Marconi Invention of Wireless Telegraphy Essay Example
Marconi Invention of Wireless Telegraphy Essay Example

Marconi Invention of Wireless Telegraphy Essay Example

Available Only on StudyHippo
  • Pages: 14 (3695 words)
  • Published: September 12, 2017
  • Type: Case Study
View Entire Sample
Text preview

Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian discoverer in 1895, created a system that uses wireless media to transmit information. This development, called radio telegraphy, forms the basis for modern communication methods like satellite transmission, wireless broadcasting, and mobile phones. These advancements have completely transformed how we communicate.
A wireless mesh network is a specific type of network that utilizes radio frequencies to send data, voice, and video traffic between nodes. In a mesh network, the nodes work closely together to ensure continuous connectivity and provide alternative routes if any node or link fails.

The integration of wireless mesh web technology, originally developed for the military, has expanded into various commercial sectors such as medical and residential applications. By incorporating medical applications into hospital wireless mesh networks, the delivery of healthcare can be greatly improved, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency and


effectiveness for healthcare providers. This integration also offers convenient services to patients by allowing clinicians to remotely monitor them and provide timely health information, reminders, and support. Ultimately, this technology will revolutionize communication between healthcare staff, patients, and hospital systems. The medical application of wireless mesh networks utilizes a mesh architecture that enables wireless client devices to communicate with hospital systems or patient monitoring devices within the range of the hospital's wireless signal. The network consists of several components including a pre-configured Pocket computer (PC) that is equipped with wireless capabilities, enabling clinicians to receive information and communicate with patients, fellow clinicians, and the hospital system.In addition, there is a wireless sensor device called Wireless Hospital Pocket Electrocardiography (ECG) that is used to acquire, monitor, and transmit ECG. There are also hospital information systems and knowledge bas

View entire sample
Join StudyHippo to see entire essay

systems. Lastly, the Internet is utilized to connect the radio mesh network to other networks.

Various radio technologies can be used in implementing a radio mesh network for medical applications. These technologies include IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15.4, IEEE 802.16, and IEEE 802.20 or a combination of multiple technologies.

However, due to medical demands ideas of holding safe, low-priced, low-powered, wireless connection and short scope medical devices together with undertaking purposes and aims ZigBee radio engineering was selected to be used.ZigBeeis the radio engineering which is based on IEEE 802.15.4 criterions. It was developed by ZigBee confederation as an unfastened planetary criterion in order to supply low-power, low-priced radio communicating. This undertaking was selected because we want to research the engineering behind the radio mesh networks and the applications where it can be applied. I expect by doing this I will gain deep understanding of radio communicating which so will assist me when I go back to Africa to work in communications industry which is chiefly based in radio engineerings.

The range of this undertaking will be on investigating the radio engineerings which can be used to provide medical application solutions and test one selected technology using its development kits, specifically 802.15.4 - ZigBee. We will not incorporate this technology into actual medical monitoring devices.

The main objective of this project is to conduct research on radio technologies instead of developing medical applications. Due to limited resources, we will use the OPNET simulation facilities and ZigBee development kit to create a website.
To gather information, we will explore various sources such as books, journals, research papers, and internet searches. Subsequently, we will select an

affordable and low-power radio technology suitable for medical applications. To evaluate different aspects of medical devices like power consumption and signal range strength, we will set up a small mesh network using ZigBee development kit equipment.
In order to draw conclusions, we will analyze and compare the results obtained from both testing and simulation.


A wireless mesh network (WMN) is formed by connecting wireless nodes in a mesh topology. It comprises two types of nodes: wireless mesh routers and mesh clients. Wireless mesh routers act as the backbone of the network with minimal mobility by forwarding traffic between nodes. These routers offer more functions compared to conventional wireless routers.

The text discusses the features of new maps in wireless mesh technology. These maps allow for backup communication to expand wireless coverage, support multiple wireless interfaces like Wi-Fi and micro-cook in a single node, and operate with lower power. Wireless mesh clients include devices such as laptops, PDA, cell phones, or any radio equipped devices with a radio interface. They can connect to a radio mesh router through an Ethernet cable or a wireless link and are not restricted to a fixed location but can move within the range of wireless signals.

The radio mesh web can be connected to different webs, like cyberspace, through the wireless gateway router. WMN can be used in various scenarios: wellness and medical systems, enterprise networking, transportation systems, and security and surveillance systems. This technique is used in the radio mesh web to expand area coverage, ensuring that wireless client devices stay connected for as long as possible and prevent interference from nearby nodes. Multi-hopping is often used when a mesh router needs

to send data to an unreachable client device or when the connection between two devices does not meet quality standards.

A mesh router in a wireless mesh network improves connection quality and reduces power usage by sending data to the closest mesh router instead of directly to the client device. The mesh router has three main functions: serving client devices, receiving traffic from other mesh nodes, and forwarding traffic to other mesh nodes. However, using a single wireless interface for both serving client devices and web backhauls can cause network performance issues and hinder scalability. To address this problem, multiple wireless interface technology is employed in a mesh router. This provides dedicated interfaces for specific communications within the wireless mesh network. For instance, there will be separate interfaces for backhaul immersion traffic and backhaul emersion traffic, along with one or two shared interfaces for mesh client devices.

Besides, if an individual wireless interface is used for both incoming and outgoing traffic, the throughput of this interface is divided equally because the interface cannot transmit and receive data simultaneously. Another issue with using a single wireless interface occurs when one device is transmitting data, causing other devices to be in listening mode. If this situation extends throughout the mesh network, it may slow down the network to the point where it cannot efficiently support voice or data traffic. Adding multiple wireless interfaces significantly increases network capacity. However, if a client engagement (peer-to-peer) architecture is used to design the wireless mesh network, the same issues faced with a single wireless interface apply to the network since client devices have only one wireless interface. Wireless mesh networks inherently exhibit more

robustness compared to traditional wireless networks. This is because WMN can self-configure, self-heal, and self-organize, allowing the network to continue functioning even in the event of node failure without relying on alternative fixed networks.

Substructure. In wide speech production, wireless mesh routers do not restrict power usage like most devices in WMN that rely on regular overseas direct current cables for power. However, advancements in power efficient protocols and compact wireless transceivers have made it possible for certain wireless client nodes to operate with minimal power consumption. Consequently, small 3-Volt DC batteries can now be incorporated into wireless client devices, enabling them to function for a duration of up to 3 years. Presently, these devices find application in low-power scenarios with limited data rates.

Wireless technologies, such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, and WiMax, present hospitals with the opportunity to replace wired cables with wireless media. This can result in cost savings by reducing the requirement for additional wiring of devices on their networks. Nevertheless, it is essential to thoroughly evaluate these new wireless technologies before transitioning to ensure they are suitable for healthcare environments. To address this issue, the IEEE-1073-Group was established with the purpose of creating guidelines for utilizing wireless technology in healthcare communication. Wireless networks offer increased mobility and flexibility for nodes while consuming less power when the network extends beyond 30-100 meters.

The medical applications in patient monitoring and delivering clip wave forms have low information rates but need high accuracy, minimal delay, and low latency. This is because any loss or delay in transmitting information can have serious consequences for patients' lives. There are various radio technologies that can create a radio mesh network,

but no single technology can support all the different medical applications due to their diverse requirements and use cases. Therefore, multiple radio technologies will be employed in the design of the radio mesh network to support different medical applications. In this project section, we will discuss the different radio technologies currently used in the medical field and focus on ZigBee, a low power and low-cost radio technology that will be utilized as mentioned above.

Introduced in 1997, Wi-Fi was the first radio engineering criterion used in medical applications and is based on IEEE 802.11 standard specifications. Initially operating at 2.4GHz, its first version had a coverage of up to 100ft with an information rate of 1-2 Mbps. The second version extended its coverage to up to 350ft outdoor and 150ft indoor with an information rate of 54Mbps.

Over time, Wi-Fi has undergone further development, introducing new improved versions. In 2003, the distance range was expanded to up to 350ft outdoor and 150ft indoor with an information rate of 54Mbps through the introduction of the802.11g version. The same year also saw the introduction of the802.11n which increased the information rate to200Mbps.

In2004,the addition of802.11iand802.11s brought enhanced security features and introduced mesh network capabilities.NOWADAYS,Wi-Fitechnologyiswidelyusedinhospitalsforcommunicationbetweendepartmentsandforeasytransferofpatientdata.

WiMax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless technology that provides high throughput broadband connections over long distances. It has two versions, Fixed WiMax and Mobile WiMax, which are used for various applications. Fixed WiMax supports both fixed and mobile access applications, making it a suitable alternative to cable and DSL for providing wireless broadband to individuals and businesses. It can also be used as a wireless backhaul for metropolitan radio networks. On the other hand,

Mobile WiMax enables mobility and roaming applications between WiMax towers, expanding broadband services to mobile devices like laptops, phones, PDAs, and other similar mobile devices. The technology and standard specifications for WiMax are defined in the IEEE 802.16 family.

WiMax is gaining popularity as the future of broadband communication, offering affordable high speed, long range, and wireless performance as an alternative to wired networks. In the medical field, WiMax has various potential deployment scenarios. For example, regional health authorities can establish and operate large-scale WiMax networks to provide telemedicine services between clinics, hospitals, and pharmacies in both fixed and mobile environments. Additionally, WiMax networks can be used on a smaller scale to provide an intranet for hospitals.


Bluetooth is a wireless technology designed for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over a short distance.

Originally, Bluetooth was developed as a low-power radio technology to replace overseas telegrams in devices like printers, keyboards, and mice. It is based on the 802.15.1 standard specification and has a much shorter range compared to other wireless technologies. Typically, Bluetooth can reach up to 10 meters but can extend to 100 meters with optional high-power settings and achieve a data rate of 1Mbps which is significantly lower than that of 802.11 technologies.

In spite of its limitations in range and data rate, Bluetooth offers features such as true rolling capability and the ability to create piconets - ad-hoc computer networks connecting up to 8 devices. These piconets can further form scatternets which are networks composed of multiple piconets.

Bluetooth possesses several advantages including low power consumption, small size, simple protocol, and wide compatibility. These characteristics make it suitable for various medical applications such as

telemedicine systems, continuous patient monitoring, and wireless-integrated medical devices. For instance,during a mass casualty event or disaster scenario , healthcare providers can attach small sensors on each patient and use Bluetooth to establish an ad hoc network capable of relaying critical data to multiple receiving devices.

PDAs carried by doctors, or laptop base stations in ambulances) . As another example for application of Bluetooth, radio EEGs (EEG) use Bluetooth radio interface to transmit EEG to PDAs.

ZigBee - IEEE 802.15.4

ZigBee is a wireless technology that enables low-cost, low-powered, short-range wireless communication. This technology is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 specifications and operates at unlicensed frequencies worldwide, including 2.4GHz and 900MHz. The creation of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard was aimed at providing affordable and energy-efficient radio solutions.

This technology enables wireless devices to communicate and be powered by long-lasting batteries. ZigBee, developed by the ZigBee Alliance, is a global standard that allows for the creation of secure, self-healing radio networks suitable for medical monitoring and control applications. The relationship between IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee is illustrated in Figure 1 below. The ZigBee stack architecture consists of four layers: the Physical and Media Access Control (MAC) layers defined by IEEE 802.15.4, and the ZigBee Network, Security, and Application layers built on top of them.

IEEE 802.15.4 Physical (PHY) Layer

This layer provides an interface to the physical transmission medium, such as...

Radio is utilized for two services: the PHY information service and the PHY direction service, which connects to the physical bed direction entity (PLME). The PHY information service manages the physical wireless frequency transceiver and performs channel selection, energy and signal management functions. This layer operates on one of the following unlicensed

frequency sets:

  • A single channel between 868 - 868.8 MHz in Europe.
  • 10 channels between 902 - 928 MHz in North America.
  • 16 channels between 2400 - 2483.5 MHz worldwide.

The original 2003 standard provided two physical bed options, both utilizing the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) technique. One option operated in the 2.4GHz range with a data rate of 250kbps, while the other operated in the 868/915MHz range with data rates of 20 and 40kbps. The variation in data rates among different sets was due to the use of different transmission techniques, as explained in table 1 below.

Introduced in 2006, the reversed 802.15.2 criterion specifies the improvement of information rates in 868/915 MHz sets, increasing them to support 100 and 250kbps. Table 1 provides information on frequency sets and data rates.

The IEEE 802.15.4 Media Access Control (MAC) layer

is a component of the ZigBee stack architecture that controls access to the wireless channel through the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) mechanism. This layer is responsible for transmitting beacon frames, synchronization, and ensuring reliable communications between nodes.

The Network (NWK) Layer

, as defined in the OSI model, is responsible for providing end-to-end connectivity across the network. In the ZigBee network, this layer manages network devices and routes by taking actions in the MAC layer.

The task involves starting the network (coordinator), adding and removing devices in a network, assigning network addresses, configuring new devices, routing messages, using security, and discovering and maintaining paths. The security layer of ZigBee technology includes security features controlled by the security layer. These features include an access control list, a packet freshness timer, and 128-bit encoding based on

the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The application layer defines the functionality of the nodes in a network. The ZigBee application layer consists of the Application Support (APS) layer and ZigBee Device Object (ZDO).

The APS bed is responsible for the following services:

  • Keeping the binding tables that enable matching two devices together based on their services and sending ongoing messages between them.
  • Discovering the ability to find which other devices are running in the same operating space.

While the ZigBee Device Object is responsible for specifying the function of a device within the network (e.g. ZigBee coordinator, router, or end-device), it initiates or responds to binding requests and establishes secure connections between network devices.

ZigBee Routing

Within package-switched networks, there are generally two types of routing protocols: distance vector routing and link state routing protocols. In distance vector routing protocol, each node in the network advertises its routing table to its next neighbors, whereas in link state protocol, every node constructs a map of the full connectivity of the network and stores this information in their routing tables. Both routing protocols periodically update their routing tables to ensure that each table only contains valid routing information. Since these routing protocols require large memory and high power consumption, ZigBee routing protocol uses the following routing algorithm.

The Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Algorithm

AODV is a type of routing protocol in which routers in a network establish a path to the destination only when it is needed. This means that the path from the beginning to the end

will only be created when the starting node wants to send packets to the destination, and only the nodes that participate in the routing of these packets will be allowed to store and maintain the routing entry for this path. The routing table on each participating node will contain the logical distance to the destination and the address of the next router in the route to the destination node. Nodes that do not participate in packet relaying will not have any routing information and will not participate in any routing table exchange. Once the packet has been sent from the beginning to the destination, the path will be removed from the routing tables.

The tabular array 2 above shows that Bluetooth technology is also based on the 802.15.1 standard, but it has a shorter transmission range and battery life compared to ZigBee. However, Bluetooth has a higher data rate compared to ZigBee. On the other hand, Wi-Fi technology is based on the 802.11 standard and has very low battery life and high data rate compared to ZigBee and Bluetooth.

The key points that can be observed from the table 2 are as follows:

  • These wireless standards are designed for specific applications.
  • No single standard can meet the requirements of all applications.

Therefore, the choice of wireless technology for a network will depend on the demands of the application. For our project, we have chosen ZigBee technology because it meets the requirements of low power, low cost, and secure engineering, which are important for medical applications.

Example of medical applications using ZigBee radio technology: The end devices

(ZigBee Sensors) are commonly used to collect data from the human body and then transmit it to a ZigBee enabled PDA. The PDA displays the information and then sends it to other interconnected ZigBee devices to form a wireless mesh network.The gathering of information will be done according to the timeline set by patients, and this information will be stored and displayed in a GUI at the information aggregation centre station for future use.

This medical application can be used in infirmary settings to allow clinicians to monitor their patients' critical signs. Another rapidly growing radio medical application is wireless location monitoring systems for chronically ill and elderly patients. The system collects patient medical data periodically and continuously and sends it to a central data server for storage. Clinicians can remotely access the stored data as needed. This application offers several benefits to hospitals and staff, including saving time for clinicians and patients, allowing simultaneous monitoring of multiple patients (which was previously impractical), reducing the need for patients to be physically present in the hospital, thereby decreasing hospital stays, improving patient safety and mobility, and significantly reducing hospital operating costs.

Challenges of radio technology in medical applications:

Using radio technology in the medical field undoubtedly has various advantages for existing healthcare services.

However, these radio engineering systems face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to successfully implement wireless medical applications. These challenges include:
- Network dependability: This is one of the most important factors in a wireless hospital network. Without reliable communication, hospitals and clinics may be reluctant to use wireless devices and applications due to the fear of system failure and associated costs. To ensure a

robust and fast network, designers need to incorporate high redundancy links and nodes. Different network architectures may be used depending on the specific medical use cases and application requirements. Additionally, devices capable of providing Quality of Service (QoS) should be activated in the network.
- Interoperability: Since different vendors develop the wireless medical devices and applications used in hospitals, ensuring that these devices work together seamlessly can be challenging. For example, different devices may operate on different frequencies.However, if sellers continue to design their devices and applications with interoperability capabilities in mind, it will greatly increase the adoption of wireless technology and promote competition among sellers. This will ultimately result in more affordable systems.
Additionally, when implementing wireless medical applications in hospitals, it is recommended to use a multihop routing protocol. This protocol can quickly find new paths when health professionals move from one room to another, reducing power consumption of the devices.
Furthermore, to ensure uninterrupted patient monitoring without causing discomfort, wireless medical devices need to be lightweight and small. However, the size and weight of these devices are mainly determined by the size and capacity of the batteries they use.Despite the potential advancements in power-efficient protocols and wireless transceiver technology, designers are expected to make improvements to wearable medical devices to increase user comfort and effectiveness. However, there are still significant challenges in terms of security, privacy, and learning how to utilize these new technologies in medical applications that rely on radio web connectivity. Additionally, it is important to note that most of these wireless devices will be battery-powered.

Using strong encoding algorithms in medical devices is difficult because they require high processing power and

energy. This presents a challenge for developers who need to ensure data security and privacy. Additionally, the implementation of new wireless technologies in hospitals and clinics may make it challenging for users to fully utilize these devices and applications. To address these issues, sellers should design user-friendly solutions that do not require unnecessary efforts from users. There are ethical concerns regarding the use of wireless mesh networks for medical applications, specifically concerning patient privacy and confidentiality. Researchers have already identified vulnerabilities in the authentication, data privacy, and integrity mechanisms defined in the standards for these devices.

The second concern is about using wireless wave frequencies on these devices, whether they are safe or if these wave frequencies contribute to causing cancer in people who stay near them for a long time, as already suspected in past research.

Get an explanation on any task
Get unstuck with the help of our AI assistant in seconds