanography is the study of?
The oceans and all its phenomenon; such as waves, currents, and tides.

Ways we obtain knowledge from the ocean.
Satellites, ROV’s, Scooba Diving, submarines, sonar, and dregding.

Who was Charles Darwin? And what did his observations lead to?
He was an English naturalist who sailed on the HMS Beagle around the world. He developed the theory on Natural Selection and published a book called Origin of Species.

Who was the chief scientist on HMS Challenger?
Dr. Charles Wyville Thomson

Name of the first Marine Bio Lab.
Woods Hole in Massachusetts.

The Steps of the Scientific Method.
Making observations, forming a hypothesis, experiment, gathering results: scientists record their data; analyzing in interpreting data, and drawing conclusions.

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The most important marine photosynthetic organisms.
Phytoplankton: they produce majority of the worlds atmospheric oxygen.

Salinity
Saltiness of dissolved salt content (such as sodium chloride, magnesium and calcuim sulfates, and bicarbonates) of a body of water.

Explain relationship between pressure and depth, and know amount of pressure increases with what depth?
The deeper you go in water, the stronger the pressure is. More depth=more pressure. 1 atmosphere per 10 meters.

Explain role animals have in carbon cycle.
The carbon dioxide that animals produce through process of cellular respiration is used by Autotrophs.

Name the inorganic nutrient needed by marine photosynthetic organisms.
Nitrogen/ Nitrates

Explain the role oxygen had in the early development of the atmosphere?
Oxygen was extremely rare at the early development of the earth. Mostly methane and sulfer.

What are anaerobes?
Anaerobes are organisms that grow without air and require oxygen-free conditions to live. Ex: Archaebacteria.

List and know factors that organisms in the intertidal must deal with?
Organisms must deal with extremes in temperature changes and desecration (process of drying out, lack of moisture.)

Name the important nutrients for photosynthesis.
CO2, H2O, sunlight energy- converted into sugar and O2 is released.

Define eutrophication
Process in which a body of water acquires a high concentration of nutrients. Increases the rate of supply of organic matter in the ecosystem.

How many years ago did the solar system form?
5 billion years ago.

How did the first heterotrophs obtain energy?
They obtained energy from chemo synthetic organisms.

Who discovered and named Pangea?
Alfred Wegener

The two continents that suggested theory on continental drift.
Africa and South America

Explain subduction zone and faults. List and describe the three types of faults/ boundaries.
Subduction zone: old crust sinks into mantle and is recycled.
Faults: regions where plates move past each other. (transform faults)
Divergent Plate Boundaries: located at mid-ocean ridges where plates move apart.
Convergent: located at trenches where plates move toward each other.

Name the fault where ocean plates move laterally away from each other.
Transform faults. They cause earthquakes.

Where do mid-ocean ridges form?
From divergent plate boundaries, form along cracks where magma breaks through the crust.

Describe continental slope.
The descent from the continental shelf to the ocean bottom. It is between the user continental shelf and the deep ocean bottom.

The four ocean basins.
Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic.

Name and describe the 4 types of ocean sediments.
Hydrogenous: formed from a variety of chemical process.
Biogenous: formed from remains of living organisms.
Terrigenous: produced from rocks.
Cosmogenous: iron rich particles from outer space.

Polarity of a water molecule.
Polar Molecule: different electrical charges, water molecule has 2 hydrogens and one oxygen.
Hydrogen atom is slightly positive.
Oxygen atoms are slightly negative.

Describe adhesion and cohesion – Define
ion.
Cohesion: when hydrogen bonds in water stick together. (molecules)
Adhesion: when water is attracted to the surface of objects that carry electrical charges.
Ion: particles which are attracted to the polar water molecules.

Name low energy light wave that is quickly absorbed by water.
Red, orange, and yellow.

What depth can 1% of surface light penetrate.
100 meters (330 feet)

Light absorbed by H2O is converted to?
Heat

What are acids? Bases?
Acids: release hydrogen ions (0-6).
Bases: bind hydroxide ions (8-14).

The percentage of average salinity of seawater.
Seawater is 35 grams per kilogram or 35 parts per thousand. 35%

Why seawater is considered buffered.
Seawater is considered buffered due to the presence of bicarbonate ions.

Explain global warming and global cooling. Earths Energy Budget.
Global Warming: an increase in earths average temperature.
Global Cooling: a decrease in earths average temperature.
Earths energy budget: the amount of heat gained has to be equal to the amount of heat lost; the imbalance can lead to global warning and or global cooling.

In which way is the majority of heat transferred from earth to atmosphere?
Evaporation

Define Thermocline.
A zone in the ocean characterized by a rapid change in temperature with increasing depth.

Define fetch and wind.
Fetch: the distance over the water that wind blows.
Wind: horizontal air movements, which is a common generating force for surface waves.

Name types of currents that gyres are divided into?
western-boundary currents, eastern boundary currents, and transverse currents.

What are tsunamis?
Tsunamis start out as shallow water waves. Not depth of water, but depth of wave.

Name and describe the three types of tides.
Diurnal tide: when one high tide and one low tide occurs each day.
Semidiurnal: when two high tides and two low tides occur each day.
Mixed semi diurnal tide: when the high tide and low tides are at different levels.

Name the elements that compose carbohydrates, fats, and proteins- know the components of glucose.
Carbohydrates: carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (1:2:1 ratio). The ratio is why they can be with water.
Lipids: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. But lipids cant be with water.
Proteins: amino acids.
Glucose: composed of C6 H12 O6, is a carbohydrate.
Carbohydrates provide energy.
Lipids: store energy, provide custom for organisms, and provide buoyancy.
Proteins: provide body and muscular structure, natural enzymes, and transport chemicals within the organism.
Nucleic acids: responsible for function, growth and reproduction.

What makes up the hard exterior of crabs and lobsters?
Chitin; is a polysaccharide.

Another name for fats, oils, and waxes.
Lipids.

Know chemical units that make up protein- building blocks of protein.
Amino acids. They are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

What is the genetic info of on organism called?
DNA: which is in the shape of a double helix. And has two strand sides: phosphate and sugar.

DNA is organized into sequences called?
Genes

What is messenger RNA’s function?
Copies information from DNA through the process of Transcription. (Transcribe: copy or write)

Explain gene pool.
A set of all genes, or genetic information, that exists in a given time within a given population.

Differences and contents between eukaryote and prokaryote cells.
Differences: Eukaryotic- has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles and prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus or membrane organelles.
Simm: Both contain genetic material(DNA) have cell membrane and both contain cytoplasm/ cytosol.

What are chloroplasts?
Organelles found in plant cells. Chlorophyll is a pigment that reflects green light. They are a plastic that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.

What is binary fission? Mitosis? They occur in which cells?
Binary fission: asexual reproduction in which an organism splits in two. it is found in bacteria and other single called organisms known as prokaryotes.
Mitosis: a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each the same as the parent nucleus. Occurs in eukaryotes.

Name the organism responsible for harmful algae blooms and explain how HABs occur.
Dinoflagellates are responsible for harmful algal blooms occur due to eutrophication or the over abundance of nutrients in the water, usually caused by runoff containing fertilizer.

What are viruses? Define nucleocapsid.
A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of an organism. Are composed in a Nucleocapsid: the basic structure of a virus, consisting of a core of nucleic acid enclosed in a protein coat. Viruses are pathogens that are non living because they have no metabolism and need host cell to reproduce.

Explain processes photosynthesis and chemosynthesis?
Photosynthesis: plants absorb sunlight energy, carbon dioxide and water combine to form a sugar called glucose. Then oxygen is released. Chlorophyll absorbs sunlight energy and makes it available to power the photosynthetic process. Occurs in the chloroplast.
Chemosynthesis: LOOK IT UP

Three shapes of bacteria
Bacillus: rod shaped. Coccus: spherical shape. Spirillum: corkscrew shape.

Name the pigment found in bacteria but not land plants.
Phycocyanin.

Define stromatolite.
Coral like community of Cyanobacteria microbes that form a thin layer of loving cells and filaments over an accumulated mass of dead and lithification material.

The important role of bacteria.
Marine bacterial are primary producers, decomposers, agents in bio geochemical cycles, also preforms important processes like nitrogen fixation.

Which organism performs nutrient recycling in the marine environment?
Heterotrophic bacteria

Who carries out nitrogen fixation? Important process for what types of organisms?
Cyanobacteria are capable of nitrogen fixation. It is an important process for autotrophic organisms.

Zooanthellae belong to which group?
Dinoflagellates.

Dinoflagellates produce what?
A toxin that causes harmful algae blooms.

What is the ecological role of fungi?
They are decomposers and which breakdown organic matter and recycle nutrients back to the environment.

Name three types of algae, know phylum and explain how algae are divided taxonomically?
Red, green, brown. Green: chlorophata. Red: rhodophyta. Brown: phaeophyta. They are divided taxonomically based on accessory pigments.

Macro algae are know as?
Seaweed.

What color light penetrates the greatest depth in coastal waters?
Green

List factors that affect depth distribution of algae.
Frequent wave action, temperature, light quality, salinity.

Which algae utilize calcium carbonate?
Red algae. It makes them hard like coral and deters herbivores from eating them. Like eating rocks.

What are coenocytic?
Green algae is coenocytic, meaning green algae has a condition that the body has one giant cell or a few large cells containing multiple nuclei.

Which macrophyte group has highest number of species?
Red algae.

List the three types of algae used in manufacturing products?
Carrageenan, alginate, agar

Explain hydrophilous pollination.
It is sperm bearing pollen that is carried by water currents to stigma of female plants.

Explain important ecological roles of seagrass, salt marsh plants, and mangroves.
Seagrass: food, home, shelter, habitat, they are primary producers, help stabilize sediment, clarity H2O, industrial sediment, and absorb run off from nutrients.
Mangroves: stabilize sediment, habitat, shelter, and protect shorelines.

What specialized characters do mangrove trees have? Function?
Mangroves are trees with simple leaves, complex root systems. Plant roots help tree conserve water & stabilize trees in shallow, soft sediment of mud. Roots, in which many are aerial(above ground). Three types of mangroves: red, black, white.

List the correct order for relationship of gas solubility in sea water.
CO2>O>N. Seawater has more O than CO2 but less N than the atmosphere. Carbon Dioxide and water are converted into carbonic acid, that is then converted into bicarbonate ions. It is affected by temperature, salinity and pressure.

List and describe three types of fault boundaries.
Divergent: move apart. Form mid ocean ridges.
Convergent: move toward each other. Form tranches.
Transform: plates move past each other. Create earthquakes.

What is the pH of seawater? Why is this important to marine organisms?
pH: 8. Important because it can affect enzymes, metabolism and growth of marine organisms.

List three ways salts are added and three ways salts are removed from the ocean.
Added: rain, river runoff, rocks releasing salt when broken down and precipitation. Removed: sea spray, catching organisms, sedimentation.

List structures of seaweed and describe its function.
Thallus: body of the algae/ seaweed.
Blade: leaf like park. flattened portion of the thallus, where photosynthesis takes place.
Stipe: stem like structure that provides support for blades.
Holdfast: root like structures that attach seaweed to hard surfaces like rocks.

Describe greenhouse gases.
Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and CFCs that collect in the atmosphere and prevent heat from escaping back into space, trapping it in the atmosphere.

List and describe the three ocean layers.
Thermocline: temperature changes with depth.
Halocline: salinity changes with depth.
Pycnocline: density changes with depth.

Explain binomial nomenclature.
A system of naming that uses two words to identify an organism. Genus-species. First letter is always capitalized. Both is underlined or italicized.

List and describe two reproductive cycles of viruses.
Lytic and Lysogenic: Lytic: viral DNA is injected and kills host DNA circus replicates and then the host cell ruptures and dies. Lysogenic: viral DNA is injected and attatches to host DNA cell. Can go through multiple divisions before virus become active become active rupturing and killing host cell.

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