Lifespan Ch.14-Attachment and Social Relationships

question

Attachment theory formulated by
answer

John Bowlby
question

attachment
answer

-a strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate companion -a behavioral system through which humans regulate their emotional distress when under threat and achieve security by seeking proximity to another person
question

babies will
answer

-follow (proximity-seeking behavior) -suck and cling -smile and vocalize -express negative emotions
question

adults respond to infants’ signals
answer

-the hormone oxytocin promote attachment
question

infants construct expectations about relationships in the form of
answer

internal working models
question

what are internal working models?
answer

cognitive representations of themselves and other people that guide their processing of social info and behavior in relationships
question

securely attached infants who have received responsive care will form internal working models suggesting that
answer

they are lovable and that other people can be trusted to care for them
question

insecurely attached infants subjected to insensitive, neglectful, or abusive care may conclude that
answer

they are difficult to love, that other people are unreliable, or both
question

What are the two social worlds of childhood
answer

-one world involves adult-child relationships -other world involves peer relationships
question

peer relationships have developmental value
answer

-peers help children learn relationships are reciprocal -peers force children to hone their social perspective-taking skills -peers contribute to social-cognitive and moral development in ways that parents cannot
question

Henry stack sullivan
answer

different kinds of social relationships at different ages
question

until about age 6, the parent-child relationship is central for
answer

providing tender care and nurturance
question

after age 6, peers become increasingly important
answer

-children needs playmates -then they need acceptance by peer group -then they need chumships
question

chumships
answer

around age 9-12, children begin to need intimacy in the form of a close friendship=chumships
question

infancy-early emotions-nature
answer

primary or basic emotions such as interest and fear seem to be biologically programmed
question

primary or basic emotions emerge in which infants and what ages?
answer

all infants, around the same ages, and are displayed similarly in all cultures
question

nature side of emotional development in infants
answer

– basic emotions probably evolved to help our ancestors appraise and respond to new stimuli -babies’ emotional signals prompt caregivers to respond
question

nurture side of emotional development in infants
answer

-caregivers help shape infants predominant patterns of emotional expression -mothers serve as models of positive emotions and elicit positive emotions from their babies – mothers also respond selectively to their babies’ expressions
question

self conscious emotions
answer

-appear at about 18 months when babies can recognize themselves in mirrors
question

social referencing
answer

-starts at about 9 months -when infants begin to monitor their companions’ emotional reactions in ambiguous situations and use this info to decide how thy should feel and behave
question

infants must develop strategies for emotional regulation
answer

the processes involved in initiating, maintaining, and altering emotional responses
question

the caregiver forms an attachment to the infant
answer

-often before birth -because the infant possesses a repertoire of behaviors such as sucking, grasping, and smiling -because babies are responsive
question

caregivers and infants develop synchronized routines
answer

in which they take turns responding to each other -contributes to a secure attachment relationship and to later self-regulation and empathy
question

the infant forms an attachment to the caregiver in the following phases
answer

1) undiscriminating social responsiveness 0-3 months 2) discriminating social responsiveness (3-6 months) 3) Active proximity seeking or true attachment (6 months-3 years) 4) Goal corrected partnership (3 years and older)
question

1) undiscriminating social responsiveness
answer

-0-3 months -responsive to voices, faces, and other social stimuli but any human interests them -do not have a clear preference for one person over another
question

2) discriminating social responsiveness
answer

-3-6 months -infants begin to express preferences for familiar companions
question

3) active proximity seeking/true attachment
answer

-6months-3 years -infant will follow mother or stay close -infants become attached to other ppl as well
question

4) goal-corrected partnership
answer

-3 years+ -taking a parents goals and plans into consideration and adjusting their behavior to achieve the all important goal of maintaining optimal proximity to the attachment figure
question

infants experience attachment related fears
answer

-separation anxiety -stranger anxiety
question

separation anxiety
answer

-peaks between 14-18 months -becomes gradually less frequent and less intense
question

stranger anxiety
answer

-between 8-10 months -once attached to parent, baby often is distressed in presence of unfamiliar person
question

the attachment figure serves as a secure base for exploration
answer

a point of safety from which an infant can venture and to which she can return for affection and security
question

Ainsworth and her associates developed the Strange Situation as a procedure for measuring
answer

the quality of attachment
question

what are the eight episodes of gradually escalating stress as adult strangers approach and as a caregiver departs and returns?
answer

1) experimenter leaves parent and baby to play 2) parent sits while baby plays-use of parent as secure base 3) stranger enters, talks to parent-stranger anxiety 4) parent leaves stranger lets baby play-separation anxiety 5) parent returns, greets baby-reacts to reunion 6)parent leaves-separation anxiety 7) stranger enters, offers comfort-stranger anxiety 8) parent turns-reactions to reunion
question

On the basis of an infants pattern of behavior during the strange situation, the quality of attachment to a parent can be characterized as one of four types
answer

1) secure 2) resistant 3) avoidant 4) disorganized-disoriented
question

Secure attachment
answer

-about 60-65% of 1 year olds -infant actively explores room when alone with mom bc she is secure base -infant may be upset by separation but greets mother warmly -when mother is present, infant friendly with stranger
question

resistant attachment
answer

-about 10% of 1 year olds -characterized by anxious ambivalent reactions – the resistant infant does not venture off to play even when his mother is present because she is not secure base -infant becomes distressed when mother departs -when mother returns infant is ambivalent-resents her for leaving -wary of strangers, even when their mothers are present
question

avoidant attachment
answer

15% of 1 year olds -uninterested in exploring, show little apparent distress when separated from their mothers, and avoid contact or seem indifferent when mothers return -avoidant infants seem to have distanced themselves from their parents
question

disorganized-disoriented attachment
answer

15% of 1 year olds (more in high risk families) -seems to be associated with later emotional problems -when infants are reunited with their mothers after a separation, they may act dazed or lie immobile on floor -may seek contact but then move away as their mothers approach them, only to seek contact again – appear to have been unable to devise a consistent strategy for regulating negative emotions such as separation anxiety
question

Securely attached infants have parents who are
answer

sensitive and responsive to their needs and emotional signals
question

infants with a resistant pattern have parents who are
answer

inconsistent in their caregiving -may react enthusiastically or indifferently and are frequently unresponsive
question

infants with an avoidant attachment have parents who tend to
answer

provide either too little or too much stimulation -parents may be rejecting or impatient, unresponsive, and resentful when the infant interferes with their plans
question

the disorganized-disoriented style of attachment is evident in as many as 80% of infants who have been
answer

physically abused or maltreated -common among infants whose mothers are depressed or abuse alcohol and drugs
question

infants temperament influences attachment-attachments tend to be insecure when infants are by temperament-
answer

fearful, irritable, or unresponsive -the caregiver’s style of parenting and the infant’s temperament often interact to determine attachment outcome
question

Poverty and marital difficulties are stressful, can interfere with parents’ abilities to provide sensitive care, and may contribute to
answer

insecure attachments
question

The cultural context also influences parenting and the meanings of attachment
answer

-in western, individualistic cultures, optimal development means becoming an autonomous being -in easter, collectivist cultures, the goal is to become integrated into the group
question

what is it about deprived early environments that damages development?
answer

-lack of stable caregivers and stable attachment relationships -lack of proper nutrition, hygiene and medical care -lack of stimulation
question

disinhibited attachment
answer

-a disturbed pattern of behavior characterized by indiscriminate friendliness, lack of appropriate wariness of strangers, and difficulty participating in real, reciprocal social interactions
question

According to bowlby and ainsworth’s attachment theory
answer

a secure attachment, once formed, allows exploration from a secure base
question

Securely attached children should be more ___competent
answer

-cognitively -socially -emotionally
question

according to John Bowlby parent-child attachment changes during childhood
answer

becomes a goal-corrected partnership in which a parent and the child becomes a more sensitive partner and grows more independent of the parent
question

Children become dependent on ____for social and emotional support
answer

peers
question

ages 2 -12, children spend more time with ____ than _____
answer

peers than adults
question

the years from age 2-5 are sometimes called the
answer

play years -becomes more social and more imaginative
question

after age 5, play becomes more
answer

serious play
question

Mildred Parten’s six categories of activity, arranged from least to most social
answer

1) unoccupied play 2) solitary play 3) onlooker play 4) parallel play 5) associative play 6) cooperative play
question

unoccupied play
answer

children stand idly, look around, or engage in aimless activities
question

solitary play
answer

children play alone (usually with objects)
question

onlooker play
answer

children watch others play, not directly participating
question

parallel play
answer

children play next to one another doing the same thing but interact little
question

associative play
answer

children interact by swapping materials and conversing but dont have the same goal
question

cooperative play
answer

children join forces to achieve common goal
question

major message of Parten’s study
answer

-play becomes increasingly social and socially skilled from ages 2-5
question

what is pretend play and at what age does it occur?
answer

-play in which one actor, object or action symbolizes or stands for another -occurs around age 1
question

children combine their capacity for increasingly social play and their capacity for pretense to create social pretend play
answer

children cooperate with caregivers or playmates to enact dramas
question

After they enter school, children engage less frequently in pretend play, but now spend more time
answer

playing organized games with rules-board games, computer games, tag, hide and seek etc.
question

4 types of child play
answer

-locomotor play -object play -social play -pretend play
question

sociometric techniques
answer

methods for determining who is liked and who is disliked in a group
question

sociometric techniques allows children to be classified into 5 social status categories
answer

1) popular-well liked rarely disliked 2) rejected-rarely liked and often disliked 3) neglected-neither liked nor disliked-invisible 4) controversial-liked by many but also disliked by many 5) average-in middle of both the liked and disliked scales
question

children who are neglected by peers often
answer

gain greater acceptance later
question

children who are rejected, usually because of aggressive behavior, are likely to
answer

maintain their rejected status from grade to grade
question

If adolescents are to become independent autonomous individuals, they need supportive parents to provide both
answer

-security and encouragement to explore -a balance of exploration and attachment is the key to successful development at this age
question

adolescents who enjoy secure attachment relationships with their parents generally have
answer

-a stronger sense of identity -higher self esteem -greater social competence -better emotional adjustment -fewer behavioral probs
question

like children, adolescents form friendships with peers who are
answer

similar to themselves in observable ways
question

dating relationships in early adolescents are
answer

more superficial and short lived
question

adolescent romantic relationships evolve through 4 phases
answer

1) Initiation phase 2) Status phase 3) Affection phase 4) Bonding phase
question

Initiation phase
answer

in early adolescence, the focus is on the self-specifically on coming to see onself as a person capable of relating to members of the other sex in a romantic way
question

Status phase
answer

in mid adolescence, peer approval is what counts
question

Affection phase
answer

in late adolescence, the focus is on the relationship rather than on self-concept or peer status
question

Bonding phase
answer

in transition to early adulthood, the emotional intimacy achieved in affection phase is coupled with long term commitment
question

Researches have proposed that each of us has a social convoy
answer

a social network and support system that accompanies us during our life’s journey, changing as we go
question

social interaction patterns vary across adulthood
answer

-younger adults form romantic relationships and friendships
question

___form closer friendship ties than ___
answer

women than men
question

young adults tend to have ___friends than older adults
answer

more
question

through adulthood social networks ___
answer

shrink
question

what are the 2 theoretical explanations for shrinking of social convoy with age?
answer

1) socio-emotional selectivity theory 2) positivity effect
question

Socio-emotional selectivity theory
answer

explains the shrinking social convoy as a choice older adults make to better meet their emotional needs once they perceive the time left to them as short
question

Older adults may achieve their emotional gratifucation goals through the Positivity Effect
answer

By paying more attention to, better remembering, and putting more priority in positive info than on negative info
question

the greatest influence on mate selection is similarity or
answer

homogamy
question

Sternberg’s triangular theory of love
answer

identifies different types of love based on the strength of the 3 components of love
question

Sternberg’s 3 components of love
answer

passion, intimacy, and decision/commitment
question

Passion involves
answer

sexual attraction, romantic feelings, and excitement
question

Intimacy involves
answer

-feelings of warmth, caring, closeness, trust, and respect in the relationship -it is about emotional togetherness, communication, and happiness
question

Decision/commitment involves
answer

first deciding that one loves the other person and then committing to a long -term relationship
question

Consummate love
answer

when couples enjoy high levels of passion, intimacy, and commitment/decision
question

companionate love
answer

affectionate love defined by high intimacy and commitment but not much passion
question

Adults with a secure working model feel ____ about themselves and ____about others
answer

postive postive
question

Adults with preoccupied internal working model have
answer

positive view of other people, but feel unlovable
question

Adults with a dismissing style of attachment have
answer

a positive view of themselves but do not trust other people
question

Adults with a fearful internal working model
answer

have a negative view of themselves and other people
question

adults internal working models predict the extent to which adults have
answer

the confidence and curiosity to explore and master their environments
question

a secure attachment style in adulthood is associated with
answer

strong achievement motivation and a focus on mastering challenges as apposed to avoiding failure -enjoy work and are good at it
question

equity
answer

balance of contributions and gains on satisfaction in relationships
question

the size of an adults social network is not nearly as important as whether it includes at least one confidant
answer

a spouse, relative, or friend to whom the individual feels especially attached and with whom thoughts and feelings can be shared

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member