main MKTG – Flashcard

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A(n) ________ is an actual or imaginary individual or group conceived of having significant relevance upon an individual’s evaluations, aspirations, or behavior.
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reference group
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Reference groups influence us in three ways. These influences include informational, utilitarian, and ________ dimensions.
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value-expressive
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Which of the following is an example of utilitarian influence?
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An individual’s decision to purchase a particular brand is influenced by the preferences of family members.
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The capacity to alter the actions of others is referred to as ________ power.
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social
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If a consumer admires the qualities of another person and copies his or her behaviors, the person that is copied is said to have ________ power.
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referent
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The ________ influence is the reference group influence that helps the consumer make decisions about specific brands or activities.
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comparative
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A group composed of people that the consumer actually knows is called a(n) ________ reference group.
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membership
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Political candidates who get the most media exposure are more likely to win an election because of the effect of ________ in determining one’s set of referents.
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mere exposure
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Which of the following is an example of a new kind of avoidance group that has grown in popularity through the Web?
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antibrand communities
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10) One of the chief causes of the phenomenon of the risky shift effect is ________.
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diffusion of responsibility
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The ________ a group is, the more likely members are to engage in social loafing.
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bigger
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When members of a group come together with a certain attitude, that attitude becomes more extreme after the group discusses it. This effect is called ________.
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decision polarization
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Home shopping parties may activate the risky shift or ________, in which the individual at the party may get so caught up in the party spirit that he orders products that he would normally not purchase.
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deindividuation
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The pressure to conform that escalates as more and more group members “cave in” is called the ________ effect.
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bandwagon
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Within groups, informal rules of behavior are called ________.
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norms
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Consumers who are confident in themselves and do not seek peer approval for their behaviors are said to be ________.
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role-relaxed
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Young teenagers who conform to group pressure because they believe they will be punished by the group for nonconforming behaviors are motivated by ________.
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fear of deviance
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According to the principle of least interest, the person who is least ________ has the most power in a relationship.
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committed to staying in the relationship
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A marketing manager who wants to identify opinion leaders for her product category should do which of the following?
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She should find socially active persons who are intensely interested in the product category and who are similar to other customers.
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Which of the following statements most accurately defines homophily?
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Homophily is the degree to which a pair of individuals is similar in terms of education, social status, and beliefs.
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Recent research on opinion leadership has called into question the traditional view that there is such a thing as a ________ opinion leader.
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generalized
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The opinion leader referred to as a(n) ________ is actively involved in transmitting marketplace information of all types.
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market maven
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A(n) ________ is a marketing intermediary retained by a consumer to guide what that consumer buys.
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surrogate consumer
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Several research methods are used to study reference groups and opinion leadership. ________ methods trace communication patterns among members of a group. These techniques allow researchers to systematically map out the interactions that take place among group members.
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Sociometric
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A sociometric network analysis is likely to study all of the following EXCEPT which one?
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the use of surrogate consumers
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The importance of weak ties in a social system is demonstrated by their ________.
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bridging function
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In advertising terms, a(n) ________ refers to a view or exposure to an advertising message.
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impression
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Product information that is transmitted by individuals to individuals is called ________.
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word-of-mouth
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In general, advertising is more effective when it ________ than when it ________.
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reinforces our existing product preferences; tries to create new product preferences
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Which of the following is NOT one of three basic themes of complaint Web sites recently identified in a study of such Web sites?
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legitimacy
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What is guerrilla marketing?
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the use of promotions that rely on unconventional locations and strategies to build buzz
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________ refers to the strategy of getting visitors to a Web site to forward information on the site to their friends in order to make still more consumers aware of a product.
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Viral marketing
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Social networking is an integral part of what many call ________, which is characterized by interactive platforms that foster the creation of communities.
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Web 2.0
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According to the ________ perspective, under the right circumstances a group of people is smarter than the smartest people within the group.
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wisdom of crowds
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Jeff had collected a nice wardrobe before graduating from college. All of his friends considered him “well dressed.” After the first day at his new job, however, Jeff immediately went out and replaced most of his clothes with what was considered to be professional dress clothing. Jeff had just experienced the power of a new ________.
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reference group
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Which form of reference group influence is most associated with the following situation? Carl knows that Bert has had experience with various types of motor oils because Bert is a mechanic for a large Cadillac dealership. Carl asks Bert to compare his brand against Quaker State. Bert tells Carl that Quaker State can’t be beat for performance and durability.
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information influence
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Kimberly has been contacted eight times in the last week by a pushy telemarketer. She made the mistake of showing some interest in the product being sold and has not had much luck in getting rid of the caller. Which of the following forms of power is being exercised by the telemarketer?
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coercive power
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If a fireman told you to leave your apartment, you would comply because the fireman has ________ power.
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legitimate
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Angela belongs to a film club that selects and views classic movies once a month. Angela wouldn’t watch a vampire movie on her own, but is happy to watch the classic vampire film with the group that almost all of the other group members voted to see. This example demonstrates which factor of conformity?
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group unanimity
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Meagan is planning her wedding and wants everything to be just right, from the invitations and table settings to the ceremony and music selections. Because she feels overwhelmed by all of the information to sort through and the choices to make, she hires a wedding planner to make many of the decisions and purchases for her. Meagan’s wedding planner is best described as a(n) ________.
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consumer surrogate
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Sam and Jackson have just returned from a Houston Astros game at the new Astros ballpark. The ballpark really impressed them. What really caught their attention, however, was the unique way that Coca-Cola sold its products. There were roving teams of “Cola Buddies” moving throughout the crowd during the game. These teams were passing out “free coupons” for Cokes, souvenir cups, dugout passes, and free tickets to next week’s game. Sam and Jackson will always remember how great their day at the ballpark was and will certainly choose Coca-Cola when given the opportunity. This is an example of which of the following communication strategies?
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guerrilla marketing
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Amanda thought she had been cheated by a local car dealership. She was so upset that she created a Web site to share her story with the world. What is the most likely result of Amanda’s action?
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Amanda’s Web site will decrease the credibility of the dealership’s ads and will influence potential buyers to stay away from the dealership.
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Mindi heard that rubbing olive oil on her feet would help her to avoid the painful cracks that sometimes appear on her heels. Mindi is no foot expert, but she is willing to try this remedy on the off-chance that it might work. Which of the following would best explain Mindi’s response to word-of-mouth information?
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She is unfamiliar with the product and is therefore likely to be persuaded by word-of-mouth information.
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Consumers who participate in social networking are more likely to consider themselves as ________ than are those who do not use online social networks.
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media broadcasters
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Propinquity is a factor that is related to the power of a reference group. How will it influence the relative power between a membership group and an avoidance group?
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Propinquity should make membership groups much stronger than avoidance groups.
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What do social loafing and decision polarization have in common?
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Both are examples of how individuals and groups of people behave differently within larger groups than they would behave as individuals.
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A ________ is defined as a group of people who identify with a certain lifestyle or aesthetic
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microculture
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In a(n) ________ culture, members of the culture tend to be loosely knit and words carry most of the weight in messages.
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low-context
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The process whereby a product formerly associated with a specific ethnic group is detached from its roots and marketed to other subcultures is called ________.
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deethnicization
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________ refers to the process of movement and adaptation to one country’s cultural environment by a person from another country.
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Acculturation
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People and institutions that teach the ways of a culture are called ________.
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acculturation agents
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The cultural learning acquired through ________ leads immigrants to a process of adaptation.
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translation
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In the process of ________, new immigrants adopt products, habits, and values they identify with the mainstream culture.
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assimilation
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Through the process of ________, immigrants make the unfamiliar familiar by integrating symbols from their former lives into their new homes.
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warming
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With 12. 5 percent of the population, the ________ population is the largest ethnic subculture in America.
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Hispanic American
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Which of the following American ethnic subcultures is considered to be the fastest growing?
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Asian American
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What statement best describes what has happened to the median family income of African Americans over the last decade?
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It is presently at a historic high.
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Which of the following is generally true about Asian Americans?
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They are one of the least brand-loyal of all American subcultures.
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The lack of marketing information about religion is due to ________.
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religion being somewhat of a taboo subject among researchers
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Advertising to teens typically depicts ________.
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“in” teens using the product
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Another name for Generation Y is ________.
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echo boomers
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Gen Yers are at home in a ________, communicating by texting and IMing.
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thumb culture
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Which of the following best explains why marketers view teens as “consumers-in-training”?
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Teenagers often develop brand loyalty during their adolescence, committing to a brand and continuing to purchase it for decades to come.
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The cohort of consumers born between 1965 and 1985 has been labeled ________, or “baby busters.”
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Generation X
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Marketers must know the needs and wants of their customers. Which of the following presents the most accurate picture of the typical elderly consumer today?
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Most are active, interested in what life has to offer, and are enthusiastic consumers with the means and willingness to buy many goods and services.
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Researchers measure ________ on dimensions that include “feel-age” and “look-age.”
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perceived age
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Japan is a very tightly knit culture with rich history and social identification. In this culture, people tend to infer meanings that go beyond the spoken word. This classifies Japan as a ________ culture.
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high-context
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Manuel still remembers the impact of his first college class in the United States. As a new immigrant, he was sincere in his desire to learn about the American culture that he had chosen to adopt. His college professor taught Manuel many things about the ways of the U.S. culture. In doing so, the professor was acting as a(n) ________.
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acculturation agent
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Peggy Simmons has a tough assignment. She is to live in Japan for the next five years and successfully introduce her company’s line of cosmetics to the Japanese woman. Her company’s management hopes that living in an average neighborhood, commuting to work every day, eating native food, and speaking Japanese will help Peggy involve herself in the society more quickly than if she stayed separate from her hosts. The company’s management wants Peggy to use the ________ model.
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progressive learning
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Shannon Reeves and Tish Phillips remember their days of student protest in the 1960s. Shannon remembers seeing Jimi Hendrix at Woodstock and Tish remembers burning her bra in front of the central administration building at Yale. These memories about cultural heroes and events are one of the chief characteristics of an age ________.
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cohort
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One of the goals of marketing to Gen Yers has been to allow them to remain free of the restraints of wires and cords, but still be connected to any media at any time. The lifestyle created by this approach is referred to as ________.
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connexity
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He dreams daily of leaving home and getting his own apartment; however, because he lives in a neighborhood full of houses, he would have to go some distance to find an apartment that he could afford. This move would mean that he would distance himself from his friends. This example is a common dilemma for many teens. Which of the following conflicts that most teens face is most applicable to Jui-Jui’s situation?
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autonomy versus belonging
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Which of the following is the WEAKEST argument against using ethnic symbolism in marketing messages?
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Few ethnic subcultures today have powerful stereotypes the general public associates with them.
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The popularity of the movie The Passion of the Christ, the book The Da Vinci Code, and the play The Book of Mormon are evidence of which of the following?
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Religion can be effectively used by mainstream marketers.
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Hillary is a typical teenager. She sees and hears ads all the time. Most of the time they are pretty good, but some ads have a trait that really bothers her. What is that trait most likely to be?
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Hillary is bothered by ads that talk down to her.
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Jane is a Baby Boomer. How is Jane most likely to be different from her mother when her mother was 60 years old?
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Jane is much more likely to be physically active than her mother was at the same age.
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Members of which of the following age cohorts are part of today’s gray market?
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The War Baby Generation
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With respect to the acculturation process, what is the relationship between maintenance and segregation?
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New immigrants often attempt to maintain their old cultural background by segregating themselves, living and shopping in physically separated areas from the main culture.
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The first thing D’Andrea was asked when she went to work for an advertising firm is how promotions to African-Americans should differ from promotions to Caucasians. After careful consideration, which of the following is the best advice D’Andrea could give her new employers?
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The African-American market is hardly as homogeneous as many believe, and many differences between black and white markets may not be real.
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What is a major difference between a Generation Y and a Generation X consumer?
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Proportionally, less tobacco and alcohol will be purchased and consumed by Generation Y members than the Generation X cohort.
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The average American’s standard of living continues to improve. These income shifts are linked to two key factors: ________.
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a shift in women’s roles and increases in educational attainment
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________ income is the money available to a household over and above that required for a comfortable standard of living.
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Discretionary
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Consumers who are ________ love buying everything in sight.
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spendthrifts
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Fred Johnson has worked hard all of his life to make a decent living for himself and his family. However, in recent years he has become obsessed with a fear of being ruined, either because of losing his job or losing all of his savings. According to clinical psychologists, Fred Johnson’s fear of being ruined is equated to which of the following phobias?
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atephobia
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The field of ________ is concerned with the “human” side of economic decisions (including the biases in decision making).
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behavioral economics
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Which of the following refers to consumers who refuse to sacrifice style but who achieve that style on a budget?
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frugalistas
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With respect to social organization, some barnyard animals exhibit signs of a dominance-submission hierarchy. Which of the following terms best communicates such a hierarchy?
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pecking order
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Which of the following theorists is best known for arguing that an individual’s relationship to the means of production determines his position in society?
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Karl Marx
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We tend to marry people in a similar social class to our own. Sociologists call this ________,
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homogamy
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The phenomenon called ________ refers to the creation of artificial divisions in a society.
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social stratification
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A person who is born into a rich, powerful family (i.e., “She was born with a silver spoon in her mouth”) is said to have ________ status.
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ascribed
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A person who receives rewards and status because of his hard work is said to have ________ status.
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achieved
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Most groups exhibit a structure called a ________ in which some members are somehow better off than others.
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status hierarchy
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________ refers to the passage of individuals from one social class to another.
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Social mobility
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Sandra Jackson decided to become a nurse after several years as an elementary teacher. She still wanted to help people; she just wanted to do it differently. Sandra’s case is an example of which of the following?
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horizontal mobility
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According to a classic view of the American class structure, the newer social elites, drawn from current professionals, belong to which of the following social class categories?
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Lower-Upper
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The hundreds of millions of consumers around the world who can now afford higher quality products belong to the ________.
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mass class
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Social class is a strong predictor of purchases that have symbolic aspects, but low to moderate prices. Which of the following is the best example of a product with those characteristics?
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liquor
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The term affluenza refers to ________.
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well-off consumers who are stressed or unhappy despite or even because of their wealth
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________ are wealthy individuals who are likely to suffer from status anxiety, trying to display symbols of their success to make up for an internal lack of assurance about the “correct” way to behave.
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The nouveau riche
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The lower classes use more restrictive codes than do the upper classes. How does this knowledge change the way insurance might be sold to a working-class man compared to an upper-class man?
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The promotion to the working-class man should emphasize his immediate satisfaction in knowing that his family will be cared for, while the upper-class promotion should emphasize the long-term consequences of the choice.
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When people are differentiated in terms of their aesthetic and intellectual preferences, a ________ concept is being applied.
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taste culture
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Pierre Bourdieu concluded that “taste” is a ________ that causes consumption preferences to cluster together.
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habitus
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A Rolls-Royce, a Cartier diamond, and an Andy Warhol painting are all items bought and displayed as markers of social class. These products are ________.
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status symbols
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Social analyst Thorstein Veblen believed that we buy things to create ________. This means we use our purchases to inspire envy in others through our display of wealth or power.
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invidious distinction
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If the super rich bought “shredded Levi’s jeans” to wear to formal parties, they would be exhibiting a sophisticated form of conspicuous consumption known as ________.
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parody display
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If a social researcher wanted to investigate social status in a small city, her best choice for a questionnaire would be one that included questions or observations on education, area of residence, total family income per year, and ________.
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occupation prestige level of household head
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A person in the middle class, but with an income at least 15 percent lower than the median for the middle class, would be known as a(n) ________ consumer.
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underprivileged
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Which of the following is NOT a reason cited by your text that marketers have failed to use social class information as effectively as they could?
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They have ignored the impact of technology on social class.
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________ defines a pattern of consumption reflecting a person’s choices on how he or she spends their time and money.
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Lifestyle
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The ________ marketing perspective recognizes that people sort themselves into groups on the basis of the things they like to do, how they like to spend their leisure time, and how they choose to spend their disposable income.
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lifestyle
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Product ________ occurs when the symbolic meanings of different products are related to one another.
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complementarity
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Consumers use a set of products called a(n) ________ to define, communicate, and perform social roles.
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consumption constellation
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Sixteen-year-old Michael wanted a car. One evening while his father was paying bills, Michael looked over his father’s shoulder and saw how much money had been placed in the checking account. He whistled. “I thought you said that you didn’t have enough money to buy me a used car. In just one month you could buy me the car I want.” Michael’s father then gave him a lecture on the differences between income and what is left after money is spent on utilities, mortgages, insurance premiums, and food. “Total income,” his father said, “is not the same as ________ income, the source from which your unnecessary car would have to come.”
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discretionary
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Psychologists use the term homogamy to describe “assortative mating.” Which of the following phrases is the best illustration of homogamy?
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Birds of a feather flock together.
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Amos always felt that it was unfair that society created artificial divisions that discouraged him from having friends from different social structures. Which of the following terms describes the process that Amos is having difficulty with?
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social stratification
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In school, it always seemed as if Kenneth got all the breaks. He had access to all the right resources, such as special privileges, fancy cars, a large allowance, and dates with all the beautiful girls. Even at work, he was put on the fast track and got promoted early to a high-prestige job. It seemed as if Kenneth was artificially ranked higher than others. The process that best describes what happened to Kenneth is called ________.
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ascribed status or the “silver spoon” syndrome
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Mr. Patterson is 57 years old. His annual household income is $500,000. He has been married to the same woman most of his adult life. He doesn’t spend much on clothing. According to research, how is Mr. Patterson different from the typical American millionaire?
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His household income is greater.
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Trisha grew up in a drug-ridden inner city neighborhood. Through sheer determination and intelligence, Trisha is now a medical doctor teaching on the staff of a large university hospital. Trisha is proud of what she has accomplished, but sometimes she feels like she isn’t quite sure who she really is. The concept of ________ assesses the impact of such inconsistencies.
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status crystallization
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Vance comes from the lower-upper class, while Jeff comes from the lower-middle class. They are both madly in love with Julia, who is beautiful enough to do part-time modeling. According to the principle of ________, Julia is most likely to be attracted to Vance.
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hierogamy
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Sharon noticed that many of her high-end, outdoor spa customers drive Volvos, a luxury car known for its safety record and high performance. Which of the following terms best illustrates what Sharon has observed in her customers?
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product complementarity
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Although teenagers do not have the income of older consumers, they are still an attractive market based on income. Why?
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Teenagers don’t have the income of adults, but it is almost all discretionary, meaning that they can spend it as they see fit.
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Jason is a marketing researcher working for a client who believes that social class will be an important segmenting device. Jason decides to find social class categories by simply asking respondents to pick their own category. Which of the following best supports Jason’s approach?
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American consumers generally have little difficulty accurately placing themselves in the lower-middle class or middle class.
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Culture is best described as society’s ________.
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personality
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Which functional area of culture is most closely related to the idea of a common worldview?
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ideology
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________ usually dictate what is right or wrong, acceptable or unacceptable.
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Norms
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Crescive norms are ________
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subtle rules discovered as we interact with others
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We explicitly decide on ________ norms, such as the rule that a green traffic light means “go” and a red one means “stop.”
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enacted
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A ________ is a custom with a strong moral overtone.
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more
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Interest in the occult is most likely to increase in a society when ________.
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members of a society feel overwhelmed or powerless
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A story containing symbolic elements that express the shared emotions and ideals of a culture is called a ________.
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myth
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Myths serve four interrelated functions in a culture. All of the following are among those functions EXCEPT the ________ function.
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anthropological
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________ postulated that myths involve binary opposition, in which two opposing ends of some dimension are represented (such as good versus evil).
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Levi-Strauss
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A set of multiple symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence and tend to be repeated is called a ________.
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ritual
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Brands that we closely link to our rituals are called ________ brands; once they become imbedded in our rituals we are unlikely to replace them.
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fortress
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Grooming rituals express two kinds of binary opposition: private/public and ________.
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work/leisure
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Researchers primarily see the gift-giving ritual as one of ________ exchange
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economic
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Which of the following is NOT one of the three distinct stages of gift-giving rituals?
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convention
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As a relationship grows and progresses, gift giving tends to become more ________.
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altruistic
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A special ritual marking a person’s change in social status is called a ________.
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rite of passage
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________ consumption occurs with objects and events that are considered to be ordinary and everyday.
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Profane
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Through the process of ________, objects associated with sacred events or people become sacred in their own right.
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contamination
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The systematic acquisition of a particular object or set of objects is called ________.
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collecting
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When a sacred item or symbol is removed from its special place or is duplicated in mass quantities, then it becomes profane as a result of ________.
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desacralization
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It is quite common for mainstream culture to modify symbols identified with “cutting edge” subcultures and present these to a larger audience. Such cultural products undergo a process of ________, by which their original meanings are transformed by outsiders.
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cooptation
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The culture we live in creates the meaning of everyday products; these meanings move through a society to consumers. Meaning transfer is largely accomplished by ________.
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advertising and fashion industries
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Products are winnowed out as they make their way down the path from conception to consumption, a process called ________.
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cultural selection
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Which of the following statements would be viewed as most true about styles?
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Styles are often a reflection of more fundamental societal trends.
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In the cultural production process, the people who control the flow of information between producers and customers are called ________.
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cultural gatekeepers
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Which of the following is an object that is admired strictly for its beauty or because it inspires an emotional reaction?
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an art product
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________ occurs as marketers appropriate elements of popular culture and convert them for use as promotional vehicles.
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Reality engineering
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In the diffusion of innovation process, the ________ are the one-sixth of the population that is very slow to adopt.
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laggards
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A ________ innovation is a new product that creates major changes in the way we live.
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discontinuous
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The story goes that George Washington (as a small child) cut down his father’s cherry tree with a hatchet. When asked who might have committed this act (even though young Washington was afraid of punishment for the act), George replied, “I cannot tell a lie; I cut down the cherry tree.” This story has taken on mythical proportions in the United States. Which of the following functions does this myth best match?
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psychological
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Raymond Chandler wrote classic American detective stories. By always using certain roles for his characters and props that were appropriate to the genre, Chandler’s novels followed what the text calls a(n) ________.
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cultural formula
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Kyle liked to think he could program anything digital. He created a new video game, and a major industry firm wanted to buy it from him. He was bothered by their insistence that he modify the game by including a popular product’s logo on the clothing of his main character. In this example, Kyle is concerned about the practice of ________.
answer

advergaming
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Several years ago, a new Lincoln Mark VIII automobile design was introduced with several features added that had never been seen in a car before. The car had a ten-cartridge CD changer (stored in the trunk), a special garage door-opener button, technology allowing the driver to talk on a car phone without having to use her hands, and an air-suspension ride that raised and lowered the car for different driving conditions. Which of the following best describes the type of innovations included in the Lincoln Mark VIII?
answer

dynamically continuous innovations
question

What is the primary difference between an innovator and an early adopter?
answer

Innovators are more likely to accept risk than are early adopters.

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