Lower Respiratory System

Flashcard maker : Amari Finch
Which of the following is false of the trachea?
A) is lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
B) is reinforced with C-shaped cartilages
C) contains many mucous glands
D) can alter its diameter when stimulated by the autonomic nervous system
E) contains bands of smooth muscle capable of autoresponse to changing atmospheric conditions
E) contains bands of smooth muscle capable of autoresponse to changing atmospheric conditions
The airway between the larynx and the primary bronchi is the
A) trachea.
B) bronchiole.
C) pharynx.
D) alveolar duct.
E) laryngeal duct.
A) trachea.
The respiratory membrane consists primarily of

A) pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
B) moist cuboidal epithelium.
C) simple squamous epithelium.
D) ciliated squamous epithelium.
E) surfactant cells.

C) simple squamous epithelium.
The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are
A) bronchioles.
B) alveolar ducts.
C) pleural spaces.
D) alveoli.
E) terminal sacs.
D) alveoli.
Air moves out of the lungs because
A) the gas pressure in the lungs is less than outside pressure.
B) the volume of the lungs decreases with expiration.
C) the thorax is muscular.
D) contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the pleural cavity.
E) the respiratory control center initiates active expansion of the thorax.
B) the volume of the lungs decreases with expiration.
Boyle�s law states that gas volume is
A) directly proportional to pressure.
B) directly proportional to temperature.
C) inversely proportional to pressure.
D) inversely proportional to temperature.
E) none of the above
C) inversely proportional to pressure.
When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
A) the volume of the thorax increases.
B) the volume of the thorax decreases.
C) the volume of the lungs decreases.
D) the lungs collapse.
E) expiration occurs.
A) the volume of the thorax increases.
Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A) movement of air into and out of the lungs.
B) movement of dissolved gases from the alveoli to the blood.
C) movement of dissolved gases from the blood to the interstitial space.
D) movement of dissolved gases from the interstitial space to the cells.
E) utilization of oxygen.
A) movement of air into and out of the lungs.
Alveolar ventilation refers to the
A) movement of air into and out of the lungs.
B) movement of air into and out of the alveoli.
C) movement of dissolved gases from the alveoli to the blood.
D) movement of dissolved gases from the blood to the alveoli.
E) utilization of oxygen by alveolar cells to support metabolism.
B) movement of air into and out of the alveoli.
The function of pulmonary ventilation is to
A) remove carbon dioxide from the blood.
B) supply oxygen to the blood.
C) maintain an adequate alveolar ventilation.
D) remove air from dead air space.
E) prevent gas exchange in the bronchioles.
C) maintain an adequate alveolar ventilation.
Henry�s law states that
A) gas volume and temperature are directly proportional.
B) gas volume and pressure are inversely proportional.
C) the volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the solubility of the gas and the gas pressure.
D) in a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.
E) gas pressure is inversely proportional to gas volume.
C) the volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the solubility of the gas and the gas pressure.
Dalton�s law states that
A) gas volume and temperature are directly proportional.
B) gas volume and pressure are inversely proportional.
C) the volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the solubility of the gas and the gas pressure.
D) in a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.
E) gas pressure is inversely proportional to gas volume.
D) in a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.
The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately
A) 40 mm Hg.
B) 45 mm Hg.
C) 50 mm Hg.
D) 70 mm Hg.
E) 100 mm Hg.
E) 100 mm Hg.
The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood is approximately
A) 40 mm Hg.
B) 45 mm Hg.
C) 50 mm Hg.
D) 70 mm Hg.
E) 100 mm Hg.
A) 40 mm Hg.
The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A) 40 mm Hg.
B) 45 mm Hg.
C) 50 mm Hg.
D) 70 mm Hg.
E) 100 mm Hg.
A) 40 mm Hg.
The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
A) 40 mm Hg.
B) 45 mm Hg.
C) 50 mm Hg.
D) 70 mm Hg.
E) 100 mm Hg.
B) 45 mm Hg.
At a PO2 of 70 mm and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is _____ percent saturated with oxygen.
A) 10
B) 25
C) 50
D) 75
E) more than 90
E) more than 90
Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is
A) dissolved in plasma.
B) bound to hemoglobin.
C) in ionic form as solute in the plasma.
D) bound to the same protein as carbon dioxide.
E) carried by white blood cells.
B) bound to hemoglobin.
The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
A) oxygen.
B) carbon dioxide.
C) bicarbonate ion.
D) sodium ion.
E) hemoglobin.
B) carbon dioxide.
A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
A) decrease the rate of breathing.
B) increase the rate of breathing.
C) decrease pulmonary ventilation.
D) decrease the alveolar ventilation rate.
E) decrease the vital capacity.
B) increase the rate of breathing.
The term hypercapnia refers to
A) the cessation of breathing.
B) an increase in the PCO2.
C) an increase in the PO2.
D) an increase in pH.
E) labored breathing.
B) an increase in the PCO2.
Which of the following systems are responsible for elimination of CO2 as waste?
A) urinary
B) respiratory
C) digestive
D) all of the above
E) A and B only
E) A and B only
Tuberculosis results from an infection by the bacterium
A) Clostridium dificile.
B) Staphylococcus aureus.
C) Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
D) Vancomycin-resistant epidermis.
E) both A and C
C) Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
67) _____ is the most common lethal inherited disease affecting individuals of Northern European descent.
A) MRSA
B) Congestive heart failure
C) Cystic fibrosis
D) Myasthenia gravis
E) Parkinson�s disease
C) Cystic fibrosis
The respiratory defense system is important because it
A) helps filter the air.
B) helps warm the air.
C) keeps out debris.
D) keeps out pathogens.
E) all of the above
E) all of the above
During a choking episode, most foreign objects are lodged in the _____ bronchus due to its larger diameter and steeper angle.
A) right primary
B) left primary
C) right secondary
D) left secondary
E) both A and B
A) right primary
The right lung is to _____ as the left lung is to _____.
A) three lobes; two lobes
B) two lobes; two lobes
C) two lobes; two lobes
D) three lobes; three lobes
E) none of the above
A) three lobes; two lobes
Gas exchange occurs across the respiratory membrane of the alveoli. The respiratory membrane consists of
A) the squamous epithelial cells lining the alveoli.
B) the endothelial cells lining an adjacent capillary.
C) the fused basal laminae that lie between the alveolar and endothelial cells.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
D) all of the above
Respiratory function deteriorates as a result of pneumonia because of
A) slow dilation of the bronchi.
B) rapid closure of the glottis.
C) less air passage into the trachea.
D) esophageal erosion.
E) inflammation causing fluids to leak into the alveoli, leading to bronchiole swelling and constriction.
E) inflammation causing fluids to leak into the alveoli, leading to bronchiole swelling and constriction.
The resulting pain when pleural fluid is unable to prevent friction between the opposing pleural surfaces is known as
A) pleurisy.
B) pulmonary hypertension.
C) asthma.
D) emphysema.
E) COPD.
A) pleurisy.
Decreased oxygen is to _____ as 0 oxygen is to
A) anoxia; hypoxia.
B) hypercapnia; hyperventilation.
C) hypoventilation; hypoxia.
D) hypoxia; anoxia.
E) none of the above
D) hypoxia; anoxia.
Determination of blood gases includes testing for
A) pH.
B) PO2.
C) PCO2.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
D) all of the above
At the start of the respiratory cycle, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
A) they are equal.
B) intrapulmonary pressure is greater than atmospheric.
C) atmospheric pressure is less than intrapulmonary.
D) atmospheric pressure is more than intrapulmonary.
E) intrapulmonary pressure is less than atmospheric.
A) they are equal.
he term _____ describes the result from an injury to the chest wall that causes air to leak into the pleural cavity.
A) pleurisy
B) pneumonia
C) pneumothorax
D) pulmonary edema
E) emphysema
C) pneumothorax
_____ is the amount of air you move into or out of your lungs during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
A) Residual volume
B) Expiratory reserve volume
C) Inspiratory reserve volume
D) Resting tidal volume
E) Inspiratory capacity
D) Resting tidal volume
_____ is the amount of air that you can take in over and above the tidal volume.
A) Residual volume
B) Expiratory reserve volume
C) Inspiratory reserve volume
D) Resting tidal volume
E) Inspiratory capacity
C) Inspiratory reserve volume
Decompression sickness is a painful condition that develops when a person is exposed to a sudden drop in atmospheric pressure. _____ is the gas responsible for the problem.
A) Nitrogen
B) Oxygen
C) Carbon dioxide
D) Bicarbonate
E) Ammonia
A) Nitrogen
The term used to describe a blockage of a branch of a pulmonary artery with interruption of blood flow to a group of lobules or alveoli is
A) emphysema.
B) COPD.
C) anoxia.
D) pulmonary embolism.
E) pneumothorax.
D) pulmonary embolism.
The condition resulting from the inadequate production of surfactant and associated alveolar collapse is
A) respiratory distress syndrome.
B) COPD.
C) anoxia.
D) pulmonary embolism.
E) pneumothorax.
A) respiratory distress syndrome.
Asthma is
A) a collapsed lung.
B) an acute condition resulting from unusually sensitive, irritated conducting airways.
C) a nosebleed.
D) characterized by fluid leaking into the alveoli.
E) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
B) an acute condition resulting from unusually sensitive, irritated conducting airways.
An enlargement of the respiratory passageways is termed
A) respiratory distress syndrome.
B) COPD.
C) anoxia.
D) pulmonary embolism.
E) bronchodilation.
E) bronchodilation.
According to Boyle�s law, if the volume of a gas increases,
A) the pressure of the gas will increase.
B) the pressure of the gas will decrease.
C) the solubility of the gas will decrease.
D) the solubility of the gas will increase.
E) the gas will form vapors.
B) the pressure of the gas will decrease.
If a student inhales as deeply as possible and then blows the air out until he cannot exhale any more, the amount of air that he expelled would be his
A) tidal volume.
B) inspiratory reserve volume.
C) expiratory reserve volume.
D) minimal volume.
E) vital capacity.
E) vital capacity.
Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
A) decreased temperature
B) decreased pH
C) increased tissue PO2
D) decreased amounts of DPG
E) all of the above
B) decreased pH

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member